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Encyclopedia > Traffic congestion
Traffic congestion is common in heavily populated areas.
Traffic congestion is common in heavily populated areas.

Traffic congestion is a road condition characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased queueing. It occurs when traffic demand is greater than the capacity of a road (or of the intersections along the road). Extreme traffic congestion, where vehicles are fully stopped for periods of time, is colloquially known as a traffic jam. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... This article is about the musician himself. ... Alapalooza is the eighth album by Weird Al Yankovic, released in 1993. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 176 KB)Traffic jam Source: U.S. Census Bureau Source: U.S. Census Bureau Public Information Office (301) 763-3030 Last Revised: July 07, 2003 at 10:19:32 AM Public domain government data. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 176 KB)Traffic jam Source: U.S. Census Bureau Source: U.S. Census Bureau Public Information Office (301) 763-3030 Last Revised: July 07, 2003 at 10:19:32 AM Public domain government data. ... Queueing theory (also commonly spelled queuing theory) is the mathematical study of waiting lines (or queues). ...

Contents

Causes

Traffic congestion caused by a road accident, Algarve, Portugal
Traffic congestion caused by a road accident, Algarve, Portugal

There are several main causes of traffic congestion. The prime cause is simply a volume of traffic too high for the road capacity, but there are a number of specific circumstances which cause or aggravate congestion - all of them reduce the capacity of a road at a given point or over a certain length. They include construction works, accidents and emergencies or unsafe road conditions (due to weather or other factors). Generally, reduced speeds also mean less road capacity (though this does not in reverse mean that higher speeds create higher capacity - in fact, with very high speeds the capacity falls again). ImageMetadata File history File links Auto_stoped_highway. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Auto_stoped_highway. ...


Traffic research still cannot fully predict under which conditions a 'traffic jam' (as opposed to heavy, but smoothly flowing traffic) may suddenly occur. It is thought that individual incidents (such as a single car braking heavily in the previously smooth flow) may cause ripple effects which then spread out and create a sustained traffic jam when otherwise, normal flow might have continued for some time longer.[citation needed]


Negative impact

Traffic congestion has a number of negative effects:

  • Wasting time of motorists and passengers ('opportunity cost'). As a nonproductive activity for most, congestion reduces regional economic health.
  • Delays, which may result in late arrival for employment, meetings, education etc. - resulting in lost business, disciplinary action or other personal losses.
  • Inability to forecast travel time accurately, leading to drivers allocating more time to travel "just in case", and less time on productive activities.
  • Lost fuel and pollution increase air pollution due to increased idling, acceleration, and braking. Increased fuel use may also cause nationwide fuel costs to rise.
  • Wear and tear on vehicles as a result of idling in traffic and frequent acceleration and braking, leading to more frequent repairs and replacements.
  • Stressing and frustrating motorists, encouraging road rage and cause reduced health of motorists.
  • Emergencies: Blocked traffic may interfere with the passage of emergency vehicles traveling to their destinations where they are urgently needed.
  • Spillover effect from congested main arteries to secondary roads and side streets as alternative routes are attempted, which may affect neighborhood amenity and real estate prices.

In economics, opportunity cost, or economic cost, is the cost of something in terms of an opportunity forgone (and the benefits which could be received from that opportunity), or the most valuable forgone alternative (or highest-valued option forgone), i. ... Road rage is a term used to refer to violent behavior by a driver of an automobile, which thus causes accidents or incidents on roadways. ... An amenity is a feature of the home, property, hotel or resort that serves as a benefit to the lessee, buyer, occupant or guest but that is not necessary to its use; may be natural (like proximity to the CBD, water, beach) or man-made (like a swimming pool, tennis... Real estate is a legal term that encompasses land along with anything permanently affixed to the land, such as buildings. ...

