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Encyclopedia > Traditional animation

Traditional animation, also referred to as classical animation, cel animation, or hand-drawn animation, is the oldest and historically the most popular form of animation. In a traditionally-animated cartoon, each frame is drawn by hand. The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... An animated cartoon is a short, hand-drawn (or made with computers to look similar to something hand-drawn) film for the cinema, television or computer screen, featuring some kind of story or plot (even if it is a very short one). ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ...

Contents

The traditional animation process

Storyboards

Traditionally-animated productions, just like other forms of animation, usually begin life as a storyboard, which is a script of sorts written with images as well as words, similar to a giant comic strip. The images allow the animation team to plan the flow of the plot and the composition of the imagery. The storyboard artists will have regular meetings with the director, and may have to redraw or "re-board" a sequence many times before it meets final approval. Storyboards are graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of previsualizing a motion graphic or interactive media sequence, including website interactivity. ... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Word (disambiguation). ... This article is about the comic strip, the sequential art form as published in newspapers and on the Internet. ... Look up plot in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Director Herbert Brenon with actress Alla Nazimova on the set of War Brides, 1916 A director is a person who directs the making of a film. ...


Voice recording

Before true animation begins, a preliminary soundtrack or "scratch track" is recorded, so that the animation may be more precisely synchronized to the soundtrack. Given the slow, methodical manner in which traditional animation is produced, it is almost always easier to synchronize animation to a pre-existing soundtrack than it is to synchronize a soundtrack to pre-existing animation. A completed cartoon soundtrack will feature music, sound effects, and dialogue performed by voice actors. However, the scratch track used during animation typically contains just the voices, any vocal songs that the characters must sing along to, and temporary musical score tracks; the final score and sound effects are added in post-production. In film formats, the soundtrack is the physical area of the film which records the synchronized sound. ... Synchronization (or Sync) is a problem in timekeeping which requires the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Sound effects or audio effects are artificially created or enhanced sounds, or sound processes used to emphasize artistic or other content of movies, video games, music, or other media. ... A voice actor (also a voice artist) is a person who provides voices for animated characters (including those in feature films, television series, animated shorts), voice-overs in radio and television commercials, audio dramas, dubbed foreign language films, video games, puppet shows, and amusement rides. ... Post production is the general term for the last stage of film production in which photographed scenes (also called footage) are put together into a complete film. ...


In the case of most pre-1930 sound animated cartoons, the sound was post-synched; that is, the sound track was recorded after the film elements were finished by watching the film and performing the dialogue, music, and sound effects required. Some studios, most notably Fleischer Studios, continued to post-synch their cartoons later, which allowed for the presence of the "muttered ad-libs" present in many Popeye the Sailor and Betty Boop cartoons. Although virtually all American animation is now pre-synched (and has been since the 1930s), nearly all Japanese animation (anime) is post-synched. Fleischer Studios, Inc. ... Popeye from an opening still from one of his cartoon shorts, with his characteristic corncob pipe and single good eye. ... Betty Boop from the opening title sequence of the earliest entries in the Betty Boop Cartoons Betty Boop is an animated cartoon character appearing in the Talkartoon and Betty Boop series of films produced by Max Fleischer and released by Paramount Pictures. ... Animé redirects here. ...


Animatics

Often, an animatic or story reel is made after the soundtrack is created, but before full animation begins. An animatic typically consists of pictures of the storyboard synchronized with the soundtrack. This allows the animators and directors to work out any script and timing issues that may exist with the current storyboard. The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, and a new animatic may be created and reviewed with the director until the storyboard is perfected. Editing the film at the animatic stage prevents the animation of scenes that would be edited out of the film; as traditional animation is a very expensive and time-consuming process, creating scenes that will eventually be edited out of the completed cartoon is strictly avoided.


In the mid 1970's these were known as Videomatics and used primarily for test commercial projects.


Advertising agencies today employ the use of animatics to test their commercials before they are made into full up spots. Animatics use drawn artwork, with moving pieces (for example, an arm that reaches for a product, or a head that turns). Video storyboards are the same thing as animatics, but do not have moving pieces. Photomatics are another option when creating test spots, but instead of using drawn artwork, there is a shoot in which hundreds of digital photographs are taken. The large amount of images to choose from may make the process of creating a test commercial a bit easier, as opposed to creating an animatic, because changes to drawn art take time and money. Photomatics generally cost more than animatics, as they require a shoot, and on-camera talent.


Design and timing

Once the animatic has been approved, it and the storyboards are sent to the design departments. Character designers prepare model sheets for all important characters and props in the film. These model sheets will show how a character or object looks from a variety of angles with a variety of poses and expressions, so that all artists working on the project can deliver consistent work. Sometimes, small statues known as maquettes may be produced, so that an animator can see what a character looks like in three dimensions. At the same time, the background stylists will do similar work for the settings and locations in the project, and the art directors and color stylists will determine the art style and color schemes to be used. Adobe Ceramic maquette model of a tower. ...


While design is going on, the timing director (who in many cases will be the main director) takes the animatic and analyzes exactly what poses, drawings, and lip movements will be needed on what frames. An exposure sheet (or X-sheet for short) is created; this is a printed table that breaks down the action, dialogue, and sound frame-by-frame as a guide for the animators. If a film is based more strongly in music, a bar sheet may be prepared in addition to or instead of an X-sheet. Bar sheets show the relationship between the on-screen action, the dialogue, and the actual musical notation used in the score. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Layout

Layout begins after the designs are completed and approved by the director. The layout process is the same as the blocking out of shots by a cinematographer on a live-action film. It is here that the background layout artists determine the camera angles, camera paths, lighting, and shading of the scene. Character layout artists will determine the major poses for the characters in the scene, and will make a drawing to indicate each pose. For short films, character layouts are often the responsibility of the director. Cameraman redirects here. ...


