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Encyclopedia > Traffic
Interstate 80, seen here in Berkeley, California, is a freeway with many lanes and heavy traffic.
Interstate 80, seen here in Berkeley, California, is a freeway with many lanes and heavy traffic.
This intersection in San Jose, California has crosswalks, left-turn lanes, and traffic lights.
This intersection in San Jose, California has crosswalks, left-turn lanes, and traffic lights.

Traffic is the movement of motorized vehicles, unmotorized vehicles and pedestrians on roads. Traffic laws are the laws which govern traffic and regulate vehicles, while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules that may have developed over time to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1152, 304 KB)Looking south above Interstate 80, the Eastshore Freeway, near Berkeley, California on a Saturday afternoon. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1152, 304 KB)Looking south above Interstate 80, the Eastshore Freeway, near Berkeley, California on a Saturday afternoon. ... Interstate 80 (abbreviated I-80) is the second-longest Interstate Highway in the United States. ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Download high resolution version (1000x661, 229 KB)San Jose, CA intersection overview from MLK Library in the early afternoon. ... Download high resolution version (1000x661, 229 KB)San Jose, CA intersection overview from MLK Library in the early afternoon. ... Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ... Traffic lights can have several additional lights for filter turns or bus lanes. ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) This article is about the means of transport. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ... It has been suggested that Convention (norm) be merged into this article or section. ...


Organized traffic generally has well-established priorities, lanes, right-of-way, and traffic control at intersections. Nighttime traffic captured by a camera over several seconds. ...

Contents

Organization

Traffic control in Rome, Italy. This traffic control podium can retract back to road level when not in use.
Traffic control in Rome, Italy. This traffic control podium can retract back to road level when not in use.

Traffic is formally organized in many jurisdictions, with marked lanes, junctions, intersections, interchanges, traffic signals, or signs. Traffic is often classified by type: heavy motor vehicle (e.g. car, truck); other vehicle (e.g. moped, bicycle); and pedestrian. Different classes may share speed limits and easement, or may be segregated. Some jurisdictions may have very detailed and complex rules of the road while others rely more on drivers' common sense and willingness to cooperate. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1281x1017, 639 KB) Traffic control at a junction in Rome, Italy. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1281x1017, 639 KB) Traffic control at a junction in Rome, Italy. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... The word lane has two meanings: a portion of a paved roadway which is intended for a single line of vehicles and is marked by white or yellow lines. ... A junction may variously refer to: In road transport, a road junction. ... In the field of road transport, an intersection is a road junction where two or more roads either meet or cross at grade (they are at the same level). ... High-capacity freeway interchange in Los Angeles, California. ... Traffic lights will sometimes differ where there are several lanes of traffic. ... Unused traffic signs in Austria Most countries post signage, known as traffic signs or road signs, at the side of roads to impart information to road users. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The driver of this DAF tractor with an auto-transport semi-trailer truck prepares to offload Å koda Octavia cars in Cardiff, Wales For other articles with similar names, see Lorry (disambiguation) and truck (disambiguation). ... A picture of several mopeds from a ride sponsored by the Moped Army. ... “Velo” redirects here. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A road speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. ...


Organization typically produces a better combination of travel safety and efficiency. Events which disrupt the flow and may cause traffic to degenerate into a disorganized mess include: road construction, collisions, and debris in the roadway. On particularly busy freeways, a minor disruption may persist in a phenomenon known as traffic waves. A complete breakdown of organization may result in traffic jams and gridlock. Simulations of organized traffic frequently involve queuing theory, stochastic processes and equations of mathematical physics applied to traffic flow. This page is related to transport; you may be looking for the 2002 Bollywood movie Road. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Traffic waves, also called stop waves or traffic shocks, are travelling disturbances in the distribution of cars on a highway. ... Traffic jams are common in heavily populated areas. ... Gridlock is a term describing an inability to move on a transport network. ... Queueing theory (spelled queuing theory in the United States) is the mathematical study of waiting lines (or queues). ... In the mathematics of probability, a stochastic process is a random function. ... Mathematical physics is the scientific discipline concerned with the application of mathematics to problems in physics and the development of mathematical methods suitable for such applications and for the formulation of physical theories. ... The mathematical study of traffic flow, and in particular vehicular traffic flow, is done with the aim to get a better understanding of these phenomena and to assist in prevention of traffic congestion problems. ...