Classification

Quantitative classification of traffic is done in the form of a six letter A-F level of service (LOS) scale defined in the Highway Capacity Manual and used by transportation engineers to describe traffic levels to the lay public. While this system generally uses delay as the basis for its measurements, the particular measurements and statistical methods vary depending on the facility being described. For instance, while the percent time spent following a slower-moving vehicle figures into the LOS for a rural two-lane road, the LOS at an urban intersection incorporates such measurements as the number of drivers forced to wait through more than one signal cycle.[1] Level of service is a measure by which transportation planners reckon the quality of service on transportation devices, or transportation infrastructure, generally linked to transportation time (the shorter, the better) and thus to speed. ...


Mathematical theories

Traffic congestion detector in Germany.
Traffic congestion detector in Germany.

Traffic engineers apply the rules of fluid dynamics to traffic flow, likening it to the flow of a fluid in a pipe. Congestion simulations have shown that in heavy but free flowing traffic, jams can arise spontaneously, triggered by minor events such as an abrupt steering maneuver by a single motorist. Such a situation is likened to the freezing of supercooled fluid by traffic scientists.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 374 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Traffic congestion Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (768x1024, 374 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Traffic congestion Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion. ... Point attractors in 2D phase space. ... Supercooling is the process of chilling a liquid below its freezing point, without it becoming solid. ...


In the three phase traffic theory of Boris Kerner, congestion is classified into two distinct phases: synchronised flow and wide moving jams. In synchronised flow, the speeds of the vehicles are low and vary quite a lot between vehicles, but the traffic flow (expressed in vehicles per time unit) remains close to free flow. In wide moving jams, vehicle speeds are more equal and lower, and time delays can be quite large. The three phase traffic theory is an alternative traffic theory developed by Boris Kerner. ... Boris S. Kerner is a German physicist at the Daimler Chrysler Research Institute. ...


Economic theories

Congested roads can be seen as an example of the tragedy of the commons. Because roads in most places are free at the point of usage, there is little financial incentive for drivers not to over-utilize them, up to the point where traffic collapses into a jam, where demand is limited by opportunity cost. Privatization of highways and road pricing have both been proposed as measures that may reduce congestion through economic incentives and disincentives. Congestion can also happen due to non-recurring highway incidents, such as a crash or roadworks, which may reduce the road's capacity below normal levels. It has been suggested that Tyranny of the Commons be merged into this article or section. ... In economics, opportunity cost, or economic cost, is the cost of something in terms of an opportunity forgone (and the benefits which could be received from that opportunity), or the most valuable forgone alternative (or highest-valued option forgone), i. ... Driving over the Millau Viaduct in France, which forms part of a privately run toll highway A private highway is a highway owned and operated for profit by private industry. ... Road pricing is term that refers to the charging for the use of streets and roads. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Economist Anthony Downs, in his books Stuck in Traffic (1992) and Still Stuck in Traffic (2004), offers a dissenting view: rush hour traffic congestion is inevitable because of the benefits of having a relatively standard work day. In a capitalist economy, goods can be allocated either by pricing (ability to pay) or by queueing (first-come first-serve); congestion is an example of the latter. Instead of the traffic engineer's solution of making a "pipe" large enough to accommodate the total demand for peak-hour vehicle travel (a supply-side solution), either by widening roadways or increasing "flow pressure" via automated highway systems, Downs advocates greater use of road pricing to reduce congestion (a demand-side solution, effectively rationing demand), in turn plowing the revenues generated therefrom into public transportation projects. Road pricing itself is controversial, more information is available in the dedicated article. Anthony Downs is a noted scholar in public policy, and since 1977 is a Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington D.C.. Downs has served as a consultant to many of the nations largest corporations, including the Department of Housing and Urban Development and the White House. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In economics, a capitalist is someone who owns capital, presumably within the economic system of capitalism. ... An automated highway system (AHS) or Smart Roads, is an advanced Intelligent transportation system technology designed to provide for driverless cars on specific rights-of-way. ... Road pricing is term that refers to the charging for the use of streets and roads. ... A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ... Road pricing is term that refers to the charging for the use of streets and roads. ...


