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Encyclopedia > Trade union
The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators
The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators

A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. The trade union, through its leadership, bargains with the employer on behalf of union members (rank and file members) and negotiates labour contracts with employers. This may include the negotiation of wages, work rules, complaint procedures, rules governing hiring, firing and promotion of workers, benefits, workplace safety and policies. The agreements negotiated by the union leaders are binding on the rank and file members and the employer and in some cases on other non-member workers. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Massachusetts militiamen with fixed bayonets surround a parade of peaceful strikers Flyer distributed in Lawrence, September 1912 The Lawrence textile strike was a strike of immigrant workers in Lawrence, Massachusetts in 1912 led by the Industrial Workers of the World. ... For the American pop-punk band, see Cartel (band). ... Rank-and-file is a term that means any of several things: The rank-and-file of an organisation comprises its ordinary members, as opposed to officers or managers. ...


Most unions claim a right of exclusivity. The union has the authority to determine who may be a member of the union and who may not. Most unions assert a right to mandate that only its members, and no others, may be permitted to work at certain jobs[citation needed]. Furthermore, the union contract is exclusive with regard to the employer, an employer is generally not permitted to seek out the services of another labor union or hire another competing labor union even if he or she is dissatisfied with the performance of the current labor union.


These organizations may comprise individual workers, professionals, past workers, or the unemployed. The most common, but by no means only, purpose of these organizations is "maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment"[1] In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... A professional does something as a profession, or receives payment for some activity. ... Retirement is the status of a worker who has stopped working. ... Unemployment rates in the United States. ... This article is about work. ...


Over the last three hundred years, many trade unions have developed into a number of forms, influenced by differing political and economic regimes. The immediate objectives and activities of trade unions vary, but may include:

  • Provision of benefits to members: Early trade unions, like Friendly Societies, often provided a range of benefits to insure members against unemployment, ill health, old age and funeral expenses. In many developed countries, these functions have been assumed by the state; however, the provision of professional training, legal advice and representation for members is still an important benefit of trade union membership.
  • Collective bargaining: Where trade unions are able to operate openly and are recognized by employers, they may negotiate with employers over wages and working conditions.
  • Industrial action: Trade unions may enforce strikes or resistance to lockouts in furtherance of particular goals.
  • Political activity: Trade unions may promote legislation favorable to the interests of their members or workers as a whole. To this end they may pursue campaigns, undertake lobbying, or financially support individual candidates or parties (such as the Labour Party in Britain) for public office.

Contents

A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society or fraternal organization) is a mutual association for insurance_like purposes, and often, especially in the past, serving ceremonial and friendship purposes also. ... CIA figures for world unemployment rates, 2006 Unemployment is the state in which a person is without work, available to work, and is currently seeking work. ... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... A wage is a compensation which workers receive in exchange for their labor. ... Industrial action (UK) or job action (US) refers collectively to any measure taken by trade unions or other organised labour meant to reduce productivity in a workplace. ... A lockout is a work stoppage in which an employer prevents employees from working. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...

History of trade unions

Part of a series on

Organized Labour

The Labour Movement
New Unionism · Proletariat
Social Movement Unionism
Syndicalism · Socialism
Labour timeline
Labour Rights
Child labor · Eight-hour day
Occupational safety and health
Collective bargaining
Trade Unions
Trade unions by country
Trade union federations
International comparisons
ITUC · WFTU · IWA
Strike Actions
Chronological list of strikes
General strike · Sympathy strike
Sitdown strike · Work-to-rule
Trade Unionists
Joe Hill · Dita Indah Sari
Walter Reuther
Sonja Davies · Eugene V. Debs
A. J. Cook · Shirley Carr