The layout drawings are spliced into the animatic, using the X-sheet as a guide. Once the animatic is made up of all layout drawings, it is called a Leica reel. The term originates from the Disney Studio in the 1930s, from the frame format used by Leica cameras. In film, specifically animation, a leica reel is a type of storyboarding device used in the production of potential series or features. ... ... Leica is the name of several cameras produced by a German company of the same name. ...


Animation

Once the Leica reel is finally approved by the director, animation begins.


In the traditional animation process, animators will begin by drawing sequences of animation on sheets of paper perforated to fit the peg bars in their desks, often using colored pencils, one picture or "frame" at a time. A key animator or lead animator will draw the key drawings in a scene, using the character layouts as a guide. The key animator draws enough of the frames to get across the major points of the action; in a sequence of a character jumping across a gap, the key animator may draw a frame of the character as he is about to leap, two or more frames as the character is flying through the air, and the frame for the character landing on the other side of the gap. This article is about the handwriting instrument. ... For key frames in video compression, see I-frame and video compression picture types. ...


Timing is important for the animators drawing these frames; each frame must match exactly what is going on in the soundtrack at the moment the frame will appear, or else the discrepancy between sound and visual will be distracting to the audience. For example, in high-budget productions, extensive effort is given in making sure a speaking character's mouth matches in shape the sound that character's actor is producing as he or she speaks.


While working on a scene, a key animator will usually prepare a pencil test of the scene. A pencil test is a preliminary version of the final animated scene; the pencil drawings are quickly photographed or scanned and synced with the necessary soundtracks. This allows the animation to be reviewed and improved upon before passing the work on to his assistant animators, who will go add details and some of the missing frames in the scene. The work of the assistant animators is reviewed, pencil-tested, and corrected until the lead animator is ready to meet with the director and have his scene sweatboxed, or reviewed by the director, producer, and other key creative team members. Similar to the storyboarding stage, an animator may be required to re-do a scene many times before the director will approve it.


In high-budget animated productions, often each major character will have an animator or group of animators solely dedicated to drawing that character. The group will be made up of one supervising animator, a small group of key animators, and a larger group of assistant animators. For scenes where two characters interact, the key animators for both characters will decide which character is "leading" the scene, and that character will be drawn first. The second character will be animated to react to and support the actions of the "leading" character.


Once the key animation is approved, the lead animator forwards the scene on to the clean-up department, made up of the clean-up animators and the inbetweeners. The clean-up animators take the lead and assistant animators' drawings and trace them onto a new sheet of paper, taking care in including all of the details present on the original model sheets, so that it appears that one person animated the entire film. The inbetweeners will draw in whatever frames are still missing in between the other animators' drawings. This procedure is called tweening. The resulting drawings are again pencil-tested and sweatboxed until they meet approval. This animated GIF demonstrates the effects of Adobe Flash shape, motion and color tweening. ...


At each stage during pencil animation, approved artwork is spliced into the Leica reel.


This process is the same for both character animation and special effects animation, which on most high-budget productions are done in separate departments. Effects animators animate anything that moves and is not a character, including props, vehicles, machinery and phenomena such as fire, rain, and explosions. Sometimes, instead of drawings, a number of special processes are used to produce special effects in animated films; rain, for example, has been created in Disney films since the late-1930s by filming slow-motion footage of water in front of a black background, with the resulting film superimposed over the animation. Character animation is a special aspect of the animation process, in which life is breathed into an artificial character. ... Special effects animation (or simply effects animation) is a specialization of the traditional animation and computer animation processes. ... This article is about devices that perform tasks. ... For other uses, see Fire (disambiguation). ... This article is about precipitation. ... Old logo from 1985-2006 Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner, was established as a designation in 1983, prior to which Disney films since the death of Walt Disney were released under the name of the... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... Slow motion is a technique in filmmaking whereby time appears to be slowed down. ...


Backgrounds

While the animation is being done, the background artists will paint the sets over which the action of each animated sequence will take place. These backgrounds are generally done in gouache or acrylic paint, although some animated productions have used backgrounds done in watercolor, oil paint, or even crayon. Background artists follow very closely the work of the background layout artists and color stylists (which is usually compiled into a workbook for their use), so that the resulting backgrounds are harmonious in tone with the character designs. A background artist or sometimes called a background stylist or background painter is one who is involved in the process of animation who establishes the color, style, and mood of a scene drawn by an animation layout artist. ... For other uses , see Painting (disambiguation). ... Corridor in the Asylum, black chalk and gouache on pink paper by Van Gogh Gouache (from the Italian guazzo, water paint, splash) or Bodycolour (or Bodycolor, the terms preferred by Art historians) is a type of paint consisting of pigment suspended in water. ... A Bigger Splash, 1967. ... Watercolor is a painting technique making use of water-soluble pigments that are either transparent or opaque and are formulated with gum to bond the pigment to the paper. ... View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer. ... For other uses, see Crayon (disambiguation). ...


Traditional ink-and-paint and camera

Once the clean-ups and in between drawings for a sequence are completed, they are prepared for photography, a process known as ink-and-paint. Each drawing is then transferred from paper to a thin, clear sheet of plastic called a cel, so called because they were once made out of cellulose nitrate (cellulose acetate is now used). The outline of the drawing is inked or photocopied onto the cel, and gouache or a similar type of paint is used on the reverse sides of the cels to add colors in the appropriate shades. In many cases, characters will have more than one color scheme assigned to them; the usage of each one depends upon the mood and lighting of each scene. The transparent quality of the cel allows for each character or object in a frame to be animated on different cels, as the cel of one character can be seen underneath the cel of another; and the opaque background will be seen beneath all of the cels. Nitrocellulose (Cellulose nitrate, guncotton) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose (e. ... Cellulose acetate, first prepared in 1865, is the acetate ester of cellulose. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

A camera used for shooting traditional animation. See also Aerial image.
A camera used for shooting traditional animation. See also Aerial image.