Attempts to alleviate

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Currently used

  • Improvements of junctions, including grade separation and controlled access.
  • Broadcasting road conditions via traffic reports.
  • In-vehicle technology to alert motorists to problem areas, including navigation systems and mobile phone internet sites.
  • Building new roads and widening of existing ones (this practice is criticised by proponents of the induced demand hypothesis).
  • Reducing road capacity. This is a counterintuitive and controversial measure based on the reduced demand hypothesis. The argument is that by narrowing a road in corridor, the overall amount of traffic will decrease as drivers switch to alternative modes. Thus the other bottlenecks on the same corridor will also see less traffic and suffer from less congestion. Pedestrianisation of historic city centers, such as in Florence, Italy can alleviate congestion in crowded cities.
  • Road pricing, or tolls, such as the London congestion charge, a fee levied on vehicle drivers entering the centre of the city.
  • Restriction of on-road parking spaces. Traffic bottlenecks often occur where land is at a premium, so limited parking space is normally correlated with limited road capacity, for example in city centers. By curbing demand to parking spaces, either through a price mechanism or time limits, the amount of traffic destined to the area can be reduced. In Vienna, for example, public parking is limited to 90 min in the entire core of the city, where the historically narrow streets have limited capacity. This method has the additional benefit of reducing traffic of circling cars looking for a free parking space, which can make up a significant proportion of traffic in city centers.
  • Cheaper and better public transport offered by the local or provincial government, see Public Transport Funding.
  • Setting of school opening times to avoid problems associated with the school run.
  • High-occupancy vehicle lanes or "carpool lanes".
  • Slugging - impromptu carpooling at HOV access points.
  • Market-Based-Rideshare where the drivers compensation for carpooling is prenegotiated.
  • Bus-only lanes or dedicated bus rapid transit roads.
  • Employer subsidies for use of public transportation, carpools, vanpools, and private bus service.
  • Tax breaks for users of public transportation or ride-sharing, and employers who provide subsidies for these.
  • Quotas on the number of vehicles on the road. There are a number of different strategies:
    • The "Cap and trade" method used in Singapore. [3] Only licensed cars are allowed on the roads. A limited quota of car licences are issued each year and traded in a free market fashion. This guarantees that the number of cars on this densely populated island does not exceed road capacity while avoiding the negative effects of shortages normally associated with quotas. Since demand for cars tends to be inelastic, it results in exorbitant purchase prices.
    • Number plate restrictions on alternating days of the week, as practiced in many large cities in the world, such as Athens, Mexico City and São Paulo. In effect, the cities are banning a different part of the automobile fleet from roads each day of the week. Mainly used to combat smog, it also reduces congestion. A weakness of this method is that many drivers will simply purchase a second or third car to circumvent the ban.
  • Traffic management and prevention of accidents.
  • Doing away with turns across oncoming traffic at crossroads with traffic lights, which reduces the time needed to go through such crossroads.
  • Promotion of more considerate driving behaviour. Driving practices such as tailgating and frequent lane changes can reduce a road's capacity and exacerbate jams. In some countries signs are placed on highways to raise awareness, while others have introduced legislation against inconsiderate driving.
  • Promotion of utility cycling through legislation, cycle facilities, subsidies, and awareness campaigns. The Netherlands has been pursuing a cycle friendly policy for decades, and around 1/3 of commuting is done by bicycle in that country.
  • On highways, congestion may be caused by curious drivers slowing down to observe a motor vehicle accident on the opposite lane (often called "rubbernecking" in the United States). To prevent this, visual barriers are often placed in the central section of the highway by the police when there is a major accident.
  • Reduction of speed limits, as practiced on the M25 motorway in London. The argument is that a lower speed allows cars to drive closer together, which increases the capacity of a road. Note that this measure is only effective if the interval between cars is reduced, not the distance itself. Low intervals are generally only safe at low speeds.
  • Counterflow. Certain sections of highway operate in the opposite direction on different times of the day/ days of the week, to match asymmetric demand.
  • Park and ride - encourages people to park their car outside the main town/city and transfer by public transport, shuttle bus, or carpool. Park-and-ride lots are common at freeway entrances in suburban areas to encourage ride sharing.
  • City planning practices that avoid concentration of traffic on a small number of arterial roads and allow more trips to be made without a car. One measure is arranging streets in a fused grid geometry, rather than a tree-like network topology branching into cul-de-sacs.
  • Lane splitting or filtering. Space-efficient vehicles, usually motorcycles and scooters, ride or drive in the space between cars, buses, and trucks.[4]
  • ITS Use of Intelligent Transportation Systems, including VMS, CCTV, Traffic Operation Centers, Remote Traffic Signal Control and Parking Guidance and Information systems.