more names Image File history File links Syndicalism. ... The labour movement or labor movement is a broad term for the development of a collective organization of working people, to campaign in their own interest for better treatment from their employers and political governments, in particular through the implementation of specific laws governing labor relations. ... New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement, both times involving moves to broaden the union agenda. ... The proletariat (from Latin proles, offspring) is a term used to identify a lower social class; a member of such a class is proletarian. ... Social Movement Unionism is a trend of theory and practice in contemporary trade unionism. ... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Timeline of organized labor history 1790s - 1800s - 1810s - 1820s - 1830s - 1840s - 1850s - 1860s - 1870s - 1880s - 1890s - 1900s - 1910s - 1920s - 1930s - 1940s - 1950s - 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1797 (United States) Profit sharing originated at Albert Gallatins glass works in New Geneva, Pennsylvania. ... Labor rights or workers rights are a group of legal rights and claimed human rights having to do with labor relations between workers and their employers, usually obtained under labor and employment law. ... A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ... The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ... Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. ... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... This is a list of trade unions and union federations by country. ... This is a list of federations of trade unions. ... The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) is the worlds largest trade union federation. ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ... The International Workers Association (IWA) (Spanish: AIT - Asociación Internacional de los Trabajadores, and in German: IAA-Internationale ArbeiterInnen Assoziation) is an international anarcho-syndicalist federation of various labour unions from different countries. ... Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. ... The following is a list of deliberate absence from work related to specific working conditions (strikes) or due to general unhappiness with the political order (general strikes). ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... A sympathy strike is a labour strike that is initiated by workers in one industry and supported by workers in a separate but related industry. ... A sitdown strike is a form of civil disobedience in which an organized group of workers, usually employed at a factory or other centralized location, take possession of the workplace by sitting down at their stations, effectively preventing their employers from replacing them with scab labor or, in some cases... Work-to-rule is a job action in which employees do no more than the minimum required by the rules of a workplace, and follow safety or other regulations to the letter in order to cause a slowdown. ... The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages, hours, and working conditions, forming a cartel of labour. ... For other persons named Joe Hill, see Joe Hill (disambiguation). ... Dita Indah Sari is an Indonesian trade union and socialist activist. ... Walter Philip Reuther (September 1, 1907 – May 10, 1970) was an American labor union leader, who made the United Automobile Workers a major force not only in the auto industry but also in the Democratic party]] in the mid 20th century. ... Marching On is the second volume of Sonja Davies autobiography Sonja Davies, ONZ (November 11, 1923 – 12 June 2005) was a New Zealand trade unionist, peace campaigner, and Member of Parliament. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ... Arthur James Cook (1883 - 1931), known as A. J. Cook, was a British coal miner and trade union leader. ... Shirley G.E. Carr is a Canadian union leader who was the the first woman president of Canadas largest labour organization, the Canadian Labour Congress. ...

Academic Disciplines
Labour in economics
Labour history (discipline)
Industrial relations
Labour law
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The traces of trade unions' existence could be traced from the eighteenth century, when Western society (with most changes occurring earliest in Britain) witnessed a transformation from an agrarian culture with craft-based production to a culture shaped by the first industrial revolution. Some of the changes brought on by this new order, such as new work methods and downward pressure on traditional wage structures,[2] sparked rising alarm in the crafts and guilds of the time, who feared encroachment on their established jobs. In classical economics and all micro-economics labour is a measure of the work done by human beings and is one of three factors of production, the others being land and capital. ... Labor history (or labour history) is a broad field of study concerned with the development of the labor movement and the working class. ... A Boeing employee speaks at a trade union rally The field of industrial relations looks at the relationship between management and workers, particularly groups of workers represented by a union. ... This article is in need of attention. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... For other uses, see Craft (disambiguation). ... A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ...


The rapid expansion of industrial society was to draw women, children, rural workers, and immigrants to the work force in larger numbers and in new roles. This pool of unskilled and semi-skilled labour spontaneously organized in fits and starts throughout its beginnings,[1] and would later be an important arena for the development of trade unions.


Origins and early history

Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed.[3] Medieval guilds existed to protect and enhance their members' livelihoods through controlling the instructional capital of artisanship and the progression of members from apprentice to craftsman, journeyman, and eventually to master and grandmaster of their craft. They also facilitated mobility by providing accommodation for guild members traveling in search of work. Guilds exhibited some aspects of the modern trade union, but also some aspects of professional associations and modern corporations. A guild is an association of craftspeople in a particular trade. ... Instructional capital is a term used in educational administration, to reflect capital resulting from investment in producing learning materials. ... It has been suggested that Artisan#Artisan guilds be merged into this article or section. ... Apprenticeship is a system of training a new generation of skilled crafts practitioners, which is still popular in some countries. ... An artisan, also called a craftsman,[1] is a skilled manual worker who uses tools and machinery in a particular craft. ... For other uses, see Journeyman (disambiguation). ... // A master craftsman (sometimes called only master or grandmaster) was a member of a guild. ... This article or section should be merged with professional body In countries where the legal system entitles defendants to a jury by their peers, the general public may not be considered sufficiently knowledgeable in a field of practice to act as a peer in some legal cases. ...


Additionally, guilds, like some craft unions today, were highly restrictive in their membership and included only artisans who practiced a specific trade. Many modern labor unions tend to be expansionistic, and frequently seek to incorporate widely disparate kinds of workers to increase the leverage of the union as a whole. A contemporary labor union might include workers from only one trade or craft, or might combine several or all the workers in one company or industry.


