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Encyclopedia > Traffic calming

Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the environment for residents. Calming measures are common in Europe, especially Northern Europe; less so in North America. An Urban planner is a professional who works in the field of urban planning. ... Traffic engineering is a branch of civil engineering that uses engineering techniques to achieve the safe and efficient movement of people and goods. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bicycle-friendly is a descriptive term that describes policies, places and practices which make it easier for people to ride bicycles. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Traffic calming was traditionally justified on the grounds of pedestrian safety and reduction of noise and local air pollution which are side effects of the traffic. However, streets have many social and recreational functions which are severely impaired by car traffic. The Livable Streets study by Donald Appleyard (circa 1977) found that residents of streets with light traffic had, on average, three more friends and twice as many acquaintances as the people on streets with heavy traffic which were otherwise similar in dimensions, income, etc. For much of the twentieth century, streets were designed by engineers who were charged only with ensuring traffic flow and not with fostering the other functions of streets. The basis for traffic calming is broadening traffic engineering to include designing for these functions. Noise pollution (or environmental noise in technical venues) is displeasing human or machine created sound that disrupts the environment. ... Air pollution is the modification of the natural characteristics of the atmosphere by a chemical, particulate matter, or biological agent. ... Livable Streets is a book by Donald Appleyard in which he showed that streets have many social and recreational functions which are severely impaired by fast car traffic For example, residents of streets with light traffic have, on average, three more friends and twice as many acquaintances as the people... Donald Appleyard (1928-1982) was a Professor of Urban Design at the University of California, Berkeley. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s The 20th century lasted from 1901 to 2000 in the Gregorian calendar (often from (1900 to 1999 in common usage). ...


There are 3 "E"'s that traffic engineers refer to when discussing traffic calming: engineering, (community) education, and (police) enforcement. Because neighborhood traffic management studies have shown that often it is the residents themselves who are contributing to the perceived speeding problem within the neighborhood, it is stressed that the most effective traffic calming plans will entail all three components, and that engineering measures alone will not produce satisfactory results. Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... For the band, see The Police. ...


A number of visual changes to roads are being made to many streets to bring about more attentive driving, reduced speeds, reduced crashes, and greater tendency to yield to pedestrians. Visual traffic calming includes lane narrowings (9-10'), road diets (reduction in lanes), use of trees next to streets, on-street parking, and buildings placed in urban fashion close to streets.


Some additional traffic calming techniques that are often used are speed humps, speed cushions, and speed tables. These devices vary in size based on the desired speed. Humps, cushions and tables slow cars to between 10 and 25 miles per hour. Most devices are made of asphalt or concrete but rubber traffic calming products are emerging as an effective alternative with several advantages.

Two traffic calming measures in Yate, South Gloucestershire: speed bumps (the two reddish pads in the road) and a curb extension (marked by the black posts and white stripes)

Contents

Traffic calming measures (road narrowing and speed bumps) in Yate, near Bristol, England . ... Traffic calming measures (road narrowing and speed bumps) in Yate, near Bristol, England . ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... South Gloucestershire is a local government area in South West England. ... For other uses, see Speed bump (disambiguation). ... A curb extension marked by darkened tarmac and black posts A curb extension (or also kerb extension, bulb-out, curb bulge and blister) is a traffic calming measure, intended to slow the speed of traffic and increase driver awareness, particularly in built-up and residential neighbourhoods. ...

Types of traffic-calming engineering measures

Traffic calming can include the following engineering measures:

  • Narrower traffic lanes — streets can be narrowed by extending the sidewalk, adding bollards or planters, or adding a bike lane or parking. Narrowing traffic lanes differs from other road treatments by making slower speeds seem more natural to drivers and less of an artificial imposition, as opposed to most other treatments used that physically force lower speeds or restrict route choice.
  • Speed bumps, sometimes split or offset in the middle to help emergency vehicles reduce delay
  • Speed humps, parabolic devices that are less aggressive than speed bumps and used on residential streets
  • Speed tables, long flat-topped speed humps that slow cars more gradually than humps
  • Speed cushions, a series of three small speed humps that slow cars down but allow emergency vehicles to straddle them so as not to slow response time
  • Chicanes, which create a horizontal deflection causing vehicles to slow as they would for a curve
  • Raised pedestrian crossings and raised intersection
  • Curb extensions (also called bulbouts) which narrow the width of the roadway at pedestrian crossings
  • Pedestrian refuges or small islands in the middle of the street
  • Median diverters to prevent left turns or through movements into a residential area
  • Changing the surface material or texture (for example, the selective use of brick or cobblestone)
  • Additional give way (yield) signs
  • Converting one-way streets into two-way streets
  • Chokers, which are curb extensions that narrow the roadway to a single lane at points
  • Allowing parking on one or both sides of a street
  • Converting an intersection into a cul-de-sac or dead end
  • Boom barrier, restricting through traffic to authorised vehicles only.
  • Closing of streets to create pedestrian zones
  • Reducing speed limits near institutions such as schools and hospitals
  • Vehicle activated sign, signs which react with a message if they detect a vehicle exceeding a pre-determined speed.
  • Watchman, traffic calming system