Rules of the road

Rules of the road are the general practices and procedures that road users follow, especially motorists and cyclists. They govern interactions with other vehicles and pedestrians. The basic traffic rules are defined by an international treaty under the authority of the United Nations, the 1968 Vienna Convention on Road Traffic. Not all countries are signatory to the convention and, even among signatories, local variations in practice may be found. Driving safely is usually easier if a driver can adapt to both written and unwritten local rules of the road. Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ... A motor vehicle is a machine which incorporates a motor (sometimes known as an engine), and which is used for transportation on land. ... “Velo” redirects here. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... The Vienna Convention on Road Traffic is an international treaty designed to facilitate international road traffic and to increase road safety by standardising the uniform traffic rules among the contracting parties. ... Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ...


As a general rule, a driver is expected to avoid hitting other vehicles, pedestrians, etc. regardless of whether or not the applicable rules of the road allow them to be where they happen to be.


These rules should be distinguished from the mechanical procedures required to operate one's vehicle. See driving. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Directionality

Main article: Driving on the left or right.

Traffic going in opposite directions should be separated in such a way that they do not block each other's way. The most basic rule regarding this concept is which side of the road should be used for travel. About 34% of the world by country population drives on the left, and 66% keeps right. By roadway miles, about 72% drive on the right.  drive on right drive on left Keeping to either the left or the right prevents vehicles moving in opposite directions from colliding with each other. ...


Highway code

In many countries, the rules of the road are codified, setting out the legal requirements and punishments for breaking them.


In the United Kingdom, the rules are set out in the Highway Code, including some obligations, but also a lot of other advice on how to drive sensibly and safely. For this second set of advice, it states: Although failure to comply with the other rules of the Code will not, in itself, cause a person to be prosecuted, The Highway Code may be used in evidence in any court proceedings under Traffic Acts to establish liability. Many of its ex-colonies still retain this notice. Front Cover of the Highway Code The Highway Code is the official road safety manual for the United Kingdom. ...


In the United States, traffic laws are regulated by the states and municipalities through their respective traffic code. The federal government's Department of Transportation has some control over road signage and vehicle safety, and limited control over the Interstate highway system (which is actually built and maintained by the states). However, all state vehicle or traffic laws have common elements. These include the mandatory automobile insurance requirement, right-of-way rules, the basic speed rule (go only as fast as is safe under the circumstances up to the maximum posted speed limit), and the requirement to stop after an accident. The most common state-by-state variation is in maximum speed limits; for example, some states like Texas have speed limits as high as 80 mph (130 km/h), with 75 mph (120 km/h) being more common, but Oregon has a maximum speed limit of 65 mph (104 km/h) and Hawaii has a maximum of 60 mph. (97 km/h). Traffic code (also motor vehicle code) refers to the collection of local statutes, regulations, ordinances and rules that have been officially adopted to govern the orderly operation and interaction of motor vehicles, bicycles, pedestrians and others upon the public (and sometimes private) ways. ... Interstate Highways in the lower 48 states. ... Auto insurance is insurance consumers can purchase for cars, trucks, and other vehicles. ... A road speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Capital Honolulu Largest city Honolulu Area  Ranked 43rd  - Total 10,931 sq mi (29,311 km²)  - Width n/a miles (n/a km)  - Length 1,522 miles (2,450 km)  - % water 41. ...


Speed limits

Main article: Speed limit

The higher the speed of a vehicle, the more difficult collision avoidance becomes and the greater the damage if a collision does occur. Therefore, many countries of the world limit the maximum speed allowed on their roads. Vehicles are not supposed to be driven at speeds which are higher than the posted maximum. A road speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. ... A road speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. ...