Since the publication of the History of Trade Unionism (1894) by Sidney and Beatrice Webb, the predominant historical view is that a trade union "is a continuous association of wage earners for the purpose of maintaining or improving the conditions of their employment."[1] A modern definition by the Australian Bureau of Statistics states that a trade union is "an organization consisting predominantly of employees, the principal activities of which include the negotiation of rates of pay and conditions of employment for its members."[4] History of Trade Unionism is a book by Sidney and Beatrice Webb. ... Categories: UK Labour Party politicians | British MPs | Peers | Secretaries of State for the Colonies (UK) | 1859 births | 1947 deaths | People stubs ... Beatrice Webb Martha Beatrice Potter Webb (January 2, 1858 - April 30, 1943) (also called Beatrice Webb) was a British socialist, economist and reformer, usually referred to in the same breath as her husband, Sidney Webb. ...


Yet historian R.A. Leeson, in United we Stand (1971), said:

Two conflicting views of the trade-union movement strove for ascendancy in the nineteenth century: one the defensive-restrictive guild-craft tradition passed down through journeymen's clubs and friendly societies,...the other the aggressive-expansionist drive to unite all 'labouring men and women' for a 'different order of things'...

Recent historical research by Bob James in Craft, Trade or Mystery (2001) puts forward the view that trade unions are part of a broader movement of benefit societies, which includes medieval guilds, Freemasons, Oddfellows, friendly societies, and other fraternal organizations. Bob James can refer to: An actor Bob James A jazz musician Bob James An historian Bob James This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A benefit society is an organization or voluntary association formed for mutual aid, benefit or insurance to provide for mutual relief. ... A guild is an association of persons of the same trade or pursuits, formed to protect mutual interests and maintain standards of morality or conduct. ... Freemasons redirects here. ... The I.O.O.F. Hall at the corner of Yonge and College in Toronto, Ontario The Independent Order of Odd Fellows (I.O.O.F.) is a fraternal organization derived from English Oddfellows orders of the mid-1700s. ... A friendly society (sometimes called a mutual society, benevolent society or fraternal organization) is a mutual association for insurance-like purposes, and often, especially in the past, serving ceremonial and friendship purposes also. ... A fraternal organization is an organization that represents the relationship between its members as akin to brotherhood. ...


The 18th century economist Adam Smith noted the imbalance in the rights of workers in regards to owners (or "masters"). In The Wealth of Nations, Book I, chapter 8, Smith wrote: Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Adam Smiths first title page An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist Adam Smith, published on March 9, 1776, during the Scottish Enlightenment. ...

We rarely hear, it has been said, of the combinations of masters, though frequently of those of workmen. But whoever imagines, upon this account, that masters rarely combine, is as ignorant of the world as of the subject. Masters are always and everywhere in a sort of tacit, but constant and uniform combination, not to raise the wages of labour above their actual rate...

When workers combine, masters... never cease to call aloud for the assistance of the civil magistrate, and the rigorous execution of those laws which have been enacted with so much severity against the combinations of servants, labourers, and journeymen.

As Smith noted, unions were illegal for many years in most countries (and Smith argued that schemes to fix wages or prices, by employees or employers, should be). There were severe penalties for attempting to organize unions, up to and including execution. Despite this, unions were formed and began to acquire political power, eventually resulting in a body of labor law that not only legalized organizing efforts, but codified the relationship between employers and those employees organized into unions. Even after the legitimization of trade unions there was opposition, as the case of the Tolpuddle Martyrs shows. The Tolpuddle Martyrs were a group of 19th century British labourers led by John Barnwell who were arrested for and convicted of swearing a secret oath as members of the Friendly Society of Agricultural Labourers. ...



The right to join a trade union is mentioned in article 23, subsection 4 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), which also states in article 20, subsection 2 that "No one may be compelled to belong to an association". Prohibiting a person from joining or forming a union, as well as forcing a person to do the same (e.g. "closed shops" or "union shops", see below), whether by a government or by a business, is generally considered a human rights abuse. Similar allegations can be leveled if an employer discriminates based on trade union membership. Attempts by an employer, often with the help of outside agencies, to prevent union membership amongst their staff is known as union busting. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Human rights violation. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Pinkerton guards escort strikebreakers in Buchtel, Ohio, 1884 Union busting is a practice that is undertaken by an employer or their agents to prevent employees from joining a labor union, or to disempower, subvert, or destroy unions that already exist. ...


