FACTOID # 14: North Carolina has a larger Native American population than North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Traditional Chinese medicine
Alternative medical systems - edit
NCCAM classifications
  1. Alternative Medical Systems
  2. Mind-Body Intervention
  3. Biologically Based Therapy
  4. Manipulative and body-based methods
  5. Energy Therapy
See also
Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong.
Traditional Chinese medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong.

Traditional Chinese medicine (also known as TCM, simplified Chinese: 中医; traditional Chinese: 中醫; pinyin: zhōngyī) is a range of traditional medical practices originating in China that developed over several thousand years. The English phrase "TCM" was created in the 1950s by the PRC in order to export Chinese medicine; there is no equivalent phrase in Chinese. In fact, TCM is a modern compilation of traditional Chinese medicine. TCM practices include theories, diagnosis and treatments such as herbal medicine, acupuncture and massage; often Qigong is also strongly affiliated with TCM. TCM is a form of so-called Oriental medicine, which includes other traditional East Asian medical systems such as traditional Japanese, and Korean medicine. Shirodhara, one of the techniques of Ayurveda Ayurveda (Devanagari: ) or Ayurvedic medicine is an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent. ... Chiropractic (from Greek chiros and praktikos meaning done by hand) is a health care profession whose purpose is to diagnose and treat mechanical disorders of the spine and musculoskeletal system with the intention of affecting the nervous system and improving health. ... Herbalism is a traditional medicinal or folk medicine practice based on the use of plants and plant extracts. ... Homeopathic remedy Rhus toxicodendron, derived from poison ivy. ... Naturopathic medicine (also known as naturopathy) is a school of medical philosophy and practice that seeks to improve health and treat disease chiefly by assisting the bodys innate capacity to recover from illness and injury. ... This article is about a type of complementary medicine practiced worldwide. ... Unaani (in Arabic, Hindustani, Persian, Pashtu, Urdu etc) means Greek. ... Terms and concepts in alternative medicine provides a glossary of quick and to the point definitions of important terms and concepts unique to alternative medicine (CAM). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Alternative medicine. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Complementary medicine refers to a group of therapeutic and diagnostic disciplines that exist largely outside the institutions where conventional health care is taught and provided. ... This is a glossary for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM), an umbrella term for a large number of practices that fall outside the scope of conventional medicine. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2157 KB) Summary Traditional Chinese Medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2592x1944, 2157 KB) Summary Traditional Chinese Medicine shop in Tsim Sha Tsui, Hong Kong. ... The Clock Tower in Tsim Sha Tsui is a famous landmark of Hong Kong. ... Simplified Chinese character (Simplified Chinese: or ; traditional Chinese: or ; pinyin: or ) is one of two standard sets of Chinese characters of the contemporary Chinese written language. ... Traditional Chinese characters refers to one of two standard sets of printed Chinese characters. ... Pinyin, more formally called Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... The term describes medical knowledge systems, which developed over centuries within various societies before the era of modern medicine; traditional medicines include medicines such as herbal medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, Acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine, South African Muti, Yoruba Ifá, as well as other medical knowledge and... Chinese materia medica (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the common name of Chinese materia medica subject. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Tui na (推拏 or 推拿, both pronounced tÅ«i ná), is a form of Chinese manipulative therapy often used in conjunction with acupuncture, moxibustion, Chinese herbalism and qigong. ... For the artist, see Qigong (artist). ... East Asia Geographic East Asia. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ...


TCM theory asserts that processes of the human body are interrelated and in constant interaction with the environment. Signs of disharmony help the TCM practitioner to understand, treat and prevent illness and disease.


In the West, traditional Chinese medicine is considered alternative medicine. In mainland China and Taiwan, TCM is considered an integral part of the health care system. For example, TCM treatments may be prescribed to counter the side effects of chemotherapy, cravings and withdrawal symptoms of drug addicts, and a variety of chronic conditions. Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Drug addiction, or dependency is the compulsive use of drugs, to the point where the user has no effective choice but to continue use. ... In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. ...


TCM theory is based on a number of philosophical frameworks including the theory of Yin-yang, the Five Elements, the human body Meridian system, Zang Fu organ theory, and others. Diagnosis and treatment are conducted with reference to these concepts. TCM does not operate within the contemporary scientific paradigm but some practitioners make efforts to bring practices into a biomedical and evidence-based medicine framework. Taoists Taijitu The concept of Yin Yang originates in ancient Chinese philosophy, most likely from the observations of day turning into night and night into day. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... The concept of meridians (Chinese: jing-luo 经络) arises from the techniques and doctrines of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), including acupuncture, acupressure, and qigong. ... To differentiate between western or eastern concepts of organs the first letter is capitalized (Liver, instead of liver, Spleen instead of spleen). ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ...

Contents

History

An old Chinese medical chart
An old Chinese medical chart

Much of the philosophy of traditional Chinese medicine derived from the same philosophical bases that contributed to the development of Taoist philosophy, and reflects the classical Chinese belief that individual human experiences express causative principles effective in the environment at all scales. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ...


During the golden age of his reign from 2698 to 2596 B.C, as a result of a dialogue with his minister Ch'i Pai (岐伯), the Yellow Emperor is supposed by Chinese tradition to have composed his Neijing Suwen (內經 素問) or Basic Questions of Internal Medicine, also known as the Huangdi Neijing. Modern scholarly opinion holds that the extant text of this title was compiled by an anonymous scholar no earlier than the Han dynasty just over two-thousand years ago. Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ... Ornamental jar from the Kingdom of Wu (222-280 CE) of the Three Kingdoms period. ... The Huangdi Neijing 黃帝內經 (Yellow Emperors Inner Classic) is likely the most seminal medical text of ancient China. ... The Huangdi Neijing 黃帝內經 ( Note, technically speaking, Thearch is more accurate than Emperor. ...


During the Han Dynasty, Zhang Zhongjing (張仲景), the Hippocrates of China, who was mayor of Chang-sha toward the end of the 2nd century AD, wrote a Treatise on Cold Damage, which contains the earliest known reference to Neijing Suwen. The Jin dynasty practitioner and advocate of acupuncture and moxibustion, Huang-fu Mi (215 - 282 AD), also quoted the Yellow Emperor in his Jia Yi Jing (甲乙經), ca. 265 AD. During the Tang dynasty, Wang Ping claimed to have located a copy of the originals of the Neijing Suwen, which he expanded and edited substantially. This work was revisited by an imperial commission during the 11th century AD. Zhang Zhongjing or Chang Chung Ching (Wades-Giles) (張仲景, 150 - 219) , also known as Zhang Ji (張機), was one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the later years of the Eastern Han era. ... For other uses, see Hippocrates (disambiguation). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Changsha (Simplified Chinese: 长沙; Traditional Chinese: 長沙; pinyin: Ch ng shā; Wade-Giles: Chang-sha) is the capital of Hunan, a province of Southcentral China, located on the lower reaches of Xiangjiang river, a branch of Chang Jiang. ... (1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century - other centuries) Events Roman Empire governed by the Five Good Emperors (96–180) – Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, Marcus Aurelius. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin: jìn, 265-420), one of the Six Dynasties, followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Moxibustion Moxibustion (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is an oriental medicine therapy utilizing moxa, or mugwort herb. ... Huang-fu Mi was a famous Chinese medical doctor who compiled the Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion (256-260 CE) during the Chin dynasty. ... Events Caracallas Roman troops massacre the population of Alexandria, Egypt. ... Events Carus becomes Roman emperor A new city was constructed in Fuzhou slightly south of the original city Ye. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ... Events Wei Yuandi abdicates, end of the China. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...