When an entire sequence has been transferred to cels, the photography process begins. Each cel involved in a frame of a sequence is laid on top of each other, with the background at the bottom of the stack. A piece of glass is lowered onto the artwork in order to flatten any irregularities, and the composite image is then photographed by a special animation camera, also called rostrum camera. The cels are removed, and the process repeats for the next frame until each frame in the sequence has been photographed. Each cel has registration holes, small holes along the top or bottom edge of the cel, which allow the cel to be placed on corresponding peg bars before the camera to ensure that each cel aligns with the one before it; if the cells are not aligned in such a manner, the animation, when played at full speed, will appear "jittery." Sometimes, frames may need to be photographed more than once, in order to implement superimpositions and other camera effects. Pans are created by either moving the cels or backgrounds one step at a time over a succession of frames (the camera does not pan; it only zooms in and out). Image File history File links Animationcamera. ... Image File history File links Animationcamera. ... A special effects movie camera stand with aerial image capabilities. ... An animation camera manufactured by Crass, Berlin, in 1957. ... A rostrum camera is a specially adapted camera used in television and film to animate a still picture or object. ...


As the scenes come out of final photography, they are spliced into the Leica reel, taking the place of the pencil animation. Once every sequence in the production has been photographed, the final film is sent for development and processing, while the final music and sound effects are added to the soundtrack. Again, editing is generally not done in animation, but if it is required it is done at this time, before the final print of the film is ready for duplication or broadcast.


Digital ink and paint

It should be noted that the actual "traditional" ink-and-paint process is no longer in use by any major animated productions at present. The current process, termed "digital ink and paint," is the same as traditional ink and paint until after the animation drawings are completed; instead of being transferred to cels, the animators' drawings are scanned into a computer, where they are colored and processed using one or more of a variety of software packages. The resulting drawings are composited in the computer over their respective backgrounds, which have also been scanned into the computer (if not digitally painted), and the computer outputs the final film by either exporting a digital video file, using a video cassette recorder, or printing to film using a high-resolution output device. Use of computers allows for easier exchange of artwork between departments, studios, and even countries and continents (in most low-budget animated productions, the bulk of the animation is actually done by animators working in other countries, including Korea, Japan, Singapore, and India). In computing, a scanner is a device that analyzes images, printed text, or handwriting, or an object (such as an ornament) and converts it to a digital image. ... This article is about the machine. ... For other uses, see Video (disambiguation). ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


The last major feature film to use traditional ink and paint was Studio Ghibli's Princess Mononoke (1997); the last animated series to do so was Ed, Edd n Eddy. Minor productions such as Hair High (2004) by Bill Plympton have used traditional cels long after the introduction of digital techniques. Digital ink and paint has been in use at Walt Disney Feature Animation since 1989, where it was used for the final rainbow shot in The Little Mermaid. All subsequent Disney animated features were digitally inked-and-painted, using Disney's proprietary CAPS (Computer Animation Production System) technology, developed primarily by Pixar (the last Disney feature using CAPS was Home on the Range). Most other studios use one of a number of other high-end software packages such as Toonz or Toon Boom Studio, Animo, US Animation and even consumer-level applications such as Macromedia Flash. Princess Mononoke ) is a Japanese animated film by Hayao Miyazaki that was first released in Japan on July 12, 1997 and in the United States on October 29, 1999 in select cities and on November 26, 1999. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Ed, Edd n Eddy is a Canadian/American animated television series created by Danny Antonucci and produced by a. ... Hair High is a 2004 animated film by American filmmaker Bill Plympton. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bill Plympton Bill Plympton (born April 30, 1946) is an American animator best known for his 1987 Academy Award-nominated animated short Your Face. ... Walt Disney Feature Animation (WDFA) is the animation studio that makes up a key element of The Walt Disney Company. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The Little Mermaid is a 1989 animated feature film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and first released on November 15, 1989 by Walt Disney Pictures. ... The Computer Animation Production System (CAPS) is a proprietary collection of software programs, camera systems and custom desks developed by The Walt Disney Company together with Pixar in the late-1980s to computerize the ink and paint and post-production processes of traditionally animated feature films produced by Walt Disney... Pixars studio lot in Emeryville Pixar Animation Studios is an American computer animation studio based in Emeryville, California (USA) notable for its seven Academy Awards. ... Home on the Range is a 2004 animated feature produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures on April 2, 2004. ... // == Macromedia Flash == ==]] Using Macromedia Flash 8 (bundled in Studio 8) in Windows XP. Maintainer: Adobe Systems (formerly Macromedia) Latest release: 8 / September 30th, 2005 OS: Windows (no native Windows XP Professional x64 Edition support), Mac OS X, Linux (i386 only, via wine [1]) Use: Multimedia Content Creator License: Proprietary Website...


Computers and video cameras

Computers and video cameras in traditional cel animation can also be used as tools without affecting the film directly, assisting the animators in their work and making the whole process faster and easier. Doing the layouts on a computer is much more effective than doing it the old original way. And video cameras gives the opportunity to see a "sneak preview" of the scenes and how they will look when finished, enabling the animators to correct and improve them without having to complete them first. This can be considered a digital form of pencil testing.


Techniques

The cel & limited animation

This image shows how two transparent cels, each with a different character drawn on them, and an opaque background are photographed together to form the composite image.
This image shows how two transparent cels, each with a different character drawn on them, and an opaque background are photographed together to form the composite image.