To enforce speed limits, two approaches are generally employed. In the USA, it is common for the police to patrol the streets and use special equipment (Typically a RADAR Gun) to measure the speed of vehicles, and "pull over" any vehicle found to be in violation of the speed limit. In Brazil and some European countries, there are computerized speed-measuring devices spread throughout the city, which will automatically detect speeding drivers and take a photograph of the license plate (or number plate), which is later used for applying and mailing the ticket. This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ...


Another interesting mechanism that was developed in Germany is the Grüne Welle, or green wave, which is an indicator that shows the optimal speed to travel for the synchronized green lights along that corridor. This encourages drivers to travel at the posted limit in order to minimize stopping. See related traffic wave. Traffic waves, also called stop waves or traffic shocks, are travelling disturbances in the distribution of cars on a highway. ...


Priority (right of way)

A diagram of movement within a roundabout in a country where traffic drives on the left. A roundabout is a type of road junction, or traffic calming device, at which traffic streams circularly around a central island after first yielding to the circulating traffic. Unlike with traffic circles, vehicles on a roundabout have priority over the entering vehicle, parking is not allowed and pedestrians are usually prohibited from the central island.
A diagram of movement within a roundabout in a country where traffic drives on the left. A roundabout is a type of road junction, or traffic calming device, at which traffic streams circularly around a central island after first yielding to the circulating traffic. Unlike with traffic circles, vehicles on a roundabout have priority over the entering vehicle, parking is not allowed and pedestrians are usually prohibited from the central island.

Vehicles will often come into conflict with other vehicles because their intended courses of travel intersect, and thus interfere with each other's routes. The general principle that establishes who has the right to go first is called "right of way", or "priority". It establishes who has the right to use the conflicting part of the road and who has to wait until the other driver does so. Representation of a UK roundabout (with cars giving way and indicating) - originally created by Mintguy, prettified by Fredrik. ... Representation of a UK roundabout (with cars giving way and indicating) - originally created by Mintguy, prettified by Fredrik. ... A roundabout, rotary, or gyratory circus is a type of road junction (or traffic calming device) at which traffic streams circularly around a central island after first yielding to the circulating traffic. ... In the field of road transport, a road junction is a place where two or more roads either meet or cross. ... Traffic calming is a set of strategies used by urban planners and traffic engineers which aim to slow down or reduce traffic, thereby improving safety for pedestrians and bicyclists as well as improving the amenity of the street for residents and visitors. ... Underground parking garage at the University of Minnesota. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


As well as the side of the road, priority rules also differ between countries. In the United Kingdom, priority is always indicated by signs or road markings, in that every junction has a concept of a major road and minor road (except those governed by traffic lights).


In most of Continental Europe, the default priority is to give way to the right, but this default may be overridden by signs or road markings. In France, priority was initially according to the social rank of each traveler, but early in the life of the automobile this rule was deemed impractical and replaced with the "priorité à droite" (priority to the right) rule, which was employed until the 1980s. At a roundabout, "priorité à droite" works this way: traffic already on the roundabout gives way to traffic entering the roundabout. Most French roundabouts now have give-way signs for traffic entering the roundabout, but there remain some notable exceptions that operate on the old rule, such as the Place de l'Étoile around the Arc de Triomphe. Traffic on this particular roundabout is so chaotic that French insurance companies deem any accident on the roundabout to be equal liability. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ... Karl Benzs Velo (vélo means bicycle in French) model (1894) - entered into the first automobile race 2005 MINI Cooper S. An automobile (also motor car or simply car) is a wheeled passenger vehicle that carries its own motor. ... The Place de lÉtoile is a large Place in Paris, France, the meeting point of twelve avenues (hence the name Star Square) including the Champs-Élysées which continues to the east. ... Arc de Triomphe The Arc de Triomphe is a monument in Paris that stands in the centre of the Place Charles de Gaulle, formerly the Place de lÉtoile, at the western end of the Champs-Élysées. ...