Classical Chinese Medicine (CCM) is notably different from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The Nationalist government elected to abandon and outlaw the practice of CCM as it did not want China to be left behind by scientific progress. For 30 years, CCM was forbidden in China and several people were prosecuted by the government for engaging in CCM. In the 1960's, Mao Zedong finally decided that the government could not continue to outlaw the use of CCM. He commissioned the top 10 doctors (M.D.'s) to take a survey of CCM and create a standardized format for its application. This standardized form is now known as TCM. Classical Chinese Medicine (CCM) is notably different than Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Mao redirects here. ...


Today, TCM is what is taught in nearly all those medical schools in China, most of Asia and Northern America, that teach traditional medical practices at all. To learn CCM typically one must be part of a family lineage of medicine. Recently, there has been a resurgence in interest in CCM in China, Europe and United States, as a specialty. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Northern America is a name for the parts of North America besides Mexico when Mexico is considered as Latin America. ...


Contact with Western culture and medicine has not displaced TCM. While there may be traditional factors involved in the persistent practice, two reasons are most obvious in the westward spread of TCM in recent decades. Firstly, TCM practices are believed by many to be very effective, sometimes offering palliative efficacy where the best practices of Western medicine fail, especially for routine ailments such as flu and allergies, and managing to avoid the toxicity of some chemically composed medicines. Secondly, TCM provides the only care available to ill people, when they cannot afford to try the western option. On the other hand, there is, for example, no longer a distinct branch of Chinese physics or Chinese biology. For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... Respiratory disease properly named influenza(say: in-floo-en-zah ). Some specific varities of influenza with a vaccination available are: A-New Caledonia, A-California, B-Shanghai. ... Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ...


TCM formed part of the barefoot doctor program in the People's Republic of China, which extended public health into rural areas. It is also cheaper to the PRC government, because the cost of training a TCM practitioner and staffing a TCM hospital is considerably less than that of a practitioner of Western medicine; hence TCM has been seen as an integral part of extending health services in China. Barefoot doctors were farmers who got basic medical training and worked in rural villages in China to bring health care to areas where urban-trained doctors would not settle. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


There is some notion that TCM requires supernatural forces or even cosmology to explain itself. However most historical accounts of the system will acknowledge it was invented by a culture of people that were already tired of listening to shamans trying to explain illnesses on evil spirits[1]; any reference to supernatural forces is usually the result of romantic translations or poor understanding and will not be found in the Taoist-inspired classics of acupuncture such as the Nèi Jīng or Zhēnjiǔ Dàchéng. The system's development has over its history been skeptically analysed extensively, and practice and development of it has waxed and waned over the centuries and cultures which it has travelled[2] - yet the system has still survived this far. It is true that the focus from the beginning has been on pragmatism, not necessarily understanding of the mechanisms of the actions - and that this has hindered its modern acceptance in the West. This, despite that there were times such as the early 18th Century when "acupuncture and moxa were a matter of course in polite European society"[3] The Huangdi Neijing 黃帝內經 ( Note, technically speaking, Thearch is more accurate than Emperor. ...


Timeline

The history of TCM can be summarized by a list of important doctors and books. nknown, Huáng Dì Nèi Jīng (黃帝內經)(Classic of Internal Medicine by Emperor Huang) - Sù Wèn (素問) & Líng Shū (靈樞). The earliest classic of TCM passed on to the present. The Huangdi Neijing 黃帝內經 ( Note, technically speaking, Thearch is more accurate than Emperor. ... Yellow Emperor The Yellow Emperor or Huang Di (Traditional Chinese: , Simplified Chinese: , pinyin: huángdì) is a legendary Chinese sovereign and cultural hero who is said to be the ancestor of all Han Chinese. ...

  • Warring States Period (5th century BC to 221 BC): Silk scrolls recording channels and collaterals, Zu Bi Shi Yi Mai Jiu Jing (Moxibustion Classic of the Eleven Channels of Legs and Arms), and Yin Yang Shi Yi Mai Jiu Jing (Moxibustion Classic on the Eleven Yin and Yang Channels)
  • Jìn Dynasty (265-420): Zhēn Jiǔ Jiǎ Yǐ Jīng (Systematic Classic of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) by Huángfǔ Mì (皇甫謐).
  • Tang Dynasty (June 18, 618–June 4, 907)
    • Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang (Emergency Formulas of a thousand gold worth) and Qian Jin Yi Fang (Supplement to the Formulas of a thousand gold worth) by Sūn Sīmiǎo (孫思邈)
    • Wai Tai Mi Yao (Arcane Essentials from the Imperial Library) by Wang Tao
  • Song Dynasty (960 – 1279):
    • Tóngrén Shūxué Zhēn Jiǔ Tú Jīng (Illustrated Manual of the Practice of Acupuncture and Moxibustion at (the Transmission) (and other) Acu-points, for use with the Bronze Figure) by Wáng Wéi Yī (王惟一).
    • Emergence of Wenbing School[citation needed]
  • Yuan Dynasty (1271 to 1368): Shísì Jīng Fā Huī (Exposition of the Fourteen Channels) by Huá Shòu (滑壽).
  • Ming Dynasty (1368 to 1644): Climax of acupuncture and Moxibustion. Many famous doctors and books. Only name a few:
    • Zhēnjiǔ Da Quan (A Complete Collection of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) by Xu Feng
    • Zhēnjiǔ Jù Yīng Fa Hui (鍼灸聚英??) (An Exemplary Collection of Acupuncture and Moxibustion and their Essentials) by Gāo Wǔ (高武)
    • Zhēnjiǔ Dàchéng (針灸大成)(Compendium of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) by Yang Jizhou, a milestone book. 1601CE, Yáng Jì Zhōu (楊繼洲).
    • Běncǎo Gāng Mù (本草綱目)(Compendium of Materia Medica) by Lǐ Shízhēn (李時珍), the most complete and comprehensive pre-modern herb book
    • Wen Yi Lun by Wu YouShing[citation needed]
  • Qing Dynasty(1644-1912):
    • Yi Zong Jin Jian (Golden Reference of the Medical Tradition) by Wu Quan, sponsored by the imperial.
    • Zhen Jiu Feng Yuan (The Source of Acupuncture and Moxibustion) by Li Xuechuan
    • Wen Zhen Lun Dz by Ye TianShi[citation needed]
    • Wen Bing Tiao Bian(Systematized Identification of Warm Disease) written by Wu Jutong, a Qing dynasty physician, in 1798 C.E.[4]