The cel is an important innovation to traditional animation, as it allows some parts of each frame to be repeated from frame to frame, thus saving labor. A simple example would be a scene with two characters on screen, one of which is talking and the other standing silently. Since the latter character is not moving, it can be displayed in this scene using only one drawing, on one cel, while multiple drawings on multiple cels will be used to animate the speaking character. Image File history File links Animation_cells. ...


For a more complex example, consider, a sequence in which a girl sets a plate upon a table. The table will stay still for the entire sequence, so it can be drawn as part of the background. The plate can be drawn along with the character as the character places it on the table. However, after the plate is on the table, the plate will no longer move, although the girl will continue to move as she draws her arm away from the plate. In this example, after the girl puts the plate down, the plate can then be drawn on a separate cel from the girl. Further frames will feature new cels of the girl, but the plate does not have to be redrawn as it is not moving; the same cel of the plate can be used in each remaining frame that it is still upon the table. The cel paints were actually manufactured in shaded versions of each color to compensate for the extra layer of cel added between the image and the camera, in this example the still plate would be painted slightly brighter to compensate for being moved one layer down.


In very early cartoons made before the use of the cel, such as Gertie the Dinosaur (1914), the entire frame, including the background and all characters and items, were drawn on a single sheet of paper, then photographed. Everything had to be redrawn for each frame containing movements. This led to a "jittery" appearance; imagine seeing a sequence of drawings of a mountain, each one slightly different from the one proceeding it. The pre-cel animation was later improved by using techniques like the slash and tear system invented by Raoul Barre; the background and the animated objects were drawn on separate papers. A frame was made by removing all the blank parts of the papers where the objects were drawn before being placed on top of the backgrounds and finally photographed. The cel animation process was invented by Earl Hurd and John Bray in 1915. Gertie the Dinosaur is a 1914 short animated film by Winsor McCay that inspired many generations of animators to bring their cartoons to life. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Raoul Barré (January 29, 1874 - May 21, 1932) was a Canadian and American cartoonist, animator of the Silent Era, and artist. ... Earl Hurd (September 14, 1880 – September 28, 1940) was a pioneering American animator and film director. ... John Randolph Bray (25 August 1879, Detroit - 10 October 1978, Bridgeport, Connecticut) produced the first animation film in color The Debut of Thomas Katt (1920) in Brewster Color, developed by Percy D. Brewster of Newark, New Jersey. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


In lower-budget productions, this "shortcut" is used in a greater capacity. For example, in a scene in which a man is sitting in a chair and talking, the chair and the body of the man may be the same in every frame; only his head is redrawn, or perhaps even his head stays the same while only his mouth moves. This is known as limited animation. The process was popularized in theatrical cartoons by UPA and used in most television animation, especially that of Hanna-Barbera. The end result does not look very lifelike, but is inexpensive to produce, and therefore allows cartoons to be made on small television budgets. Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ... The abbreviation UPA has several meanings: United Productions of America, USA-based animation studio Ukrayinska Povstanska Armia (Ukrainian Insurgent Army), a Ukrainian nationalist partisan organization during and after the World War II Uralic Phonetic Alphabet United Progressive Alliance A political coalition ruling India, as of 2005 University Preparatory Academy of... Cartoon Network Studios, formerly known as Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. ...


"Shooting on twos"

Moving characters are often shot "on twos", that is to say, one drawing is shown for every two frames of film (which usually runs at 24 frames per second), meaning there are only 12 drawings per second. Even though the image update rate is low, the fluidity is satisfactory for most subjects. However, when a character is required to perform a quick movement, it is usually necessary to revert to animating "on ones", as "twos" are too slow to convey the motion adequately. A blend of the two techniques keeps the eye fooled without unnecessary production cost.


Animation for most "Saturday morning cartoons" is produced as cheaply as possible, and is most often shot on "threes", or even "fours", i.e. three or four frames per drawing. This translates to only 8 or 6 drawings per second.


Animation loops

A horse animated by rotoscoping from Edweard Muybridge's 19th century photos. The animation consists of 8 drawings, which are "looped", i.e. repeated over and over. This example is also "shot on twos", i.e. shown at 12 frames per second.

Creating animation loops or animation cycles is a labor-saving technique for animating repetitive motions, such as a character walking or a breeze blowing through the trees. In the case of walking, the character is animated taking a step with their right foot, then a step with their left foot. The loop is created so that, when the sequence repeats, the motion is seamless. However, since an animation loop essentially uses the same bit of animation over and over again, they are easily detected and can in fact become distracting to an audience. In general, they are used only sparingly by productions with moderate or high budgets. Image File history File links Animhorse. ... Image File history File links Animhorse. ... Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ... The Horse in Motion Eadweard Muybridge (April 9, 1830 – May 8, 1904) was a British-born photographer, known primarily for his early use of multiple cameras to capture motion. ...


Ryan Larkin's 1969 Academy Award nominated National Film Board of Canada short Walking makes creative use of loops. In addition, a promotional music video featuring the Soul Coughing song "Circles" poked fun at animation loops as they are often seen in The Flintstones, in which Fred and Barney, supposedly walking in a house, wonder why they keep passing the same table and vase over and over again. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... // The Academy Award for Animated Short Film is an award which has been given by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences as part of the Academy Awards every year since the 5th Academy Awards, covering the year 1931-32, to the present. ... The National Film Board of Canada (usually National Film Board or NFB) is a Canadian public filmmaking organization established to produce and distribute films that inform Canadians and promote Canada around the world. ... Soul Coughing (1992–2000) was a New York-based alternative rock band comprised of Mike Doughty (vocals, lyrics, guitar), Mark De Gli Antoni (samples, keyboards), Sebastian Steinberg (string bass) and Yuval Gabay (drums). ... The Flintstones is an animated American television sitcom which ran from 1960 to 1966 on ABC. The Flintstones is about a working class Stone Age mans life with his family and his next door neighbor and best friend. ...