19th century unionism

The National Labor Union was the first national union in the United States. It was created in 1866 and included many types of workers. This union did not accomplish any significant gains. After this union crumbled, the Knights of Labor became the leading countrywide union in the 1860s. This union did not include Chinese, and partially included blacks and women. The National Labor Union was the first national labor federation in the United States. ...


The Knights of Labor was founded in the United States in 1869. Eventually over 700,000 workers joined the Knights. They opposed child labor and demanded the eight-hour day. They hoped their union would give workers “a proper share of the wealth they create,” more free time, and generally more benefits of society. They also tried to set up companies owned by the workers themselves. Although the Knights were against strikes, some radical members went on strike anyway when the railroads cut wages in 1884. After they won the fight, membership in the Knights boomed to 700,000, but then, at the time of the Haymarket Massacre, a fearful public opinion grouped them with anarchists and Communists, and membership then rapidly declined. Knights of Labor seal The Knights of Labor, also known as Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was founded by seven Philadelp tailors in 1869, led by Uriah S. Stephens. ... A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ... The 8-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement (a. ... On May 1, 1886 (on May Day), labor unions organized a strike for an eight-hour work day in Chicago, Illinois, United States. ...


The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was founded by Samuel Gompers. By 1904, AFL-affiliated unions had a membership of over 1.4 million nationwide. Under Gompers's leadership, the AFL advocated an approach known as "business" or "pure and simple" unionism, which emphasized collective bargaining to reach its goals. Demands were centered around improvements to the immediate work environment, like better wages, hours and working conditions. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. ... Samuel Gompers (January 27, 1850[1] - December 13, 1924) was an American labor union leader and a key figure in American labor history. ...


In France, Germany, and other European countries, socialist parties and anarchists played a prominent role in forming and building up trade unions, especially from the 1870s onwards. This stood in contrast to the British experience, where moderate New Model Unions dominated the union movement from the mid-nineteenth century and where trade unionism was stronger than the political labour movement until the formation and growth of the Labour Party in the early years of the twentieth century. New Model Trade Unions (NMTU) were a variety of Trade Unions prominent in the 1850s and 1860s in the UK. The term was coined by Sidney and Beatrice Webb in their History of Trade Unionism (1894), although later historians have questioned how far New Model Trade Unions represented a new... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ...


Unions today

Structure and politics

Union structures, politics, and legal status vary greatly from country to country. For specific country details see below.
A rally of the trade union UNISON in Oxford during a strike on 2006-03-28.
A rally of the trade union UNISON in Oxford during a strike on 2006-03-28.

Unions may organize a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism), a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organize all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism). These unions are often divided into "locals", and united in national federations. These federations themselves will affiliate with Internationals, such as the International Trade Union Confederation. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 655 KB) Summary A rally of the trade union UNISON in Oxford during a strike (industrial action), 2006-03-28. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 655 KB) Summary A rally of the trade union UNISON in Oxford during a strike (industrial action), 2006-03-28. ... For other uses, see Unison (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... by Leon CunninghamCraft unionism refers to an approach to union organizing in the United States and elsewhere that seeks to unify workers in a particular industry along the lines of the particular craft or trade that they work in. ... A general union is a trade union (labor union in U.S. English) which represents workers from all industries and companies, rather than just one organisation or a particular sector, as in a craft union or industrial union. ... Industrial unionism is a labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union — regardless of skill or trade — thus giving workers in one industry, or in all industries, more leverage in bargaining and in strike situations. ... Just as governments have branches to deal with particular areas, trade unions have locals, designed to represent the unions members from a particular company or in a particular area. ... This is a list of federations of trade unions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) is the worlds largest trade union federation. ...


In many countries, a union may acquire the status of a "juristic person" (an artificial legal entity), with a mandate to negotiate with employers for the workers it represents. In such cases, unions have certain legal rights, most importantly the right to engage in collective bargaining with the employer (or employers) over wages, working hours, and other terms and conditions of employment. The inability of the parties to reach an agreement may lead to industrial action, culminating in either strike action or management lockout, or binding arbitration. In extreme cases, violent or illegal activities may develop around these events. A juristic person is a legal fiction through which the law allows a group of natural persons to act as if it were a single composite individual for certain purposes. ... A Collective agreement is a labor contract between an employer and one or more unions. ... An employment contract is an agreement entered into between an employer and an employee at the commencement of the period of employment and stating the exact nature of their business relationship, specifically what compensation the employee will receive in exchange for specific work performed. ... Industrial action (UK) or job action (US) refers collectively to any measure taken by trade unions or other organised labour meant to reduce productivity in a workplace. ... Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. ... A lockout is a work stoppage in which an employer prevents employees from working. ...