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ... Zhang Zhongjing or Chang Chung Ching (Wades-Giles) (張仲景, 150 - 219) , also known as Zhang Ji (張機), was one of the most eminent Chinese physicians during the later years of the Eastern Han era. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... SÅ«n SÄ«miÇŽo (孫思邈 in simplified Chinese, 孫思邈 in traditional Chinese) (581-682 CE) is a famous traditional Chinese medicine doctor of the Sui and Tang dynasty. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... Capital Dadu Language(s) Mongolian Chinese Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1260-1294 Kublai Khan  - 1333-1370 (Cont. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Compendium of Materia Medica (Chinese: 本草綱目; pinyin: BÄ›ncÇŽo Gāngmù) is a pharmaceutical text written by Li Shizhen (1518-1593 AD) during the Ming Dynasty of China. ... Li Shizhen (Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Shih-Chen) (1518 - 1593 CE, Ming Dynasty), was one of the greatest physicians and pharmacologists in Chinese history. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...

Theory

The foundation principles of Chinese medicine are not necessarily uniform, and are based on several schools of thought. Received TCM can be shown to be most influenced by Taoism, Buddhism, and Neo-Confucianism. Taoism (or Daoism) is the English name referring to a variety of related Chinese philosophical traditions and concepts. ... A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... Neo-Confucianism (Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ) is a form of Confucianism that was primarily developed during the Song Dynasty, but which can be traced back to Han Yu and Li Ao in the Tang Dynasty. ...


Since 1200 BC, Chinese academics of various schools have focused on the observable natural laws of the universe and their implications for the practical characterisation of humanity's place in the universe. In the I Ching and other Chinese literary and philosophical classics, they have described some general principles and their applications to health and healing: Alternative meaning: I Ching (monk) The I Ching (Traditional Chinese: 易經, pinyin y jīng; Cantonese IPA: jɪk6gɪŋ1; Cantonese Jyutping: jik6ging1; alternative romanizations include I Jing, Yi Ching, Yi King) is the oldest of the Chinese classic texts. ...

  • There are observable principles of constant change by which the Universe is maintained. Humans are part of the universe and cannot be separated from the universal process of change.
  • As a result of these apparently inescapable primordial principles, the Universe (and every process therein) tends to eventually balance itself. Optimum health results from living harmoniously, allowing the spontaneous process of change to bring one closer to balance. If there is no change (stagnation), or too much change (catastrophism), balance is lost and illnesses can result.
  • Everything is ultimately interconnected. Always use a holistic ("systemic" or "system-wide") approach when addressing imbalances.

One modern interpretation of Traditional Chinese medicine's "macro" or holistic view of disease is that well-balanced human bodies can resist most everyday bacteria and viruses, which are ubiquitous and quickly changing. Infection, while having a proximal cause of a microorganism, would have an underlying cause of an imbalance of some kind. TCM would target the theorized imbalance, not the infectious organism.[citation needed] A TCM practitioner might give very different herbal prescriptions to patients affected by the same type of affliction, because the different symptoms reported by the patients would indicate a different type of imbalance. There is a popular saying in China: Chinese medicine treats humans while western medicine treats diseases. Holism (from holon, a Greek word meaning entity) is the idea that the properties of a system cannot be determined or explained by the sum of its components alone. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...


Model of the body

Main article: TCM model of the body

Traditional Chinese medicine is largely based on the philosophical concept that the human body is a small universe with a set of complete and sophisticated interconnected systems, and that those systems usually work in balance to maintain the healthy function of the human body. The balance of yin and yang is considered with respect to qi ("breath", "life force", or "spiritual energy"), blood, jing ("kidney essence" or "semen"), other bodily fluids, the Five elements, emotions, and the soul or spirit (shen). TCM has a unique model of the body, notably concerned with the meridian system. Unlike the Western anatomical model which divides the physical body into parts, the Chinese model is more concerned with function. Thus, the TCM Spleen is not a specific piece of flesh, but an aspect of function related to transformation and transportation within the body, and of the mental functions of thinking and studying. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) model of the body is a culturally based philosophy of how the human body works. ... The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) model of the body is a culturally based philosophy of how the human body works. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Vietnamese name Vietnamese: In Chinese philosophy the yin and yang (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are generalized descriptions of the antitheses or mutual correlations in human perceptions of phenomena in the natural world, combining to create a unity of opposites in the theory of the Taiji. ... For other uses, see QI (disambiguation). ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Jīng (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: ching1) is the Chinese word for essence, specifically kidney essence. ... Bodily fluids listed below are found in the bodies of men and/or women. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus (breath). // The English word spirit comes from the Latin spiritus, meaning breath (compare spiritus asper), but also soul, courage, vigor, ultimately from a PIE root *(s)peis- (to blow). In the Vulgate, the Latin word translates Greek (πνευμα), pneuma (Hebrew (רוח) ruah), as... The TCM (traditional Chinese medicine) model of the body is a culturally based philosophy of how the human body works. ... The concept of meridians (Chinese: jing-luo 经络) arises from the techniques and doctrines of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), including acupuncture, acupressure, and qigong. ...


There are significant regional and philosophical differences between practitioners and schools which in turn can lead to differences in practice and theory.


Models of the body include:

The Yin/Yang and five element theories may be applied to a variety of systems other than the human body, whereas Zang Fu theory, meridian theory and three-jiao (Triple warmer) theories are more specific. Taoists Taijitu The concept of Yin Yang originates in ancient Chinese philosophy, most likely from the observations of day turning into night and night into day. ... Chinese Wood (木) | Fire (火) Earth (土) | Metal (金) | Water (水) Japanese Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Hinduism and Buddhism Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni / Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Five Elements (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ): wood, fire... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The concept of meridians (Chinese: jing-luo 经络) arises from the techniques and doctrines of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), including acupuncture, acupressure, and qigong. ... The identification of disease according to the Three Burners (San Jiao) was first described by Wu Ju Tong (吳鞠通, 1758-1836) in his book A Systematic Identification of Febrile Diseases. The system is often combined with Four Stages theory when diagnosing and treating an externally contracted disease caused by a wind...


There are also separate models that apply to specific pathological influences, such as the Four stages theory of the progression of warm diseases, the Six levels theory of the penetration of cold diseases, and the Eight principles system of disease classification. This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Six Levels are first heard of from Zhang Zhong-Jing in the Shang Han Lun from about 220 AD or about 1700 years ago. ... The Eight Principles are one of the basic ways Chinese medicine has to diagnose. ...