Multiplane camera

Main article: Multiplane camera

The multiplane camera is a tool used to add depth to scenes in 2D animated movies, called the multiplane effect. This visual phenomena is also called the parallax process. The art are placed on different layers of glass plates; in this way, realistic backgrounds and foregrounds can be made. The panorama views in Pinocchio are examples of the effects a multiplane camera can achieve. Different versions of the camera have been made through time, but the most famous is the one used by the Walt Disney Studio. Another one, called a tabletop, was made by Fleischer Studios. Miniature sets made of paper cutouts were placed in front of the camera, and the cels between them, creating visually realistic scenes. Others who made their own multiplane camera include Ub Iwerks and Don Bluth. A multiplane camera built by an animation hobbyist in 1972. ... Pinocchio is the second animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... A publicity photograph (circa 1929) of Ub Iwerks and his most famous co-creation, Mickey Mouse. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Hand inking

Originally the cels were inked by hand by first laying them over the artists drawings, and then the inkers traced the outlines of the artwork onto the cels, using different colors. With the invention of xerography (below), hand inking was no longer needed, and this was reflected by the animation's visual style.


Xerography

Applied to animation by Ub Iwerks, the electrostatic copying technique called xerography allowed the drawings to be copied directly onto the cels, leaving only the coloring to the inkers. This saved time and money, and it also made it possible to put in more details and to control the size of the xeroxed objects and characters (this replaced the little known, and seldom used, photographic lines technique at Disney, used to reduce the size of animation when needed). At first it resulted in a more sketchy look, but the method was improved later. Instead of using black lines only, cels with lines in different colors were also possible, using colored toner powder. A publicity photograph (circa 1929) of Ub Iwerks and his most famous co-creation, Mickey Mouse. ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the force exerted by a static (i. ... Chester F. Carlson Xerography (or Electrophotography) is a photocopying technique developed by Chester Carlson in 1938 and patented on October 6, 1942. ...


The xerographic method was first used by Disney in the short film Goliath II, while the first feature using this process was One Hundred and One Dalmatians (1961). The graphic style of this film was strongly influenced by the process. Some hand inking was still used together with xerography in this and subsequent films when distinct colored lines were needed. Later, colored toners became available, and several distinct line colors could be used, even simultaneously. For instance, in The Rescuers the characters outlines are gray. White and blue toners were used for special effects, such as snow and water. This article is about the 1961 film. ... A color toner bottle Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the text and images on the printed paper. ... The Rescuers is a 1977 animated feature produced by Walt Disney Productions and first released on June 22, 1977. ...


The APT process

Main article: APT process

Invented by David W. Spencer (aka Dave Spencer) for the movie The Black Cauldron, the APT (Animation Photo Transfer) process was a new breakthrough in how to transfer the animators' art onto cels. Compared to Xerography, it looked visually better. Basically, the process was a modification of a repro-photographic process; the artists' work were photographed on high-contrast "litho" film, and the image on the resulting negative was then transferred to a cel covered with a layer of light sensitive dye by making a "sandwich" of the negative and the cel and expose the negative to light. The layer of dye was sandwiched between the other two elements and exposed to the light through the transparent areas of the negative. Because it was actually divided into thinner layers of dye, each in a different color and sensitive to a specific wavelength of light, it was exposed to the relevant wavelengths one at the time. The light caused it to harden and fuse to the surface of the cel, and chemicals were then used to remove the unexposed portion, leaving the drawings in a variety of colors (photo emulsion). Small and delicate details were still inked by hand if needed. Spencer received a Technical award from the Motion Picture Academy for developing this process. Example of the APT process in the movie The Black Cauldron The APT process is basically a photographic transfer system that can photographically transfer lines or solid blocks of colour onto acetate sheets. ... The Black Cauldron (also known as Taran and the Magic Cauldron in some countries) is the twenty-fifth animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... See Cel programming language for the programming language A cel, short for celluloid, is a transparent sheet on which objects are drawn or painted for traditional, hand-drawn animation. ... Photo emulsion is a photosensitive substance used in screen printing that hardens when subjected to ultraviolet light. ...


Cel overlay

A cel with inanimate objects made to make the impression of a foreground when laid on top of a ready frame. This creates the illusion of depth, but not as much as a multiplane camera would. A special version of cel overlay is called line overlay, made to complete the background instead of making the foreground, and was invented to deal with the sketchy appearance of xeroxed drawings. The background was first painted as shapes and figures in flat colors, containing rather few details. Next a cel with detailed black lines was laid directly over it, each line drawn to add more information to the underlaying shape or figure, giving the background the complexity it needed. In this way the visual style of the background will match the visual style of the xeroxed parts of the animation. As the xerographic process evolved, line overlay was left behind.


Computers and traditional animation

The methods so far describes the techniques of an animation process who originally depended on cels in its final stages, but painted cels are rare today as the computer moves into the animation studio, and the outline drawings are usually scanned into the computer and filled with digital paint instead of being transferred to cels and then colored by hand. The drawings are composited in a computer program on many transparent "layers" much the same way as they are with cels, and made into a sequence of images which may then be transferred onto film or converted to a digital video format.
It is now also possible for animators to draw directly into a computer using a graphics tablet, cintiq or a similar device, where the outline drawings are done in a similar manner as they would be on paper. The development of paperless handdrawn animation is likely to replace the traditional pencil and paper not too far into the future, just as cels and traditional paint were replaced when digital ink and paint was fully introduced in the 90's. For instance the Goofy short How To Hook Up Your Home Theater represents Disney's first project based on the paperless technology available today. Some of the advantages are the possibility and potential of controlling the size of the drawings while working on them, drawing directly on a multiplane background and eliminating the need of photographing line tests and scanning. This article is about the machine. ... Digital video is a type of video recording system that works by using a digital, rather than analog, of the video signal. ... A Wacom Graphire4 graphics tablet. ... Wacom Co. ... This article is about the Disney character. ... How To Hook Up Your Home Theater is a 2007 theatrical cartoon from Walt Disney Pictures, directed and written by Kevin Deters and co-directed by Stevie Wermers-Skelton. ...