In other circumstances, unions may not have the legal right to represent workers, or the right may be in question. This lack of status can range from non-recognition of a union to political or criminal prosecution of union activists and members, with many cases of violence and deaths having been recorded both historically and contemporarily.[5][6]


Unions may also engage in broader political or social struggle. Social Unionism encompasses many unions that use their organizational strength to advocate for social policies and legislation favorable to their members or to workers in general. As well, unions in some countries are closely aligned with political parties. Social Movement Unionism is a trend of theory and practice in contemporary trade unionism. ... A political party is a political organization that seeks to attain political power within a government, usually by participating in electoral campaigns. ...


Unions are also delineated by the service model and the organizing model. The service model union focuses more on maintaining worker rights, providing services, and resolving disputes. Alternately, the organizing model typically involves full-time union organizers, who work by building up confidence, strong networks, and leaders within the workforce; and confrontational campaigns involving large numbers of union members. Many unions are a blend of these two philosophies, and the definitions of the models themselves are still debated. While the service model (or servicing model) is difficult to precisely define, it generally describes an approach whereby unions aim prmarily to satisfy members demands for resolving grievances and securing benefits through methods other than pressure on employers (whether by industrial, media, community, political action, or otherwise). ... The organising model, as the term refers to trade unions (and sometimes other social-movement organisations) is a broad conception of how those organisations should recruit, operate and advance the interests of their members. ... A union organizer (sometimes spelled organiser) is one type of employee or elected official of a trade union. ...


Although their political structure and autonomy varies widely, union leaderships are usually formed through democratic elections. This article is about the political process. ...


Some research, such as that conducted by the ACIRRT,[7] argues that unionized workers enjoy better conditions and wages than those who are not unionized.


Shop types

Companies that employ workers with a union generally operate on one of several models:

  • A closed shop (US) employs only people who are already union members. The compulsory hiring hall is an example of a closed shop — in this case the employer must recruit directly from the union.
  • A union shop (US) or a closed shop (UK) employs non-union workers as well, but sets a time limit within which new employees must join a union.
  • An agency shop requires non-union workers to pay a fee to the union for its services in negotiating their contract. This is sometimes called the Rand formula. In certain situations involving state public employees in the United States, such as California, "fair share laws" make it easy to require these sorts of payments.
  • An open shop does not discriminate based on union membership in employing or keeping workers. Where a union is active, the open shop allows workers to be employed who do not contribute to a union or the collective bargaining process. In the United States, state level right-to-work laws mandate the open shop in some states.

In North America a closed shop is a business or industrial factory in which union membership (often of a specific union and no other) is a precondition to employment. ... In organized labor, a hiring hall is an organization, usually under the auspices of a labor union, which has the responsibility of furnishing new recruits for employers who have a collective bargaining agreement with the union. ... In the United States of America, a union shop is a place of employment where the employer may hire either labor union members or nonmembers but where nonmembers must become union members within a specified period of time or lose their jobs. ... An agency shop is a place of employment where workers must pay union dues whether they are a member of a labor union or not. ... The Rand formula (also referred to as automatic check-off) refers to a workplace situation where payment of labour union dues is mandatory even if the worker is not a member of the union. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... In terms of United States labor relations, an open shop is a place of employment at which one is not required to join a labor union as a condition of hiring or continued employment. ... ...

Diversity of international unions

As labor law varies from country to country, so is the function of unions. For example, in Germany only open shops are legal; that is, all discrimination based on union membership is forbidden. This affects the function and services of the union. In addition, German unions have played a greater role in management decisions through participation in corporate boards and co-determination than have unions in the United States. (newsletter/files/BTS012EN_12-15.pdf}. Co-determination (also: codetermination) is a practice whereby the employees have a role in management of a company. ...