For other uses, see Speed bump (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with speed bump See also: Speed Bump, a comic strip. ... speed table with leading street lines speed table Speed tables are traffic calming devices designed as long speed humps with a flat section in the middle. ... View of speed cushions at night Emergency vehicle driving over speed cushions Speed cushions are traffic calming devices designed as several small speed humps installed across the width of the road with spaces between them. ... The Ford chicane on Le Mans A chicane is a sequence of tight serpentine curves (usually an S-shape curve) in a roadway, used in auto racing and on city streets to slow cars. ... A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a designated point on a road at which some means are employed to assist pedestrians wishing to cross. ... In the field of road transport, an intersection is a road junction where two or more roads either meet or cross at grade (they are at the same level). ... A curb extension marked by darkened tarmac and black posts A curb extension (or also kerb extension, bulb-out, curb bulge and blister) is a traffic calming measure, intended to slow the speed of traffic and increase driver awareness, particularly in built-up and residential neighbourhoods. ... A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a designated point on a road at which some means are employed to assist pedestrians wishing to cross. ... A refuge island, also known as a pedestrian refuge or pedestrian island, is a small section of pavement or sidewalk, completely surrounded by asphalt or other road materials, where pedestrians can stop before finishing crossing a road. ... For other uses, see Brick (disambiguation). ... A cobblestone-covered street Cobblestones are stones used in the pavement of early streets. ... A one-way street is a street on which vehicles can only move in one direction. ... For the musical group, see Cul de Sac (group). ... For the musical group, see Cul de Sac (group). ... A boom barrier is a bar, or pole pivoted in such a way as to allow the boom to block vehicular access through a controlled point. ... Venice (J.H. Crawford) Auto-free zones are also known as car-free zones and pedestrianised zones. ... A school zone refers to the area of a street near a school, where the speed limit is reduced to protect student pedestrians. ... Vehicle activated speed enforcing sign Vehicle activated sign (VAS) is a generic term for a type of road traffic sign which displays a message conditional upon the presence, or speed, of a road vehicle. ... For other uses, see Watchman. ...

Recent trends in North America

Traffic calming has been successfully used for decades in cities across Europe. More recently, in response to growing numbers of traffic accidents and speeding problems[citation needed], cities across North America have begun creating traffic calming programs to improve safety and liveability on residential streets. Many municipalities create asphalt or concrete measures, although preformed rubber products that are easier to install and consistently meet standardized requirements are becoming increasingly popular.


Living street

A living street (sometimes known as Home zones or by the Dutch word woonerf, as the concept originated in the Netherlands) is a street in which the needs of car drivers are secondary to the needs of users of the street as a whole; traffic calming principles are integrated into their design. German Woonerf or living street (Dan Burden) A living street (also known as a home zone, and by the Dutch name woonerf) is a street in which, unlike in most streets, the needs of car drivers are secondary to the needs of users of the street as a whole. ... Home Zone is a term used in the United Kingdom for a residential street or group of streets that are designed using principles similar to those of living streets, primarily to meet the interests of the local community, whether on foot, cycling, or in a car, enabling the street to...


See also

The hierarchy of roads. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Road traffic control involves directing vehicular and pedestrian traffic around a construction zone, accident or other road disruption, thus ensuring the safety of emergency response teams, construction workers and the general public. ... A street hierarchy is a system of urban design that completely separates through automobile traffic from developed areas. ... Also commonly referred to Sustainable Transport or Sustainable Mobility, there is no widely accepted definition of sustainable transportation by any of these names. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Neighborhood Streets Network: What is Traffic Calming? (884 words)
Traffic calming is the combination of mainly physical measures that reduce the negative effects of motor vehicle use, alter driver behavior and improve conditions for non-motorized street users.
Traffic calming is a set of street designs and traffic rules that slow and reduce traffic while encouraging walkers and cyclists to share the street.
Traffic calming devices are physically self-enforcing-drivers are forced to slow down to avoid an uncomfortable ride, and possible damage to their cars.
trafficCalming (637 words)
Traffic calming is the practice of trying to manage speeds and/or volumes of traffic on residential streets using one or more approaches: increased police enforcement, education, or physical changes to the roadway.
To initiate a traffic study of the street proposed for traffic calming, a formal request is required from the neighborhood association that includes the street proposed for traffic calming, or a petition from residents along the street proposed for traffic calming.
A proposal for traffic calming must be supported by a simple majority of the residential dwelling units responding to the questionnaire in order to be considered for implementation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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