An intersection of roads. ... An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ... A limited-access road or controlled-access road is a road to which access from adjacent properties is limited in some way. ... A traffic report is an element of a radio program that informs the listeners as to the state of roads within the broadcast area. ... Induced demand is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good is consumed. ... Induced demand is the phenomenon that after supply increases, more of a good is consumed. ... Car-free zones (also known as auto-free zones and pedestrianised zones) are areas of a city or town in which automobile traffic is prohibited. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Road pricing is term that refers to the charging for the use of streets and roads. ... The white-on-red C marks all entrances to the congestion charge zone although in some areas the charge zone is poorly signed, and accidental journeys into the zone can occur The London congestion charge is a fee for some motorists entering the Central London area. ... Underground parking garage at the University of Minnesota. ... In the field of zoning, floor area ratio refers to a limit on how much total space, expressed as a fraction of the total size of the parcel of land involved, may be consumed by the floor or floors of a building or buildings constructed on the parcel. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ... Skytrain Bangkok. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... The School Run is a modern phenomenon associated with parents taking their children to school by car. ... Carpooling (also known as ride-sharing, lift-sharing), is shared use of a car, in particular for commuting to work, often by people who each have a car but travel together to save costs and in the interest of other socio-environmental benefits mentioned below. ... Slugging is a form of commuting used in the Washington, D.C., area (mostly among commuters who live in Northern Virginia) that essentially combines a variation of ride-share commuting and hitchhiking. ... There is a large number of public transport systems in European towns that fulfill several of the BRT criteria given above, but they are rarely designated as BRT. Bus lanes and exclusive use of key city-centre streets is commonplace, and bus priority on approach to traffic lights is quite... A quota is a prescribed number or share of something. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Polish meat shop in the 1980s. ... Athens (Greek: Αθήνα - Athína) is the largest city and capital of Greece, located in the Attica periphery of central Greece. ... Nickname: Location of Mexico City in central Mexico Coordinates: Country Mexico Federal entity Federal District Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded (as Tenochtitlan) c. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Victorian London was notorious for its thick smogs, or pea-soupers, a fact that is often recreated to add an air of mystery to a period costume drama. ... Traffic lights can have several additional lights for filter turns or bus lanes. ... Driving is the controlled operation of a vehicle, which is usually a motor vehicle such as a truck, bus, or car. ... Ugandan bicycle taxi or bodaboda Utility cycling encompasses any cycling not done primarily for fitness, recreation such as cycle touring, or sport such as cycle racing, but simply as a means of transport. ... Motto (French) Ik zal handhaven(Dutch) I shall stand fast1 Anthem Het Wilhelmus Netherlands() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Amsterdam2 Official languages Dutch3 Recognised regional languages Low Saxon, Limburgish Ethnic groups  80. ... A road speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. ... The M25 motorway looking south between junctions 14 and 15, near Heathrow Airport. ... With regards to time, an interval is the duration between two events or occurrences of similar events. ... The Lions Gate Bridge from the south end in Stanley Park, Vancouver. ... a park-and-ride bus in Oxford Park and ride terminals are public transport stations that allow commuters to drive short distances in their personal automobiles to catch a ride on a bus or railroad system (usually classified as light rail or the heavier commuter rail). ... Carpooling (also known as ride-sharing, lift-sharing), is shared use of a car, in particular for commuting to work, often by people who each have a car but travel together to save costs and in the interest of other socio-environmental benefits mentioned below. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ... The fused Grid represents the synthesis of two traditional North American approaches to residential neighborhood planning: the traditional, nineteenth-century grid, and the curvilinear pattern of looped streets and cul-de-sacs of modern suburbia. ... Diagram of different network topologies. ... Lane splitting, lane sharing, or lane filtering is the controversial practice of operating a vehicle, most commonly a motorcycle, in the unused space between vehicles. ... Motorcyclists take a break from the road A motorcycle or motorbike is a single-track, two-wheeled motor vehicle powered by an engine. ... The Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) program is an initiative of the United States Department of Transportation to add information technology to transportation infrastructure and vehicles. ... Parking Guidance and Information variable-message sign Parking Guidance and Information (PGI) systems, or Car Park Guidance Systems, present drivers with dynamic information on parking within controlled areas. ...