The default give-way-to-the-right rule used in Continental Europe causes problems for many British and Irish drivers who are accustomed to having right of way by default unless they are specifically told to give way. Continental Europe, also referred to as mainland Europe or simply the Continent, is the continent of Europe, explicitly excluding European islands and, at times, peninsulas. ...


Different countries have different rules that establish who has the right of way, but a common pattern is for one of the roads, usually the smaller road, to have a marking indicating that it should "yield" or "give way" to drivers on the other road. This can be in the form of a stop sign, dotted lines painted on the pavement or other devices. Drivers approaching from the road with the stop sign, or equivalent device are required to stop before the intersection and only proceed when a gap occurs in the other road's traffic. Some countries also include pedestrian crossings near the STOP signs, and in this case the approaching drivers must also allow pedestrians to cross the street before advancing. Stop sign used in English-speaking countries, as well as in the European Union Former British stop sign consisting of red Give Way triangle inside a circle. ...


Another way to resolve the right-of-way conflict is to establish a general rule such as the French priorité-à-droite, or priority to the right when translated to the English language. This rule establishes that the right of way belongs to the driver who is coming from the right, and the driver coming from the left should yield to him. This rule is unambiguous, but may lead to some counterintuitive situations, such as in T-intersections, where, strangely enough, traffic going straight through the top segment of the T must yield to entering traffic that comes from the vertical leg of the T. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


In most modern cities the traffic signal is used to establish the right of way on the busy roads. Its primary idea is to give each road a slice of time in which its traffic may use the intersection in an organized way. The intervals of time assigned for each road may be adjusted to take into account factors such as difference in volume of traffic. Traffic lights will sometimes differ where there are several lanes of traffic. ...


4-way stop intersections

In the United States and Canada, there are many 4-way intersections with a stop sign at every entrance. In this case, the default rule is:

  1. Whichever vehicle stops first has priority.
  2. If two vehicles stop at the same time, priority is given to the vehicle on the right.
  3. If three vehicles stop at the same time, priority is given to the two vehicles going in opposite directions.
  4. If four vehicles stop, drivers usually use gestures and other communication to establish right-of-way. In some areas, the custom is for the north-south or the more-trafficked road to have priority, although this is rare.

Overtaking

Overtaking, or passing refers to a manoeuvre that is in effect passing vehicles traveling in the same direction. On two-lane roads, when there is a split line or a dashed line on the side of the overtaker, drivers may overtake when it is safe. In multi-lane roads in most jurisdictions, overtaking is permitted in the 'slower' lanes. See lanes below.


In the United Kingdom and United States, notably on extra-urban roads, a solid white or yellow line closer to the driver is used to indicate that no overtaking is allowed in that lane. A double white or yellow line means that neither side may overtake.


Lanes

When a street is wide enough to accommodate several vehicles traveling side-by-side, it is usual for traffic to organize itself into lanes, that is, parallel corridors of traffic. Some roads have one lane for each direction of travel and others have multiple lanes for each direction. Some countries apply pavement markings to clearly indicate the limits of each lane and the direction of travel that it must be used for. In other countries lanes have no markings at all and drivers follow them mostly by instinct rather than visual stimulus. Parallel is a term in geometry and in everyday life that refers to a property in Euclidean space of two or more lines or planes, or a combination of these. ...


On roads that have multiple lanes going in the same direction, drivers may usually shift amongst lanes as they please, but they must do so in a way that does not cause inconvenience to other drivers. Driving cultures vary greatly on the issue of "lane ownership": in some countries, drivers traveling in a lane will be very protective of their right to travel in it while in others drivers will routinely expect other drivers to shift back and forth.


Designation and overtaking

The usual designation for lanes on divided highways is the fastest lane is the one closest to the center of the road, and the slowest to the edge of the road.


When driving on the left:

  • The lane designated for faster traffic is on the right
  • The lane designated for slower traffic is on the left
  • Most freeway exits are on the left
  • Overtaking is permitted to the right, and sometimes to the left.

When driving on the right: For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ...