Though traditional animation is now commonly done with computers, it is important to differentiate computer-assisted traditional animation from 3D computer animation, such as Toy Story and ReBoot. However, often traditional animation and 3D computer animation will be used together, as in Don Bluth's Titan A.E. and Disney's Tarzan and Treasure Planet. Most anime (like animation from Japan) still use traditional animation today. DreamWorks executive Jeffrey Katzenberg coined the term "tradigital animation" to describe films produced by his studio which incorporated elements of traditional and computer animation equally, such as Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron and Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas. This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... Toy Story is an Academy-award-winning CGI animated feature film produced by Pixar Animation Studios and released by Walt Disney Pictures and Buena Vista Distribution in the United States on November 22, 1995, and Australia on December 7, 1995, as well as in the United Kingdom on 22 March... This article is about the television program ReBoot. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Titan A.E. is a 2000 animated science fiction adventure film from Fox Animation Studios and Twentieth Century Fox. ... Disney redirects here. ... This article is about the 1999 film. ... Treasure Planet is a 2002 Academy Award nominated science fiction animated feature film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation, and released by Walt Disney Pictures on November 27, 2002. ... Animé redirects here. ... This article is about the film studio. ... Jeffrey Katzenberg (born December 21, 1950 in New York City) is an American film producer and Chief Executive Officer of DreamWorks Animation SKG. He is perhaps most famous for his period as studio chairman at The Walt Disney Company, and for producing the movie Shrek (2001). ... Spirit: Stallion of the Cimarron is an animated film released in 2002 by Dreamworks Pictures. ... Sinbad: Legend of the Seven Seas is an animated movie produced by DreamWorks SKG and released in 2003. ...


Interestingly, many modern video games such as Viewtiful Joe, The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker and others use "cel-shading" animation filters to make their full 3D animation appear as though it were drawn in a traditional cel style. This technique was also used in the animated movie Appleseed, and was integrated with cel animation in the FOX animated series Futurama. This article is about computer and video games. ... Viewtiful Joe is a video game developed by Capcoms Capcom Production Studio 4 design team Team Viewtiful. The other games in the series, including the PS2 port of the first game, have been made by Clover Studio. ... The Legend of Zelda: The Wind Waker (or Zeruda no Densetsu: Kaze no Takuto in Japan) is the ninth game in the well-known The Legend of Zelda series of video games. ... This is a list of video games that use the technique of cel-shading, organised alphabetically by name. ... Object with a basic cel-shader (also known as a toon shader) and border detection. ... For the Aesop Rock album, see Appleseed (album). ... This article is about the animal. ... Futurama is an animated American cartoon series created by Matt Groening (creator of The Simpsons) and David X. Cohen (also a writer for The Simpsons). ...


Rotoscoping

Rotoscoping is a method of traditional animation invented by Max Fleischer in 1915, in which animation is "traced" over actual film footage of actors and scenery. Traditionally, the live action will be printed out frame by frame and registered. Another piece of paper is then placed over the live action printouts and the action is traced frame by frame using a lightbox. The end result still looks hand drawn but the motion will be remarkably lifelike. Waking Life is a full-length, rotoscoped animated movie, as is American Pop by Ralph Bakshi. The popular music video for A-ha's song "Take On Me" also featured rotoscoped animation, along with live action. In most cases, rotoscoping is mainly used as a guide to aid the animation of realistically rendered human beings, as in Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs, Sleeping Beauty, Pocahontas, and Anastasia. Rotoscoping is a technique where animators trace live action movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ... Max Fleischer (July 19, 1883–September 11, 1972) was an important pioneer in the development of the animated cartoon. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Waking Life is a digitally rotoscoped and animated film, directed by Richard Linklater and made in 2001. ... American Pop is a 1981 American animated film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... Ralph Bakshi (October 29, 1938) is an American director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... A music video is a short film or video that accompanies a complete piece of music, most commonly a song. ... a-ha is a Grammy Award-nominated band from Norway. ... Morten Harket in the Take on Me music video a-has Take on Me music video, first aired in 1985 on MTV. The song is a single off of a-has first album, Hunting High and Low, made in 1984. ... Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is a 1937 animated feature, the first produced by Walt Disney. ... “Princess Aurora” redirects here. ... Pocahontas is the thirty-third animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... Original theatrical poster for . Anastasia is an animated feature created at Fox Animation Studios, produced and directed by Don Bluth and Gary Goldman, and released on November 21, 1997 by Twentieth Century Fox. ...


A method that is related to conventional rotoscoping was later invented. If the movie was supposed to contain inanimate objects like a car or a boat, a small live action model of the object(s) was built and painted white, while the edges of the model were painted with thin black lines. In the next stage the object was filmed like it was supposed to move in the animated scene, either by moving the model or filming it while the camera was sweeping over or around it, or using a combination of both. The film frames were then printed on paper, showing a model made up of the painted black lines. After the artists had added details to the object not present in the live action version of the model, it was xeroxed onto cels. (A notable example is Cruella's car in One Hundred and One Dalmatians.) The process of transferring 3D objects to cels was greatly improved when computer graphics advanced enough to allow the creation of three dimensional computer generated objects (wire frame models) that could be manipulated in any way the animators wanted, and then print the outlines on paper before being copied onto cels using Xerography or the APT process. Even if the use of cels has been left by the majority of animators, computer animated objects in traditional animation has come to stay. A wire frame model is a visual presentation of an electronic representation of a three dimensional or physical object used in 3D computer graphics. ...