Diagnostics

Following a macro philosophy of disease, traditional Chinese diagnostics are based on overall observation of human symptoms rather than "micro" level laboratory tests. There are four types of TCM diagnostic methods: observe (望 wàng), hear and smell (聞 wén), ask about background (問 wèn) and touching (切 qiè).[5] The pulse-reading component of the touching examination is so important that Chinese patients may refer to going to the doctor as "Going to have my pulse felt"[6]


Traditional Chinese medicine is considered to require considerable diagnostic skill. A training period of years or decades is said to be necessary for TCM practitioners to understand the full complexity of symptoms and dynamic balances. According to one Chinese saying, A good (TCM) doctor is also qualified to be a good prime minister in a country. Modern practitioners in China often use a traditional system in combination with Western methods.[citation needed]


Techniques

  • Palpation of the patient's radial artery pulse (Pulse diagnosis) in six positions
  • Observation of the appearance of the patient's tongue
  • Observation of the patient's face
  • Palpation of the patient's body (especially the abdomen) for tenderness
  • Observation of the sound of the patient's voice
  • Observation of the surface of the ear
  • Observation of the vein on the index finger on small children
  • Comparisons of the relative warmth or coolness of different parts of the body
  • Observation of the patient's various odors
  • Asking the patient about the effects of his problem
  • Anything else that can be observed without instruments and without harming the patient

In human anatomy, the radial artery is the main blood vessel, with oxygenated blood, of the lateral aspect of the forearm. ... ˌ For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Face (disambiguation). ... For the human abdomen, see human abdomen. ... The human voice consists of sound made by a human using the vocal folds for talking, singing, laughing, crying and screaming. ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The Index finger The index finger, pointer finger or forefinger is the second digit of a human hand, located between the thumb and the middle finger. ...

Treatment

The below methods are considered as part of the Chinese medicine treatment:

  1. Chinese herbal medicine(中藥)
  2. Acupuncture and Moxibustion (針灸)
  3. Die-da or Tieh Ta (跌打)
  4. Chinese food therapy (食療)
  5. Tui na (推拿) - massage therapy
  6. Qigong (氣功) and related breathing and meditation exercise
  7. Physical exercise such as T'ai Chi Ch'uan (太極拳) and other Chinese martial arts
  8. Mental health therapy such as Feng shui (風水) and Chinese astrology

Specific treatment methods are grouped into these branches. Cupping and Gua Sha (刮痧) are part of Tui Na. Auriculotherapy (耳燭療法) comes under the heading of Acupuncture and Moxibustion. Die-da or Tieh Ta (跌打) are practitioners who specialize in healing trauma injury such as bone fractures, sprains, and bruises. Some of these specialists may also use or recommend other disciplines of Chinese medical therapies (or Western medicine in modern times) if serious injury is involved. Such practice of bone-setting is not common in the West. Chinese materia medica (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the common name of Chinese materia medica subject. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... Moxibustion Moxibustion (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is an oriental medicine therapy utilizing moxa, or mugwort herb. ... Chinese food therapy (Simplified Chinese: 食疗; Traditional Chinese: 食療; pinyin: Shí Liáo) is a practice of healing using natural foods instead of medications. ... Tui na (推拏 or 推拿, both pronounced tÅ«i ná), is a form of Chinese manipulative therapy often used in conjunction with acupuncture, moxibustion, Chinese herbalism and qigong. ... For the artist, see Qigong (artist). ... Tai Chi Chuan or Taijiquan (Chinese: 太極拳; pinyin: ; literally supreme ultimate fist), commonly known as Tai Chi, Tai Chi, or Taiji, is a nei chia (internal) Chinese martial art which is known for the claims of health and longevity benefits made by its practitioners and... Kung fu redirects here. ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ... Chinese astrology is the divination of the future from the Chinese calendar, which is based on astronomy, and ancient Chinese philosophy. ... Cupping is an activity that started a short time ago, but is rapidly growing in popularity. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Auriculotherapy - not to be confused with auricular therapy using needles (ear acupuncture) - is a form of alternative medicine based on the idea that the ear is a microsystem, meaning that the entire body is represented on the auricle (or auricula, or pinna - the outer portion of the ear) in a... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ...


Branches

Traditional Chinese medicine has many branches, the most prominent of which are the Jingfang (经方学派) and Wenbing(温病学派) schools. The Jingfang school relies on the principles contained in the Chinese medicine classics of the Han and Tang dynasty, such as Huangdi Neijing and Shenlong Bencaojing. The more recent Wenbing school's practise is largely based on more recent books including Compendium of Materia Medica from Ming and Qing Dynasty, although in theory the school follows the teachings of the earlier classics as well. Intense debates between these two schools lasted until the Cultural Revolution in mainland China, when Wenbing school used political power to suppress the opposing school.[citations needed] Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... The Huangdi Neijing 黃帝內經 ( Note, technically speaking, Thearch is more accurate than Emperor. ... The Compendium of Materia Medica (Chinese: 本草綱目; pinyin: BÄ›ncÇŽo Gāngmù) is a pharmaceutical text written by Li Shizhen (1518-1593 AD) during the Ming Dynasty of China. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Scientific view

The question of efficacy

Much of the scientific research on TCM has focused on acupuncture. Currently, there is no scientific consensus as to whether acupuncture is effective or only has value as a placebo. Evidence-based reviews of existing clinical trials, conducted by the Cochrane Collaboration and Bandolier, have suggested efficacy for idiopathic headache[1] and post-operative nausea[2][3], but for most conditions have concluded a lack of effectiveness or an insufficiency of well-conducted clinical trials.[4] The World Health Organisation (WHO), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the American Medical Association (AMA) have also commented on acupuncture[5][6]. Though these groups disagree on the standards and interpretation of the evidence for acupuncture, there is general agreement that it is relatively safe, and that further investigation is warranted. The 1997 NIH Consensus Development Conference Statement on acupuncture concluded: A scientific method or process is considered fundamental to the scientific investigation and acquisition of new knowledge based upon physical evidence. ... Acupuncture chart from Hua Shou (fl. ... For other uses, see Placebo (disambiguation). ... Evidence-based medicine (EBM) or scientific medicine is an attempt to apply more uniformly the standards of evidence gained from the scientific method to certain aspects of medical practice. ... The Cochrane Collaboration developed in response to Archie Cochranes call for systematic, up-to-date reviews (currently known as systematic reviews) of all relevant randomized clinical trials of health care. ... Bandolier is an independent online electronic journal about evidence-based healthcare, written by Oxford scientists. ... A headache (cephalgia in medical terminology) is a condition of pain in the head; sometimes neck or upper back pain may also be interpreted as a headache. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... For other meanings of the acronym WHO, see WHO (disambiguation) WHO flag Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the World Health Organization (WHO) is an agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ... The American Medical Association (AMA) is the largest association of medical doctors in the United States. ...