In Britain a series of laws introduced during the 1980s by Margaret Thatcher's government restricted closed and union shops. All agreements requiring a worker to join a union are now illegal. In the United States, the Taft-Hartley Act of 1947 outlawed the closed shop, but permitted the union shop unless the state government chose to prohibit it. Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... The Labor-Management Relations Act, commonly known as the Taft-Hartley Act, is a United States federal law that greatly restricts the activities and power of labor unions. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


In addition, unions' relations with political parties vary. In many countries unions are tightly bonded, or even share leadership, with a political party intended to represent the interests of working people. Typically this is a left-wing, socialist, or social democratic party, but many exceptions exist. In the United States, by contrast, although it is historically aligned with the Democratic Party, the labor movement is by no means monolithic on that point; the International Brotherhood of Teamsters has supported Republican Party candidates on a number of occasions and the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization (PATCO) endorsed Ronald Reagan in 1980. (However, when PATCO went on strike in violation of their "no strike" contract, President Reagan ordered them back to work. Those who didn't return to the job were fired and replaced, effectively destroying PATCO.) The AFL-CIO has been against liberalizing abortion, consistent with a Republican position, so as not to alienate its large Catholic constituency. In Britain the labor movement's relationship with the Labour Party is fraying as party leadership embarks on privatization plans at odds with what unions see as the worker's interests. On top of this in the past there as been a group known as the Conservative Trade Unionistsor CTU. A group formed of people who sympathised with right wing Tory policy but were Trade Unionists. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... The International Brotherhood of Teamsters, Chauffeurs, Warehousemen and Helpers of America, commonly known as the International Brotherhood of Teamsters (IBT) or simply the Teamsters, is one of the largest labor unions in the United States. ... GOP redirects here. ... The Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization or PATCO was a labor union that once represented air traffic controllers in the United States in matters relating to wages, hours, and other terms and conditions of employment. ... Reagan redirects here. ... American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is a national trade union center, the largest federation of unions in the United States, made up of 54 national and international unions (including Canadian), together representing more than 10 million workers. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Conservative Trade Unionists (CTU) is an organisation within the British Conservative Party made up of Conservative-supporting trade unionists. ...


In Western Europe, professional associations often carry out the functions of a trade union. In these cases, they may be negotiating for white-collar workers, such as physicians, engineers, or teachers. Typically such trade unions refrain from politics or pursue a more ordoliberal politics than their blue-collar counterparts[citation needed]. White-collar worker is an idiom referring to a salaried professional or a person whose job is clerical in nature, as opposed to a blue-collar worker whose job is more in line with manual labor. ... This article is about political philosophy of Ordoliberalism. ... A blue-collar worker is a member of the working class who performs manual labor and earns an hourly wage. ...


In Germany the relation between individual employees and employers is considered to be asymmetrical. In consequence, many working conditions are not negotiable due to a strong legal protection of individuals. However, the German flavor or works legislation has as its main objective to create a balance of power between employees organized in unions and employers organized in employers associations. This allows much wider legal boundaries for collective bargaining, compared to the narrow boundaries for individual negotiations. As a condition to obtain the legal status of a trade union, employee associations need to prove that their leverage is strong enough to serve as a counterforce in negotiations with employers. If such an employees association is competing against another union, its leverage may be questioned by unions and then evaluated in a court trial. In Germany only very few professional associations obtained the right to negotiate salaries and working conditions for their members, notably the medical doctors association Marburger Bund and the pilots association Vereinigung Cockpit. The engineers association Verein Deutscher Ingenieure does not strive to act as a union, as it also represents the interests of engineering businesses. Verein Deutscher Ingenieure (VDI) (English: Association of German Engineers) is a organization of 126,000 engineers and natural scientists. ...


Finally, the structure of employment laws affects unions' roles and how they carry out their business. In many western European countries wages and benefits are largely set by governmental action. The United States takes a more laissez-faire approach, setting some minimum standards but leaving most workers' wages and benefits to collective bargaining and market forces. Historically, the Republic of Korea has regulated collective bargaining by requiring employers to participate but collective bargaining has been legal only if held in sessions before the lunar new year. In totalitarian regimes such as Nazi Germany Trade Unions were outlawed. In the Soviet Union and China, unions have typically been de facto government agencies devoted to smooth and efficient operation of government enterprises. Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (ROK; Korean: Daehan Minguk (Hangul: 대한 민국; Hanja: 大韓民國)), is a country in East Asia, covering the southern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... Lunar New Year may refer to the beginning of the year in several cultures calendars: Chinese New Year Korean New Year Islamic New Year Tết (Vietnamese New Year) Thai New Year (Songkran) Categories: | ...


Impact of unions

Proponents often credit trade unions with leading the labor movement in the early 20th century, which generally sought to end child labor practices, improve worker safety, increase wages for both union workers, raise the entire society's standard of living,[citation needed] reduce the hours in a work week, provide public education for children,[citation needed] and bring of other benefits to working class families.[citation needed] A twelve year old American uneducated child laborer, Furman Owens, who stated Yes I want to learn but cant when I work all the time. ... Occupational safety and health (OSH) is a cross-disciplinary area concerned with protecting the safety, health and welfare of people engaged in work or employment. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ...