Proposed

  • Automated highway systems could reduce the safe interval between cars and increase highway capacity by as much as 100%, while increasing travel speeds.
  • Parking guidance systems could direct drivers directly to vacant parking spots, eliminating the traffic caused by serendipitous parking space hunters in present-day city centers.

An automated highway system (AHS) or Smart Roads, is an advanced Intelligent transportation system technology designed to provide for driverless cars on specific rights-of-way. ...

Congestion by country

Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...

United States

On Fridays in California, Interstate 5 is often congested as Los Angeles residents travel north for the weekend.
On Fridays in California, Interstate 5 is often congested as Los Angeles residents travel north for the weekend.

In the United States, construction of new highway capacity has not kept pace with increases in population and car use and the resulting increase in demand for highway travel. Between 1980 and 1999, the total length of highways as measured by miles increased by only 1.5 percent,[citation needed] while the total number of miles of vehicle travel increased by 76 percent.[5] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 393 KB) Summary Traffic congestion on northbound Interstate 5 (California) (the Golden State Freeway) near Pyramid Lake (California). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x900, 393 KB) Summary Traffic congestion on northbound Interstate 5 (California) (the Golden State Freeway) near Pyramid Lake (California). ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Interstate 5 (abbreviated I-5) is the westernmost interstate highway in the continental United States. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Week End The weekend is a part of the week lasting one or two days in which most paid workers do not work. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


The Texas Transportation Institute estimates that in 2000 the 75 largest metropolitan areas experienced 3.6 billion vehicle-hours of delay, resulting in 5.7 billion US gallons (21.6 billion liters) in wasted fuel and $67.5 billion in lost productivity, or about 0.7% of the nation's GDP. It also estimates that the annual cost of congestion for each driver is approximately $1,000 in very large cities and $200 in small cities. Traffic congestion is increasing in major cities, and delays are becoming more frequent in smaller cities and rural areas. The Texas Transportation Institute (TTI) is a department at Texas A&M University that does research on transportation to increase the safety and efficiency of vehicles (as well as roads and rails, in the case of ground transport). ...