...promising results have emerged, for example, showing efficacy of acupuncture in adult postoperative and chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and in postoperative dental pain. There are other situations such as addiction, stroke rehabilitation, headache, menstrual cramps, tennis elbow, fibromyalgia, myofascial pain, osteoarthritis, low back pain, carpal tunnel syndrome, and asthma, in which acupuncture may be useful as an adjunct treatment or an acceptable alternative or be included in a comprehensive management program. Further research is likely to uncover additional areas where acupuncture interventions will be useful.

Much less scientific research has been done on Chinese herbal medicines, which comprise much of TCM. Some doubts about the efficacy of many TCM treatments are based on their apparent basis in inductive reasoning — for example, that plants with heart-shaped leaves will help the heart, or that ground bones of the tiger can function as a stimulant because tigers are energetic animals. While the doctrine of signatures does underlie the selection of many of the ingredients of herbal medicines, this does not necessarily mean that some substances may not (perhaps by coincidence) possess attributed medicinal properties. For example, it is possible that while herbs may have been originally selected on erroneous grounds, only those that were deemed effective have remained in use. Potential barriers to scientific research include the large amount of money and expertise required to conduct double-blind clinical trials, and the lack of financial incentive from the ability to obtain patents. Traditional practitioners usually have no philosophical objections to scientific studies on the effectiveness of treatments.[citation needed] Aristotle appears first to establish the mental behaviour of induction as a category of reasoning. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... The doctrine of signatures refers to two separate concepts. ... The double blind is ray charles is ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesis ray charlesof the scientific method, used to prevent research... In health care, including medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a process in which a medicine or other medical treatment is tested for its safety and effectiveness, often in comparison to existing treatments. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ...


Pharmacological compounds have been isolated from some Chinese herbal medicines; Chinese wormwood (qinghao) was the source for the discovery of artemisinin, which is now used worldwide to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria, and is also under investigation as an anti-cancer agent. Many Chinese herbal medicines are marketed as dietary supplements in the West, and there is considerable controversy over their effectiveness, safety, and regulatory status. For example, ma huang, or ephedra, which contains ephedrine and pseudoephedrine, is restricted in the United States, due to the risk of adverse impact on the cardiovascular system and some deaths due to consumption of extracts in high doses. Binomial name Artemisia annua L. Artemisia annua, also known as Sweet Wormwood, Sweet Annie, or Chinese wormwood (Chinese: ; pinyin: qīnghāo), is a common type of wormwood that grows throughout the world. ... Artemisinin (IPA: ) is a drug used to treat multi-drug resistant strains of falciparum malaria. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Ephedra in medicine. ... Ephedrine (EPH) is a sympathomimetic amine similar in structure to the synthetic derivatives amphetamine and methamphetamine. ... Pseudoephedrine (commonly abbreviated as PSE) is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ... The circulatory system or cardiovascular system is the organ system which circulates blood around the body of most animals. ...


Safety

Acupressure and acupuncture are largely accepted to be safe from results gained through medical studies. Several cases of pneumothorax, nerve damage and infection have been reported as resulting from acupuncture treatments. These adverse events are extremely rare especially when compared to other medical interventions, and were found to be due to practitioner negligence. Dizziness and bruising will sometimes result from acupuncture treatment. “Collapsed lung” redirects here. ...


Some governments have decided that Chinese acupuncture and herbal treatments should only be administered by persons who have been educated to apply them safely. "A key finding is that the risk of adverse events is linked to the length of education of the practitioner, with practitioners graduating from extended Traditional Chinese Medicine education programs experiencing about half the adverse event rate of those practitioners who have graduated from short training programs." [7]


Certain Chinese herbal medicines involve a risk of allergic reaction and in rare cases involve a risk of poisoning. Cases of acute and chronic poisoning due to treatment through ingested Chinese medicines are found in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan, with a few deaths occurring each year. Many of these deaths do occur however, when patients self prescribe herbs or take unprocessed versions of toxic herbs. The raw and unprocessed form of aconite, or fuzi is the most common cause of poisoning. The use of aconite in Chinese herbal medicine is usually limited to processed aconite, in which the toxicity is denatured by heat treatment. Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... For other uses, see Poison (disambiguation). ... Species About 60: see text Aconitum is a genus of plants belonging to the buttercup family Ranunculaceae. ...


Furthermore, potentially toxic and carcinogenic compounds such as arsenic and cinnabar are sometimes prescribed as part of a medicinal mixture or used on the basis of "using poison to cure poison". Unprocessed herbals are sometimes adulterated with chemicals that may alter the intended effect of a herbal preparation or prescription. Much of these are being prevented with more empirical studies of Chinese herbals and tighter regulation regarding the growing, processing, and prescription of various herbals. In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... Cinnabar, sometimes written cinnabarite, is a name applied to red mercury(II) sulfide (HgS), or native vermilion, the common ore of mercury. ...


In the United States, the Chinese herb má huáng (麻黄; lit. "hemp yellow") — known commonly in the West by its Latin name Ephedra — was banned in 2004 by the FDA, although, the FDA's final ruling exempted traditional Asian preparations of Ephedra from the ban. The Ephedra ban was meant to combat the use of this herb in Western weight loss products, a usage that directly conflicts with traditional Asian uses of the herb. There were no cases of Ephedra based fatalities with patients using traditional Asian preparations of the herb for its traditionally intended uses. This ban was ordered lifted in April 2005 by a Utah federal court judge. However, the ruling was appealed and on August 17, 2006, the Appeals Court upheld the FDA's ban of ephedra, finding that the 133,000-page administrative record compiled by the FDA supported the agency's finding that ephedra posed an unreasonable risk to consumers. Ephedra in medicine. ... “FDA” redirects here. ...


Many Chinese medicines have different names for the same ingredient depending on location and time, but worse yet, ingredients with vastly different medical properties have shared similar or even same names. For example, there was a report that mirabilite/sodium sulphate decahydrate (芒硝) was misrecognized as sodium nitrite (牙硝)[8], resulting in a poisoned victim[9][10]. In some Chinese medical texts, both names are interchangeable[11]. Chinese herbal medicine authorities are working towards improved standards in this area [12]. Mirabilite, also known as Glaubers salt, is a hydrous sodium sulfate mineral: Na2SO4·10H2O. It is a vitreous, colorless to white monoclinic mineral which forms as an evaporite from sodium sulfate bearing brines. ... Glaubers salt, also sal mirabilis, is the name of sodium sulfate decahydrate, Na2SO4•10H2O. It is named after Johann Glauber, who discovered it in the 17th century. ... Sodium nitrite, with chemical formula NaNO2, is used as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. ...


Relationship with Western medicine

Within China, there has been a great deal of cooperation between TCM practitioners and Western medicine, especially in the field of ethnomedicine. Chinese herbal medicine includes many compounds which are unused by Western medicine, and there is great interest in those compounds as well as the theories which TCM practitioners use to determine which compound to prescribe. For their part, advanced TCM practitioners in China are interested in statistical and experimental techniques which can better distinguish medicines that work from those that do not. One result of this collaboration has been the creation of peer reviewed scientific journals and medical databases on traditional Chinese medicine. Ethnomedicine is a sub-field of medical anthropology and deals with the study of traditional medicines: not only those that have relevant written sources (e. ...