  • The lane designated for faster traffic is on the left
  • The lane designated for slower traffic is on the right
  • Most freeway exits are on the right
  • Overtaking is permitted to the left, and sometimes to the right.

In the United States, the inside lane refers to the fastest lane, but in the United Kingdom, it refers to the slowest lane. For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ...


Usually, drivers are expected to keep in the slowest lane unless overtaking, though with more traffic, all lanes are often used. Many areas in North America do not have any laws about staying to the slowest lanes unless overtaking. In those areas, unlike many parts of Europe, traffic is allowed to overtake on any side, even in a slower lane. This practice is known as passing on the right in the United States, where it is common, overtaking on the inside, and undertaking in the United Kingdom. World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


U.S. state-specific practices

In some U.S. states such as in Massachusetts and New York, although there are laws requiring all traffic on a public way to use the right-most lane unless overtaking, this rule is often ignored and seldom enforced on multi-lane roadways. Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Counties/Parishes/Boroughs, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... Official language(s) English Capital Boston Largest city Boston Area  Ranked 44th  - Total 10,555 sq mi (27,360 km²)  - Width 183 miles (295 km)  - Length 113 miles (182 km)  - % water 13. ... NY redirects here. ...


In California, cars may use any lane on multi-lane roadways. Drivers moving slower than the general flow of traffic are required to stay in the right-most lanes (by California Vehicle Code (CVC) 21654) to keep the way clear for faster vehicles and thus speed up traffic. However, faster drivers may legally pass in the slower lanes if conditions allow (by CVC 21754). But the CVC also requires trucks to stay in the right lane, or in the right two lanes if the roadway has four or more lanes going in their direction. The oldest freeways in California, and some freeway interchanges, often have ramps on the left, making signs like "TRUCKS OK ON LEFT LANE" or "TRUCKS MAY USE ALL LANES" necessary to override the default rule. Lane splitting, or riding motorcycles in the space between cars in traffic, is permitted as long as it is done in a safe and prudent manner.[1] Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Lane splitting, lane sharing, or lane filtering is the controversial practice of operating a vehicle, most commonly a motorcycle, in the unused space between vehicles. ...


Expressways and freeways

Main articles: Expressway and Freeway

In large cities, moving from one part of the city to another by means of ordinary streets and avenues can be time-consuming since traffic is often slowed by at-grade junctions, tight turns, narrow marked lanes and lack of a minimum speed limit. Therefore, it has become common practice for larger cities to build expressways or freeways, which are large and wide roadways with limited access, that typically run for long distances without at-grade junctions. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ... A road speed limit is the maximum speed allowed by law for road vehicles. ... An expressway is a divided highway, usually 4 lanes or wider in size, where direct access to adjacent properties has been eliminated. ... Freeways may refer to: the plural of freeway the 1977 Freeways album by Bachman-Turner Overdrive This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A junction, when used in the context of traffic is a place where several traffic routes cross, eg. ...


The words expressway and freeway have varying meanings in different jurisdictions and in popular use in different places; however, there are two different types of roads used to provide high-speed access across urban areas:

  • The freeway (in USA usage) or motorway in UK usage, is a divided multi-lane highway with fully-controlled access and grade-separated intersections (no stops). Some freeways are called expressways, super-highways, or turnpikes, depending on local usage. Access to freeways is fully controlled; entering and leaving the freeway is permitted only at grade-separated interchanges.
  • The expressway (when the name does not refer to a freeway or motorway) is usually a broad multi-lane avenue, frequently divided, with some grade-level intersections (although usually only where other expressways or arterial roads cross).

Motor vehicle drivers wishing to travel over great distances within the city will usually take the freeways or expressways in order to minimize travel time. When a crossing road is at the same grade as the freeway, a bridge (or, less often, an underpass) will be built for the crossing road. If the freeway is elevated, the crossing road will pass underneath it. For specific systems, such as the Autobahns of Germany, see list of highway systems with full control of access and no cross traffic. ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An example of a four-level stack interchange in the Netherlands. ... A log bridge in the French Alps near Vallorcine. ... An underground pedestrian tunnel between buildings at MIT. Note the utility pipes running along the ceiling. ...