Most economists now think that the wage increases unions can afford their members do not come at the expense of the owners of capital but at the expense of ununionised workers.[8] As the price of labour increases, the demand for it will decrease. Unions targets of industry protectionism and limits on immigration also have this effect, benefiting unionised workers at the cost of those without union membership. Not to be confused with capitol. ...


The effect of union activities to influence pricing is potentially very harnmful, making the market system ineffective.[9] By raising the price of labour, above the market rate deadweight loss is created. Additional non-monetary benefits exacibate the problem. In economics, a deadweight loss (also known as excess burden) is a permanent loss of well being to society that can occur when equilibrium for a good or service is not Pareto optimal, (that at least one individual could be made better off without others being made worse off). ...


Cost-push Inflation

There can be little doubt that union activities lead to continuous and progressive inflation.
F. A. Hayek, the Constitution of Liberty

By causing wage increases above the market rate, unions increase the cost to buisnesses, causing them to raise their prices, leading to a general increase in the price level.[10] Austrian economists such as Robert P. Murphy, however, dispute this, arguing that the increase in the cost of labour simply means that less of other goods can be bought. He writes: For the concept in cosmology, see cosmic inflation. ... The Austrian School, also known as the “Vienna School” or the “Psychological School”, is a heterodox school of economic thought that advocates adherence to strict methodological individualism. ... Robert P. Murphy Robert P. Bob Murphy (born 23 May 1976) is an Austrian School economist and anarcho-capitalist author. ...

If unions succeed in wage hikes, and employers raise the prices they charge consumers to maintain their own profit margins, and the supply of money remains the same, then something else has to "give." Either the prices of goods and services in nonunion sectors have to fall and offset the union sector hikes, or people's cash balances need to fall, in terms of their purchasing power.[11]

Criticism

Trade unions have been accused of benefiting the insider workers, those having secure jobs, at the cost of the outsider workers, consumers of the goods or services produced, and the shareholders of the unionized business. Those who are likely to be disadvantaged most from unionization are the unemployed, those at risk of unemployment or workers who are unable to get the job they want in a particular line of work.[12] Opposition to trade unions comes from a variety of groups in society and there are many different types of argument on which this opposition is based. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ...


Dr. Charles Baird of California State University East Bay argues from a pro-free-market perspective that as labor is a commodity, and unions essentially operate by centralizing labor, forming a monopoly on the commodity. This monopoly on labor has the same negative effects as any other monopoly.[13], of reducing the amount sold (in this case, this means increasing unemployment) raising the price in the short term and decreasing efficiency. California State University, East Bay (also known as CSUEB, Cal State East Bay, and formerly known as California State University, Hayward) is a campus of the California State University system. ... This article is about the economic term. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the United States, the outsourcing of labor to Asia, Latin America, and Africa has been partially driven by increasing costs of union partnership, which gives other countries a comparative advantage in labor, making it more efficient to perform labor-intensive work there.[14]


Milton Friedman, Nobel Prize winning economist and advocate of laissez-faire capitalism points out that unionization produces higher wages (for the union members) at the expense of fewer jobs, and that, if some industries are unionized while others are not, wages will decline in non-unionized industries. Milton Friedman (July 31, 1912 – November 16, 2006) was an American Nobel Laureate economist and public intellectual. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... Laissez-faire is short for laissez faire, laissez passer, a French phrase meaning to let things alone, let them pass. First used by the eighteenth century Physiocrats as an injunction against government interference with trade, it is now used as a synonym for strict free market economics. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ...


In the late nineteenth century, unions were sometimes regarded as a form of legalized conspiracy and extortion. American racketeering statutes still include an exemption for union activity. In the law of tort, the legal elements necessary to establish a civil conspiracy are substantially the same as for establishing a criminal conspiracy, i. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Organized crime is crime carried out systematically by formal criminal organizations. ...


Unions are sometimes accused of holding society to ransom by taking strike actions that result in the disruption of public services.[15][16]


Trade unions worldwide and by region and country

Worldwide and international cooperation

Unionisation in the world[citation needed]
Unionisation in the world[citation needed]
Labour force in 2006
Labour force in 2006

The largest organization of trade union members in the world is the Brussels-based International Trade Union Confederation, which today has approximately 309 affiliated organizations in 156 countries and territories, with a combined membership of 166 million. Other global trade union organizations include the World Federation of Trade Unions. Image File history File links Unionization_in_the_world. ... Image File history File links Unionization_in_the_world. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) is the worlds largest trade union federation. ... The World Federation of Trade Unions (WFTU) was established in the wake of the Second World War to bring together trade unions across the world in a single international organization, much like the United Nations. ...