In 2003, the ten areas in the United States with the highest levels of traffic congestion in order are: [1]

Due to dramatic population increases, San Diego, Sacramento and Las Vegas have seen their congestion levels increase by more than 50 percent since 1982.[citation needed] Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... New York, New York redirects here. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The downtown San Francisco skyline, looking east from the central part of the city. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837 Government  - Mayor Bill White Area  - City  601. ... Nickname: Location in Massachusetts, USA Coordinates: Country United States State Massachusetts County Suffolk County Government  - Mayor Thomas M. Menino (D) Area  - City  89. ... Nickname: Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates: Country United States State California County San Diego Founded July 16, 1769 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Mayor Jerry Sanders  - City Attorney Michael Aguirre  - City Council Scott Peters Kevin Faulconer Toni Atkins Tony Young Brian Maienschein Donna Frye Jim Madaffer... Nickname: Location in Miami-Dade County and the state of Florida. ... The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington metropolitan area, a title designated by the U.S. Census as of 2003, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Nickname: Location of San Diego within San Diego County Coordinates: Country United States State California County San Diego Founded July 16, 1769 Incorporated March 27, 1850 Government  - Mayor Jerry Sanders  - City Attorney Michael Aguirre  - City Council Scott Peters Kevin Faulconer Toni Atkins Tony Young Brian Maienschein Donna Frye Jim Madaffer... Nickname: River City Location of Sacramento in California County Sacramento Government  - Mayor Heather Fargo Area  - City  99. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Traffic jam

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Air pollution is a chemical, physical (e. ... Carpooling is shared use of a car, in particular for commuting to work, often by people who each have a car but travel together to save costs. ... Congestion is a state of excessive accumulation or overfilling or overcrowding. ... Gridlock is a term describing an inability to move on a transport network. ... Global mean surface temperatures 1850 to 2006 Mean surface temperature anomalies during the period 1995 to 2004 with respect to the average temperatures from 1940 to 1980 Global warming is the observed increase in the average temperature of the Earths atmosphere and oceans in recent decades and the projected... The journey to work describes the mode used by, and the amount of time it takes, an individual to travel from home to work. ... Queueing theory (also commonly spelled queuing theory) is the mathematical study of waiting lines (or queues). ... Roadway air dispersion is applied to highway segments Roadway air dispersion modeling is the study of air pollutant transport from a roadway or other linear emitter. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The mathematical study of traffic flow, and in particular vehicular traffic flow, is done with the aim to get a better understanding of these phenomena and to assist in prevention of traffic congestion problems. ... A traffic break is any separation in the flow of traffic—naturally occurring or otherwise—along a road or highway. ... Transportation forecasting is the process of estimating the number of vehicles or travelers that will use a specific transportation facility in the future. ... Traffic Message Channel (TMC) is a technology for delivering traffic and travel information to drivers. ... Vehicle Infrastructure Integration (VII) is the ongoing development of technology which directly links vehicles with the infrastructure. ...

References

  1. ^ Traffic Engineering, Third Edition. Roger P. Roess, Elana S. Prassas, and William R. McShane. ISBN 0-13-142471-8
  2. ^ Critical Mass, Philip Ball, ISBN 0-09-945786-5
  3. ^ The high cost of motoring in Singapore, Rex S. Toh, Business Horizons, March-April, 1994
  4. ^ WhyBike? (2006-03-06). All the info you need on lanesharing (lanesplitting).
  5. ^ 2003-02-14, Annual Vehicle Miles of Travel, Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved on 2007-05-06 

Philip Ball (born 1962) is a freelance science writer and a Consultant Editor for worlds leading science journal Nature. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is a division of the United States Department of Transportation that specializes in highway transportation. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (127th in leap years). ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
FAIR: : Traffic Congestion (1059 words)
In Texas, 26 percent of freeways are congested.
The proportion of urban interstate miles that are considered congested increased from 33 to 41 percent from 1996 to 2001.
The Texas Transportation Institute's annual study of traffic congestion in 75 urban areas found that in 2000 rush hours lasted longer and were more extensive than the previous year and cost the country $68 billion a year.
Traffic congestion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1413 words)
Traffic congestion is a road condition characterized by slower speeds, longer trip times, and increased queueing.
Traffic engineers apply the rules of fluid dynamics to traffic flow, likening it to the flow of a fluid in a pipe.
Traffic bottlenecks often occur where land is at a premium, so limited parking space is normally correlated with limited road capacity, for example in city centers.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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