Minimum speed signs are sometimes posted (although increasingly rare) and usually indicate that any vehicle traveling slower than 40mph (~65kmph) should indicate a slower speed of travel to other motorvehicles by engaging the vehicle's four-way flashing lights. Alternative slower-than-posted speeds may be in affect, based on the posted speed limit of the highway/freeway.


Turning

Vehicles will often want to cease to travel in a straight line and turn onto another road. The vehicle's directional signals (blinkers) are often used as a way to announce one's intention to turn, thus alerting other drivers. The actual usage of blinkers varies greatly amongst countries. Turning traffic must usually yield the right of way to oncoming traffic - in right-driving countries, vehicles must yield when performing a left turn; on left-driving countries vehicles must yield when performing a right turn.


This will usually mean that turning traffic will have to stop in order to wait for a breach to turn, and this might cause inconvenience for vehicles that follow them but do not want to turn. This is why dedicated lanes and protected traffic signals for turning are sometimes provided. On busier intersections where a protected lane would be ineffective or cannot be built, turning may be entirely prohibited, and drivers will be required to "drive around the block" in order to accomplish the turn. Many cities employ this tactic quite often; in San Francisco, due to its common practice, making three right turns is known colloquially as a "San Francisco left turn". Likewise, as many intersections in Taipei City are too busy to allow direct left turns, signs often direct drivers to drive around the block to turn. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Alternative meaning: Taipei County City nickname: the City of Azaleas Capital District Xinyi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ...


On roads with multiple lanes, turning traffic is generally expected to move to the lane closest to the direction they wish to turn. For example, traffic intending to turn right will usually move to the rightmost lane before the intersection. Likewise, left-turning traffic will move to the leftmost lane. Exceptions to this rule may exist where for example the traffic authority decides that the two rightmost lanes will be for turning right, in which case drivers may take whichever of them to turn. On certain parts of the world traffic will adapt to informal patterns that rise naturally rather than by force of authority: for example, in Brazil and elsewhere it is common for drivers to observe (and trust) the turn signals used by other drivers in order to make turns from other lanes. For example if several vehicles on the right lane are all turning right, a vehicle may come from the next-to-right lane and turn right as well, doing so in parallel with the other right-turning vehicles.


One-way streets

In more sophisticated systems such as large cities, this concept is further extended: some streets are marked as being one-way, and on those streets all traffic must flow in only one direction, but pedestrians on the sidewalks are generally not limited to one-way movement. A driver wishing to reach a destination he already passed must use other streets in order to return. Usage of one-way streets, despite the inconveniences it can bring to individual drivers, can greatly improve traffic flow since they usually allow traffic to move faster and tend to simplify intersections.


Pedestrian crossings

Main article: Pedestrian crossing
A picture of Avenida Faria Lima in São Paulo, Brazil, showing a semaphore-controlled pedestrian crossing, and several red lights on several intersections ahead.
A picture of Avenida Faria Lima in São Paulo, Brazil, showing a semaphore-controlled pedestrian crossing, and several red lights on several intersections ahead.

Pedestrians must often cross from one side of a road to the other, and in doing so may come into the way of vehicles traveling on the road. In many places pedestrians are entirely left to look after themselves, that is, they must observe the road and cross when they can see that no traffic will threaten them. Busier cities usually provide pedestrian crossings, which are strips of the road where pedestrians are expected to cross. A pedestrian crossing or crosswalk is a designated point on a road at which some means are employed to assist pedestrians wishing to cross. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 105 KB) Description Picture of Avenida Faria Lima, São Paulo, Brazil. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 105 KB) Description Picture of Avenida Faria Lima, São Paulo, Brazil. ... Nickname: Motto: Non ducor, duco(Latin) I am not led, I lead Location in the São Paulo state. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up Pedestrian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This crossing in London was famously featured on the cover of The Beatles album Abbey Road. ...