Outside of China, the relationship between TCM and Western medicine is more contentious. While more and more medical schools are including classes on alternative medicine in their curricula, older Western doctors and scientists are far more likely than their Chinese counterparts to skeptically view TCM as archaic pseudoscience and superstition. This skepticism can come from a number of sources. For one, TCM in the West tends to be advocated either by Chinese immigrants or by those that have lost faith in conventional medicine. Many people in the West have a stereotype of the East as mystical and unscientific [citation needed]which attracts those in the West who have lost hope in science and repels those who believe in scientific explanations. There have also been experiences in the West with unscrupulous or well-meaning but improperly-trained "TCM practitioners" who have done people more harm than good in many instances. See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that treat patients. ...


As an example of the different roles of TCM in China and the West, a person with a broken bone in the West (i.e. a routine, "straightforward" condition) would almost never see a Chinese medicine practitioner or visit a martial arts school to get the bone set, whereas this is routine in China. As another example, most TCM hospitals in China have electron microscopes and many TCM practitioners know how to use one. Hawaiian State Grappling Championships. ... An electron microscope is a type of microscope that uses electrons as a way to illuminate and create an image of a specimen. ...


Most Chinese in China do not see traditional Chinese medicine and Western medicine as being in conflict. In cases of emergency and crisis situations, there is generally no reluctance in using conventional Western medicine. At the same time, belief in Chinese medicine remains strong in the area of maintaining health. As a simple example, you see a Western doctor if you have acute appendicitis, but you do exercises or take Chinese herbs to keep your body healthy enough to prevent appendicitis, or to recover more quickly from the surgery. Very few practitioners of Western medicine in China reject traditional Chinese medicine, and most doctors in China will use some elements of Chinese medicine in their own practice. Appendicitis (or epityphlitis) is a condition characterized by inflammation of the appendix[1]. While mild cases may resolve without treatment, most require removal of the inflamed appendix, either by laparotomy or laparoscopy. ...


A degree of integration between Chinese and Western medicine also exists in China. For instance, at the Shanghai cancer hospital, a patient may be seen by a multidisciplinary team and be treated concurrently with radiation surgery, Western drugs and a traditional herbal formula. A report by the Victorian state government in Australia on TCM education in China noted: VIC redirects here. ...

Graduates from TCM university courses are able to diagnose in Western medical terms, prescribe Western pharmaceuticals, and undertake minor surgical procedures. In effect, they practise TCM as a specialty within the broader organisation of Chinese health care. [13]

In other countries it is not necessarily the case that traditional Chinese and Western medicine are practiced concurrently by the same practitioner. TCM education in Australia, for example, does not qualify a practitioner to provide diagnosis in Western medical terms, prescribe scheduled pharmaceuticals, nor perform surgical procedures. [14] While that jurisdiction notes that TCM education does not qualify practitioners to prescribe Western drugs, a separate legislative framework is being constructed to allow registered practitioners to prescribe Chinese herbs that would otherwise be classified as poisons. [15]


It is worth noting that the practice of Western medicine in China is somewhat different from that in the West. In contrast to the West, there are relatively few allied health professionals to perform routine medical procedures or to undertake procedures such as massage or physical therapy. The Allied health professions are those clinical health professions distinct from the medical profession and nursing profession. ... A medical procedure is a course of action intended to achieve a result in the care of patients, used by medical or paramedical personnel. ... Massage in Tarifa, Spain. ... Physical therapy (or physiotherapy[1]) is the provision of services to people and populations to develop, maintain and restore maximum movement and functional ability throughout the lifespan. ...


In addition, Chinese practitioners of Western medicine have been less impacted by trends in the West that encourage patient empowerment, to see the patient as an individual rather than a collection of parts, and to do nothing when medically appropriate. Chinese practitioners of Western medicine have been widely criticized for over-prescribing drugs such as corticosteroids or antibiotics for common viral infections. It is likely that these medicines, which are generally known to be useless against viral infections, would provide less relief to the patient than traditional Chinese herbal remedies. In physiology, corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ...


Traditional Chinese diagnostics and treatments are often much cheaper than Western methods which require high-tech equipment or extensive chemical manipulation.


TCM doctors often criticize Western doctors for paying too much attention to laboratory tests and showing insufficient concern for the overall feelings of patients. [citation needed]


Modern TCM practitioners will refer patients to Western medical facilities if a medical condition is deemed to have put the body too far out of "balance" for traditional methods to remedy.


Animal products

Dried seahorses like these are extensively used in traditional medicine in China and elsewhere
Dried seahorses like these are extensively used in traditional medicine in China and elsewhere

Animal products are used in certain Chinese formulae, which may present a problem for vegans and vegetarians. If informed of such restrictions, practitioners can often use alternative substances. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Note: this edit is a sharpened version of Image:Seahorse Skeleton Macro 8. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 411 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Note: this edit is a sharpened version of Image:Seahorse Skeleton Macro 8. ... This article is about the animal. ... The term describes medical knowledge systems, which developed over centuries within various societies before the era of modern medicine; traditional medicines include medicines such as herbal medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, Acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine, South African Muti, Yoruba Ifá, as well as other medical knowledge and... Hens kept in cramped conditions — the avoidance of animal suffering is the primary motivation of people who become vegans A vegan is a person who avoids the ingestion or use of animal products. ... For animals adapted to eat primarily plants, sometimes referred to as vegetarian animals, see Herbivore. ...


The use of endangered species is controversial within TCM. In particular, is the belief that tiger penis and rhinoceros horn are aphrodisiacs (although the traditional use of rhinoceros horn is to reduce fever.)[7] This depletes these species in the wild. Medicinal use is also having a major impact on the populations of seahorses.[16] The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rhinoceros (disambiguation). ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... This article is about the animal. ...


Shark fin soup is traditionally regarded as beneficial for health in East Asia. According to Compendium of Materia Medica, it's good at strengthening the waist, supplementing vital energy, nourishing blood, invigorating kidney and lung and improving digestion. However, such claims are not supported by scientific evidence.[17]. Furthermore, they have been found to contain high levels of mercury, which is known for its ill effects. Shark fin soup A dried shark fin prepared for cooking Shark fins and other shark parts for sale in a Chinese pharmacy Shark fin soup (Chinese: 魚翅; Jyutping: jyu4 ci3, Mandarin: (Pinyin) Yú Chì / (Wade-Giles) Yü Chih4 ) is a Chinese delicacy commonly served as part of a Chinese feast...