Related to rotoscoping are the methods of vectorizing live-action footage, in order to achieve a very graphical look, like in Richard Linklater's film A Scanner Darkly; and motion-capturing actor's movements to use the data in 3D-animation, as in Robert Zemeckis's 2004 film The Polar Express. Example showing effect of vector graphics versus raster graphics. ... Richard Rick Linklater (born July 30, 1961, in Houston, Texas) is an Academy Award nominated American film director and writer. ... A Scanner Darkly is a 2006 film by Richard Linklater based on the Philip K. Dick novel of the same name. ... Motion capture, or mocap, is a technique of digitally recording the movements of real things — usually humans — it originally developed as an analysis tool in biomechanics research, but has grown increasingly important as a source of motion data for computer animation. ... Robert Lee Bob Zemeckis (born May 14, 1952) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-winning American movie director, producer and writer. ... The Polar Express is a 2004 feature film based on the childrens book of the same title by Chris Van Allsburg. ...


Live-action hybrids

Similar to the computer animation and traditional animation hybrids described above, occasionally a production will marry both live-action and animated footage. The live-action parts of these productions are usually filmed first, the actors pretending that they are interacting with the animated characters, props, or scenery; animation will then be added into the footage later to make it appear as if it has always been there. Like rotoscoping, this method is rarely used, but when it is, it can be done to terrific effect, immersing the audience in a fantasy world where humans and cartoons co-exist. Early examples include the silent Out of the Inkwell (begun in 1919) cartoons by Max Fleischer and Walt Disney's Alice Comedies (begun in 1923). Live-action and animation were later combined to successful effect in features such as The Three Caballeros (1944), Anchors Aweigh (1945), Song of the South (1946), Mary Poppins (1964), Bedknobs and Broomsticks (1971), Heavy Traffic (1973), Coonskin (1975) Pete's Dragon (1977), Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988), Rock a Doodle (1991), Cool World (1993), The Pagemaster (1994) and Space Jam (1996). Other significant live-action hybrids include the music video for Paula Abdul's hit song "Opposites Attract" and numerous television commercials, including those for cereals such as Honey Nut Cheerios, Trix, and Rice Krispies. This article is about modern humans. ... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Max Fleischer (July 19, 1883–September 11, 1972) was an important pioneer in the development of the animated cartoon. ... For the company founded by Disney, see The Walt Disney Company. ... The Alice Comedies are a series of animated cartoons created by Walt Disney, in which a real little girl named Alice and an animated cat named Julius have adventures in an animated landscape. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Three Caballeros is a 1944 animated feature film, produced by Walt Disney and distributed by RKO Radio Pictures. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Anchors Aweigh is a 1945 musical comedy film, directed by George Sidney in which two sailors go on a four-day shore leave in Hollywood, accompanied by music and song, meet an aspiring young singer and try to help her get an audition at MGM. It stars Frank Sinatra, Gene... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Song of the South is a feature film produced by Walt Disney, released on November 12, 1946 by RKO Radio Pictures and based on the Uncle Remus cycle of stories by Joel Chandler Harris. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 2004 stage musical, see Mary Poppins (musical). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Bedknobs and Broomsticks is a 1971 musical film produced by Walt Disney Productions, which combines live action and animation; it premiered on October 7, 1971. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Heavy Traffic is a 1973 American animated film written and directed by Ralph Bakshi, and originally distributed by American International Pictures. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Coonskin can be: The skin of a Raccoon A type of hat The 1975 film by Ralph Bakshi The Coon Caricature This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Petes Dragon (first released on November 3, 1977) is a live-action/animated musical feature film from Walt Disney Productions. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Who Framed Roger Rabbit is a 1988 film produced by Amblin Entertainment and The Walt Disney Company (released on its Touchstone Pictures banner), which blends traditional animation and live action. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the 1992 Ralph Bakshi film. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Pagemaster is a live action/animated film released by 20th Century Fox on November 23, 1994 and based on the illustrated book of the same name. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... This article is about the motion picture. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Paula Julie Abdul (born June 19, 1962) is an American, multi-platinum selling, Grammy Award-winning singer, dancer, television personality, jewelry designer, actress, and Emmy Award-winning choreographer. ... Grain redirects here. ... Honey Nut Cheerios from Canada Honey Nut Cheerios is a variation of Cheerios breakfast cereal, introduced in 1979 by General Mills. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Rice Krispies box Rice Krispies (known as Rice Bubbles in Australia) is a brand of breakfast cereal that has been produced by Kelloggs since 1928. ...


Special effects animation

See also: Special effect#Special effects animation

Besides traditional animated characters, objects and backgrounds, many other techniques are used to create special elements such as smoke, lightning and "magic", and to give the animation in general a distinct visual appearance. Special effects (also called SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to realize scenes that cannot be achieved by live action or normal means. ...


Notable examples can be found in movies such as Fantasia, Wizards, The Lord of the Rings, The Little Mermaid and The Secret of NIMH. Today the special effects are mostly done with computers, but earlier they had to be done by hand. To produce these effects, the animators used different techniques, such as drybrush, airbrush, charcoal, grease pencil, backlit animation or, during shooting, the cameraman used multiple exposures with diffusing screens, filters or gels. For instance, the Nutcracker Suite segment in Fantasia has a fairy sequence where stippled cels are used, creating a soft pastel look. Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, produced by Walt Disney and first released on November 13, 1940 in the United States. ... Wizards (originally titled War Wizards[1][2]) is an animated post-apocalyptic science fiction/fantasy film about the battle between two wizards, a good wizard representing the forces of magic and an evil wizard representing the forces of technology. ... J.R.R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings is a 1978 animated fantasy film directed by Ralph Bakshi. ... The Little Mermaid is a 1989 animated feature film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and first released on November 15, 1989 by Walt Disney Pictures. ... Mrs. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... An example of the drybrush technique using black acrylic paint on illustration board. ... Paasche F#1 Single Action External Mix Airbrush An airbrush is a small, air-operated tool that sprays various media including ink and dye, but most often paint by a process of atomization. ... Crayola brand crayons A crayon is a stick of colored wax, charcoal, chalk, or other material used for writing and drawing. ... In photography, a filter is a camera accessory consisting of an optical filter that can be inserted in the optical path. ... A performance of The Nutcracker The story of The Nutcracker and the Mouse King was written by E. T. A. Hoffmann. ... An example of stippling in a biological illustration. ...