The actual appearance of pedestrian crossings varies greatly, but the two most common appearances are: (1) a series of parallel white stripes or (2) two long horizontal white lines. The former is usually preferred, as it stands out more conspicuously against the dark pavement.


Some pedestrian crossings also accompany a traffic signal which will make vehicles stop at regular intervals so the pedestrians can cross. Some countries have "intelligent" pedestrian signals, where the pedestrian must push a button in order to assert his intention to cross. The traffic signal will use that information to schedule itself, that is, when no pedestrians are present the signal will never pointlessly cause vehicle traffic to stop. Traffic lights will sometimes differ where there are several lanes of traffic. ...


Pedestrian crossings without traffic signals are also common. In this case, the traffic laws usually states that the pedestrian has the right of way when crossing, and that vehicles must stop when a pedestrian uses the crossing. Countries and driving cultures vary greatly as to the extent to which this is respected.


Some jurisdictions forbid crossing or using the road anywhere other than at crossings, termed jaywalking. In other areas, pedestrians may have the right to cross where they choose, and have right of way over vehicular traffic while crossing. This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


In most areas, an intersection is considered to have a crosswalk, even if not painted, as long as the roads meet at approximate right angles. One example of a location where this rule is not in effect is the United Kingdom.


Rush hour

Prestes Maia Expressway, in São Paulo, Brazil, near rush hour, already showing some considerable traffic density.
Prestes Maia Expressway, in São Paulo, Brazil, near rush hour, already showing some considerable traffic density.

During business days in most major cities, traffic congestion reaches great intensity at predictable times of the day due to the large number of vehicles using the road at the same time. This phenomenon is called rush hour, although the period of high traffic intensity may exceed one hour. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 168 KB) Summary A picture of rush hour in Prestes Maia expressway, in São Paulo, Brazil, taken by myself from a viaduct. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (819x614, 168 KB) Summary A picture of rush hour in Prestes Maia expressway, in São Paulo, Brazil, taken by myself from a viaduct. ... Nickname: Motto: Non ducor, duco(Latin) I am not led, I lead Location in the São Paulo state. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Rush hour policies

Some cities adopt policies to reduce rush-hour traffic and pollution and encourage the use of public transportation. For example, in São Paulo, Brazil each vehicle has a specific day of the week in which it is forbidden from traveling the roads during rush hour. The day for each vehicle is taken from the license plate number, and this rule is enforced by traffic police and also by hundreds of strategically positioned traffic cameras backed by computerized image-recognition systems that issue tickets to offending drivers. Nickname: Motto: Non ducor, duco(Latin) I am not led, I lead Location in the São Paulo state. ...


In the United States and Canada, several expressways have a special lane (called an "HOV Lane" - High Occupancy Vehicle Lane) that can only be used by cars carrying two (some locations-three) or more people, and several cities offer a public telephone service where citizens can arrange rides with others depending on where they live and work. The purpose of these policies is to reduce the number of vehicles on the roads and thus reduce rush-hour traffic intensity. A permanent, separated high-occupancy vehicle lane on I-91 in Connecticut A high occupancy vehicle (or HOV) is any vehicle with a driver and one or more (or sometimes two or more, or three or more) passengers. ...


Uncontrolled traffic

Uncontrolled traffic occurs in the absence of lane markings and traffic control signals. On roads without marked lanes, drivers tend to keep to the appropriate side if the road is wide enough. Drivers frequently overtake others. Obstructions are not uncommon. It has been suggested that Lane#Lane_markings be merged into this article or section. ... Traffic lights can have several additional lights for filter turns or bus lanes. ... Mountain road with hairpin turns in the French Alps For other uses, see Road (disambiguation). ...


Intersections have no signals or signage, and a particular road at a busy intersection may be dominant (that is, its traffic flows) until a break in traffic, at which time the dominance shifts to the other road where vehicles are queued. At the intersection of two perpendicular roads, a traffic jam results if four vehicles face each other side-on.