The animal rights movement notes that a few traditional Chinese medicinal solutions use bear bile. To extract maximum amounts of the bile, the bears are often fitted with a sort of permanent catheter. The treatment itself and especially the extraction of the bile is very painful, causes damage to the intestines of the bear, and often kills the bears. However, due to international attention on the issues surrounding its harvesting, bile is now rarely used by practitioners outside of China, gallbladders from butchered cattle are recommended as a substitute for this ingredient[7] Bensky, Clavey and Stoger's comprehensive Chinese herbal text deals with substances derived from endangered species in an appendix, with an emphasis on recommending alternatives. Animal liberation redirects here. ... A bile bear in Huizhou Farm, Vietnam. ... Catheter disassembled In medicine, a catheter is a tube that can be inserted into a body cavity, duct or vessel. ...


Opposition

Starting from late 19th century, some politicians and Chinese scholars with background in Western medicine have been trying to phase out TCM totally in China.


The attempts to curtail TCM in China always provoke large scale debates but have never completely succeeded. Still, many researchers and practitioners of TCM in China and the United States argue the need to document TCM's efficacy with controlled, double blind experiments. These efforts remain hampered by the difficulty of creating effective placebos for acupuncture studies.[citations needed]


The attempt to phase out TCM in Japan partially succeeded after Meiji Restoration. However, in the 1920s a movement emerged that attempted to restore traditional medical practice, especially acupuncture. This movement, known as the Meridian Therapy movement (Keiraku Chiryo in Japanese) persists to this day. Furthermore, many Japanese physicians continue to practice Kampo, a form of traditional medicine based on the Shang Han Lun tradition of Chinese herbal medicine.[citations needed] The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Kampō (or Kanpō, 漢方) medicine is the Japanese study and adaptation of Traditional Chinese medicine. ... The term describes medical knowledge systems, which developed over centuries within various societies before the era of modern medicine; traditional medicines include medicines such as herbal medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, Acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine, South African Muti, Yoruba Ifá, as well as other medical knowledge and...


Dose of Modernity

On September 6, 2007, Abraham Chan, President of the Modernized Chinese Medicine International Association in Hong Kong announced that Traditional Chinese Medicine is getting a modern dose by transforming the plants and ingredients to soluble granules and tablets. He said that the pills and sachets used 675 plant and fungi ingredients and about 25 from non-plant sources such as snakes, geckos, toads, bees and earthworms.[8] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... Granule is a generic term used for a small particle or grain. ... For other meanings please see Tablet (disambiguation) Common disk-shaped pills A pharmacological tablet is a medicinal or other active substance mixed with binder powders and pressed into a tablet form. ... ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Families Acrochordidae Aniliidae Anomalepididae Anomochilidae Atractaspididae Boidae Bolyeriidae Colubridae Cylindrophiidae Elapidae Hydrophiidae Leptotyphlopidae Loxocemidae Pythonidae Tropidophiidae Typhlopidae Uropeltidae Viperidae Xenopeltidae Snakes are cold blooded legless reptiles closely related to lizards, which share the order Squamata. ... This article describes gecko lizards. ... Genera Ansonia Atelopus Bufo Capensibufo Crepidophryne Dendrophryniscus Didynamipus Frostius Laurentophryne Leptophryne Melanophryniscus Mertensophryne Nectophryne Nectophrynoides Nimbaphrynoides Oreophrynella Osornophryne Pedostibes Pelophryne Peltophryne Pseudobufo Rhamphophryne Werneria Wolterstorffina The true toads are amphibians in the Bufonidae family. ... Families Andrenidae Anthophoridae Apidae Colletidae Ctenoplectridae Halictidae Heterogynaidae Megachilidae Melittidae Oxaeidae Sphecidae Stenotritidae This article is about the insect. ... Earthworm is the common reference for the larger members of the Oligochaeta (which is either a class or subclass depending on the author) in the phylum Annelida. ...


See also

The Compendium of Materia Medica (Chinese: 本草綱目; pinyin: BÄ›ncÇŽo Gāngmù) is a pharmaceutical text written by Li Shizhen (1518-1593 AD) during the Ming Dynasty of China. ... Chinese materia medica (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), is the common name of Chinese materia medica subject. ... characteristic little black pills of Chinese patent medicine Chinese patent medicine (Traditional Chinese: 中成藥, Simplified Chinese: 中成药, pinyin: zhōng chéng yào) is a kind of Chinese herbology. ... Huà Tuó was a famous Chinese physician during the Eastern Han and Three Kingdoms era. ... Pharmacognosy is the study of medicines from natural sources. ... Since the founding of the Peoples Republic of China, the goal of health programs has been to provide care to every member of the population and to make maximum use of limited health-care personnel, equipment, and financial resources. ... For the artist, see Qigong (artist). ... Kampō (or Kanpō, 漢方) medicine is the Japanese study and adaptation of Traditional Chinese medicine. ... Traditional Korean medicine (Hangul: 한의학, Hanja: 韓醫學) developed with the influence of Chinese medical techniques and procedures. ... The term describes medical knowledge systems, which developed over centuries within various societies before the era of modern medicine; traditional medicines include medicines such as herbal medicine, Ayurvedic medicine, Unani medicine, Acupuncture, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traditional Ayurvedic Medicine, South African Muti, Yoruba Ifá, as well as other medical knowledge and... Traditional Mongolian medicine developed over many years among the Mongolian people. ... The Doctor of Acupuncture & Oriental Medicine (D.A.O.M.) is the highest degree awarded to practitioners of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) or other acupuncture traditions in the US. Categories: | ... Fēng Shuǐ (風水 – literally, wind and water pronounced fung shuway), which may be more than 3000 years old, is the ancient practice of placement to achieve harmony with the environment. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ "It could be said that the theory of the 5 Elements, and its application to medicine, marks the beginning of what one might call 'scientific' medicine and a departure from Shamanism. No longer do healers look for a supernatural cause of disease: they now observe Nature and, with a combination of the inductive and deductive method, the set out to find patterns within it and, by extension, apply these in the interpretation of disease" - from an introductory textbook used by many acupuncture courses - Maciocia, Giovanni (1989). The Foundations of Chinese Medicine. Churchill Livingstone, p.16. ISBN 0-443-03980-1. 
  2. ^ Needham, Joseph; Lu Gwei-Djen (1980). Celestial Lancets. Cambridge University Press, pp.69-170, 262-302. ISBN 0-521-21513-7. 
  3. ^ Needham et al[1980], p. 296
  4. ^ http://www.pacificcollege.edu/alumni/newsletters/winter2004/damp_warmth.html
  5. ^ Maciocia, Giovanni (1989). The Foundations of Chinese Medicine. Churchill Livingstone. 
  6. ^ Kaptchuk, Ted (2000). Chinese Medicine: The Web That Has No Weaver, 2nd. 
  7. ^ a b Bensky, Clavey and Stoger (2004). Chinese Herbal Medicine Material Medica (3rd Edition). Eastland Press. 
  8. ^ Reuters, Chinese medicine gets a dose of modernity

Imprint of a medical publishing company owned by Elsevier Ltd, but previously owned by Harcourt and Pearsons. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...