See also

The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... See also: Computer-generated imagery Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ... The seawater creature in The Abyss marked CGIs acceptance in the visual effects industry. ... Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ... Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ... Rubber hose animation was the first animation style who became standardized in the American animation industry. ... Storyboards are graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of previsualizing a motion graphic or interactive media sequence, including website interactivity. ...

References

Preston Blair (1918–1994) was an American character animator, most noted for his work at Walt Disney Productions and the Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer animation department A native of Redlands, California, Blair began his animation career in the early 1930s at the Universal studio under Walter Lantz and Bill Nolan. ... James Shamus Culhane was an Irish-American animator, film director, and film producer, often regarded as one of the greatest animators of all time. ... Kit Laybourne is an independent producer of animation projects for television [1] and the Chief Creative Director at Oxygen (TV channel). ... Franklin Thomas (September 5, 1912, Fresno, California - September 8, 2004, Flintridge, California) was one of Walt Disneys team of animators known as the Nine Old Men. ... Oliver Martin Johnston, Jr. ... The Illusion of Life: Disney Animation (ISBN 0786860707) is an acclaimed book by two of Disneys The Nine Old Men, Ollie Johnston and Frank Thomas. ... For other persons named Richard Williams, see Richard Williams (disambiguation). ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...

External links

The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // Early examples of attempts to capture the phenomenon of motion into a still drawing can be found in paleolithic cave paintings, where animals are depicted with multiple legs in superimposed positions, clearly attempting to convey the perception of motion. ... A computer-animated film commonly refers to feature films that have been computer-animated to appear three dimensional on a movie screen. ... This is a list of animated feature-length films from around the world organised alphabetically under the year of release (the year during which the completed film was first released to the public). ... This is a list of package films. ... The following is a list of theatrical short film series produced by means of animation. ... This is a list of stop-motion films from around the world organised in order of release date; theatrical releases as well as made-for-TV and direct-to-video movies. ... Animated series redirects here. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Limited animation is a process of making animated cartoons that does not follow a realistic approach. ... Rotoscoping is an animation technique in which animators trace over live-action film movement, frame by frame, for use in animated films. ... See also: Computer-generated imagery Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. ... Drawn on film animation (also known as direct animation) is an animation technique where footage is produced by creating the images directly on filmstock, as opposed to cel animation where the images are created on separate sheets of plastic before being photographed onto filmstock. ... Aleksandr Petrovs 1999 The Old Man and the Sea (Academy Award for Animated Short Film) Paint-on-glass animation is a technique for making animated films by manipulating slow-drying oil paints on sheets of glass. ... Pinscreen animation makes use of a screen filled with movable pins, which can be moved in or out by pressing an object onto the screen. ... Sand animation is a term which has two meanings. ... Stop motion is an animation technique which makes things that are static appear to be moving. ... Clay animation is one of many forms of stop motion animation; specifically, it is the form where each animated piece, either character or background, is deformable, i. ... Scene from Yuriy Norshteyns upcoming feature film, The Overcoat Cutout animation is a unique technique for producing animations using flat characters, props and backgrounds cut from materials such as paper, card, stiff fabric or even photographs. ... Silhouette animation is one of many forms of stop motion and is also a simplified variation of graphic animation, which involves the frame-by-frame moving of cut out graphic shapes. ... GRAPHIC ANIMATION is a variation of stop motion (and possibly more conceptually associated with traditional flat cel animation and paper drawing animation, but still TECHNICALLY qualifying as stop motion) consisting of the animation of photographs (in whole or in parts) and other NON-DRAWN flat visual graphic material, such as... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Go motion is a variation of stop motion animation, and was co-developed by Industrial Light & Magic and Phil Tippett for the film Dragonslayer. ... One of many forms of stop motion animation. ... Pixilation (from pixilated) is a stop motion technique where live actors are used as a frame-by-frame subject in an animated film, by repeatedly posing while one or more frame is taken and changing pose slightly before the next frame or frames. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... An animator is an artist who creates multiple images called frames that form an illusion of movement called animation when rapidly displayed. ... An animation director is the director in charge of all aspects of the animation process during the production of an animated film or animated segment for a live-action film. ... This is a list of major animation festivals. ... This is list of animation Studios, animation studio is a studio that is a production facilities, or a financial entitles and is in general similar in organistions to artists studios, and most of them are based in United States of America. ... An animated cartoon is a short, hand-drawn (or made with computers to look similar to something hand-drawn) film for the cinema, television or computer screen, featuring some kind of story or plot (even if it is a very short one). ... An animated series or cartoon series is a television series produced by means of animation. ... Short subject is an American film industry term that historically has referred to any film in the format of two reels, or approximately 20 minutes running time, or less. ... Independent animation is a term used to describe animated short cartoons and feature films produced outside the professional Hollywood animation industry. ... Adult animation is animation that is targeted at adults. ... Character animation is a special aspect of the animation process, in which life is breathed into an artificial character. ... Cartoon physics is a joking reference to the fact that animation allows regular laws of physics to be ignored in humorous ways for dramatic effects. ...

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