Traffic pre-emption

In some areas, emergency responders are provided with specialized equipment which allows emergency response vehicles, particularly fire fighting apparatus, to have high-priority travel by having the lights along their route change to green. The technology behind these methods have evolved, from panels at the fire department (which could trigger and control green lights for certain major corridors) to optical systems (which the individual fire apparatus can be equipped with to communicate directly with receivers on the signal head). In other areas, public transport buses have special equipment to get green lights. Emergency services are public services that deal with emergencies and other aspects of Public Safety. ... A fire apparatus, fire engine or fire truck or fire appliance usually refers to a vehicle designed to fight fires. ... A Go North East bus parked in a lay-by in Tyne and Wear, England. ...


During emergencies where evacuation of a heavily populated area is required, local authorities may institute contraflow lane reversal, in which all lanes of a road lead away from a danger zone regardless of their original flow. Aside from emergencies, contraflow may also be used to ease traffic congestion during rush hour or at the end of a sports event (where a large number of cars are leaving the venue at the same time). For example, the six lanes of the Lincoln Tunnel can be changed from three in-bound and three out-bound to a two/four configuration depending on traffic volume. Contraflow lane reversal is a program designed for quick emergency evacuation of an area. ... The Lincoln Tunnel is a 1. ...


Intelligent transportation systems

Intelligent transportation systems (ITS) is a system of hardware, software and operators that allow better monitoring and control of traffic in order to optimize traffic flow. As the number of vehicle lane miles traveled per year continues to increase dramatically, and as the number of vehicle lane miles constructed per year has not been keeping pace, this has led to ever-increasing traffic congestion. As a cost-effective solution toward optimizing traffic, ITS presents a number of technologies to reduce congestion by monitoring traffic flows through the use of sensors and live cameras or analysing cellular phone data travelling in cars (Floating Cellular Data, FCD) and in turn rerouting traffic as needed through the use of variable message boards (VMS), highway advisory radio (HAR), on board or off board navigation devices and other systems. Additionally, the roadway network has been increasingly fitted with additional communications and control infrastructure to allow traffic operations personnel to monitor weather conditions, for dispatching maintenance crews to perform snow or ice removal, as well as intelligent systems such as automated bridge de-icing systems which help to prevent accidents. The Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) program is a worldwide initiative to add information and communications technology to transport infrastructure and vehicles. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Floating car data (FCD) (also known as; Floating Cellular Data) is a method to determine the traffic speed on the road network. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Traffic

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Gridlock is a term describing an inability to move on a transport network. ... North-South Expressway in Malaysia; a roadway can be considered as a line source of air and noise pollution and need not be a straight line. ... The field of road safety is concerned with reducing the numbers or the consequences of vehicle crashes, by developing and implementing management systems ideally based in a multidisciplinary and holistic approach, with interrelated activities in a number of fields. ... Disruptions in organized traffic flow can create delays lasting hours. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Transportation forecasting is the process of estimating the number of vehicles or travelers that will use a specific transportation facility in the future. ... Traffic psychology is a young expanding field in psychology. ... Traffic Pulse, also known as and Mobility Technologies, is a nationwide provider of traffic information via a number of mediums, including the Internet, cell phones, radio, satellite radio and television. ... Floating Car Data or FCD is a method to determine the traffic speed on the road network. ... Floating car data (FCD) (also known as; Floating Cellular Data) is a method to determine the traffic speed on the road network. ...

References

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... March 6 is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Traffic Reports and Alerts | Real Time Traffic | Road Conditions | Delays :: Traffic.com (131 words)
Free real-time traffic maps, alerts, and Jam Factor reports for the routes you drive.
Knowledge is power when it comes to beating traffic.
A free traffic hotline, call any time, day or night.
Traffic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3342 words)
Traffic laws are the laws which govern traffic and regulta vehicles, while rules of the road are both the laws and the informal rules that may have developed over time to facilitate the orderly and timely flow of traffic.
In many parts of the world traffic is generally organized, flowing in lanes of travel for a particular direction, with junctions, intersections, interchanges, traffic signals, or signs.
Unorganized traffic occurs in the absence of lanes and signals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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