References

  • Chang, Stephen T. The Great Tao; Tao Longevity; ISBN 0-942196-01-5 Stephen T. Chang
  • Kaptchuck, Ted J., The Web That Has No Weaver; Congdon & Weed; ISBN 0-8092-2933-1Z
  • Jin, Guanyuan, Xiang, Jia-Jia and Jin, Lei: Clinical Reflexology of Acupuncture and Moxibustion; Beijing Science and Technology Press, Beijing, 2004. ISBN 7-5304-2862-4
  • Maciocia, Giovanni, The Foundations of Chinese Medicine: A Comprehensive Text for Acupuncturists and Herbalists; Churchill Livingstone; ISBN 0-443-03980-1
  • Ni, Mao-Shing, The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Medicine : A New Translation of the Neijing Suwen with Commentary; Shambhala, 1995; ISBN 1-57062-080-6
  • Holland, Alex Voices of Qi: An Introductory Guide to Traditional Chinese Medicine; North Atlantic Books, 2000; ISBN 1-55643-326-3
  • Unschuld, Paul U., Medicine in China: A History of Ideas; University of California Press, 1985; ISBN 0-520-05023-1
  • Scheid, Volker, Chinese Medicine in Contemporary China: Plurality and Synthesis; Duke University Press, 2002; ISBN 0822328577
  • Qu, Jiecheng, When Chinese Medicine Meets Western Medicine - History and Ideas (in Chinese); Joint Publishing (H.K.), 2004; ISBN 962-04-2336-4
  • Chan, T.Y. (2002). Incidence of herb-induced aconitine poisoning in Hong Kong: impact of publicity measures to promote awareness among the herbalists and the public. Drug Saf. 25:823–828.
  • Benowitz, Neal L. (2000) Review of adverse reaction reports involving ephedrine-containing herbal products. Submitted to U.S. Food and Drug Administration. January 17.
  • Porkert, Manfred The Theoretical Foundations of Chinese Medicine MIT Press, 1974 ISBN 0-262-16058-7
  • Hongyi, L., Hua, T., Jiming, H., Lianxin, C., Nai, L., Weiya, X., Wentao, M. (2003) Perivascular Space: Possible anatomical substrate for the meridian. Journal of Complimentary and Alternative Medicine. 9:6 (2003) pp851-859

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ...

Schools of Classical Chinese Medicine

  • Classical Chinese Medicine School at National College of Natural Medicine - Masters of Science in Oriental Medicine (MSOM) degree that offers a four-year program that educates students in the practice of Oriental medicine as illustrated by Chinese medical classics in the topics of acupuncture, Chinese herbal medicine, qi gong, tui na and more. (Portland, OR)

Nickname: Location of Portland in Multnomah County and the state of Oregon Coordinates: , Country State Counties Multnomah County Incorporated February 8, 1851 Government  - Mayor Tom Potter[1]  - Commissioners Sam Adams Randy Leonard Dan Saltzman Erik Sten  - Auditor Gary Blackmer Area  - Total 376. ...

Schools of Traditional Chinese Medicine

  • Midwest College of Oriental Medicine - offers a combined Bachelor of Science in Nutrition and Master's in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), acupuncture certification, and a new doctoral program.
  • New England School of Acupuncture - acupuncture school, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), Chinese herbal medicine, Chinese medical qigong, integrative medicine, and Japanese acupuncture (Newton, MA)
  • Pacific Rim College - School of Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine - Diploma in Acupuncture, Diploma in Acupuncture and Oriental Medicine, Doctor of Traditional Chinese Medicine. (Victoria, British Columbia, Canada)
  • Southwest Acupuncture College, Boulder, CO - an accredited post-graduate college that offers a Master's of Science in Oriental Medicine, which includes Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, qi gong, shiatsu, tui na, tai ji, and clinical experience. The Master's degree is an extensive, four-year, 3000-plus-hour program (Boulder, CO)
  • Yo San University of Traditional Chinese Medicine - acupuncture, herbal medicine, chi development (Los Angeles, California)

Berkeley is a city in the San Francisco Bay Area of northern United States. ... Roseville is a city located in Ramsey County, Minnesota, just north of Saint Paul. ... This article is about the city in California. ... ... Newton, Massachusetts is a suburb west of Boston. ... The Oregon College of Oriental Medicine (OCOM), located in Portland, Oregon, United States, offers masters and postgraduate clinical doctoral degrees in acupuncture and Oriental medicine. ... For the artist, see Qigong (artist). ... Shiatsu (指圧 Japanese from shi, meaning finger, and atsu, meaning pressure) is a traditional Japanese hands-on therapy based on anatomical and physiological theory and is regulated as a licensed medical therapy with the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan. ... Tui na (推拏 or 推拿, both pronounced tÅ«i ná), is a form of Chinese manipulative therapy often used in conjunction with acupuncture, moxibustion, Chinese herbalism and qigong. ... Mayor Tom Potter County Multnomah County Population (2003) 538,544 Time zone Pacific (UTC−8) Portland is the largest city in Oregon, and county seat of Multnomah County. ... Qigong (氣功 - Pinyin: qìgōng, Wade-Giles: chi kung) is an increasingly popular aspect of Chinese medicine. ... Shiatsu (指圧 Japanese from shi, meaning finger, and atsu, meaning pressure) is a traditional Japanese hands-on therapy based on anatomical and physiological theory and is regulated as a licensed medical therapy with the Ministry of Health and Welfare in Japan. ... Tui na (推拏 or 推拿, both pronounced tÅ«i ná), is a form of Chinese manipulative therapy often used in conjunction with acupuncture, moxibustion, Chinese herbalism and qigong. ... Pearl Street Mall in Downtown Boulder Boulder (40n01, 105w16 MST) is a city located in Boulder County, Colorado, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 94,673. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ...

Online databases

  • 中醫檔案區("Chinese medicine place") Classical texts in public domain.
  • 電子中醫藥古籍文獻("Electronic old Chinese Medicine books and texts") Classical texts for FTP

hi



bye


  Results from FactBites:
 
Macquarie St Clinic of Acupuncture & Chinese Medicine - Traditional Chinese Medicine (392 words)
Traditional Chinese Medicine is based on theories of systematic correspondence (such as Yin and Yang, Five Elements etc.) its techniques in DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS are unique to this form of medicine.
TCM should also be considered as a preventative approach to maintain a healthy and trouble free lifestyle.
All AACMA accredited TCM practitioners abide by a strict ethical and hygienic protocol.
Traditional Chinese Medicine, Acupuncture & Chinese Herbal Medicine Build Health (1028 words)
TCM is based on the concept of Qi (pronounced chee) which is the life force or vital energy.
Chinese herbal medicine is as ancient as acupuncture and is a major aspect of traditional Chinese medicine.
Chinese herbs are usually combined into formulas containing anywhere from 3 to 20 herbs.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m