National and regional trade unions organizing in specific industry sectors or occupational groups also form global union federations, such as Union Network International and the International Federation of Journalists. A global union federation is an international federation of national and regional trade unions organising in specific industry sectors or occupational groups, previously known as international trade secretariats [ITSs]. Most major unions are members of one or more global union federations, relevant to the sectors where they have their members. ... Union Network International (UNI), calling itself a global union, is a global union federation for skills and services, gathering national and regional trade unions. ... International Federation of Journalists, IFJ, is global union federation of journalists trade unions - the largest in the world. ...

This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... North American redirects here. ...

Union publications

Several sources of current news exist about the trade union movement in the world. These include LabourStart and the official website of the international trade union movement Global Unions. LabourStart is the online news service of the international trade union movement. ... Global Unions is a website, which is jointly owned and managed by the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, ICFTU, the Trade Union Advisory Committee to the OECD and ten global union federations. ...


Another source of labor news is the Workers Independent News, a news organization providing radio articles to independent and syndicated radio shows.


Labor Notes is the largest circulation cross-union publication remaining in the United States. It reports news and analysis about labor activity or problems facing the labor movement. The Cincinatti Time Store was a successful retail store that was created by American individualist anarchist Josiah Warren to test his theories that were based on his strict interpretation of the labor theory of value. ...


See also

Organized Labour Portal 
General
Types of unions
Union federation

Image File history File links Syndicalism. ... This is a list of trade unions and union federations by country. ... Eight-hour day banner, Melbourne, 1856 The Eight-hour day movement, also known as the Short-time movement, had its origins in the Industrial Revolution in Britain, where industrial production in large factories transformed working life and imposed long hours and poor working conditions. ... Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. ... Labor aristocracy (or aristocracy of labor) has two meanings: as a term with Marxist theoretical underpinnings, and as a specific type of trade unionism. ... New Unionism is a term which has been used twice in the history of the labour movement, both times involving moves to broaden the union agenda. ... Solidarity (Polish: ; full name: Independent Self-governing Trade Union Solidarity — Niezależny SamorzÄ…dny ZwiÄ…zek Zawodowy Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the then Lenin Shipyards, and originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. ... Salting is the preparation of food with salt. ... The Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA), also known as the Landrum-Griffin Act, is a United States labor law statute that regulates labor unions internal affairs and union officials relationships with employers Enacted in 1959 after revelations concerning corruption and undemocratic practices in the International Brotherhood of Teamsters... Syndicalism refers to a set of ideas, movements, and tendencies which share the avowed aim of transforming capitalist society through action by the working class on the industrial front. ... Workers Memorial Day or International Workers Memorial Day takes place annually around the world on April 28th, an international day of remembrance and action for workers killed, disabled, injured or made unwell by their work. ... Labour Day Parade in Toronto in the early 1900s A Labour Day is an annual holiday celebrated all over the world that resulted from efforts of the labour union movement, to celebrate the economic and social achievements of workers. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Craft unionism, or sometimes trade unionism, is a labor union organizing method by which labor unions are divided along the lines of workers specific trades, regardless of what industry they work in. ... A Directly Affiliated Local Union (DALU) is a U.S. labor union that belongs to the AFL-CIO (American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations) but is not a national union and is not entitled to the same rights and privileges within the Federation as national affiliates. ... A general union is a trade union (labor union in U.S. English) which represents workers from all industries and companies, rather than just one organisation or a particular sector, as in a craft union or industrial union. ... Industrial unionism is a labor union organizing method through which all workers in the same industry are organized into the same union -- regardless of skill or trade -- thus giving workers in one industry, or in all industries, more leverage in bargaining and in strike situations. ... Labour Council (Canada, Australia), also known as Labor Council (USA), Trades Council or Trades Union Council (TUC) (UK), and Trades and Labour Council (TLC) or Industrial Council (Australia), is a representative labour federation at the district, city, region, or provincial or state level. ... Trades Hall is a building in the suburb of Carlton, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia. ... fuck you all aggressively ... American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, commonly AFL-CIO, is a national trade union center, the largest federation of unions in the United States, made up of 54 national and international unions (including Canadian), together representing more than 10 million workers. ... The Change to Win Federation is a coalition of American labor unions originally formed in 2005 as an alternative to the AFL-CIO. The coalition is associated with strong advocacy of the organising model. ... A labor federation is a group of unions or labor organizations that are in some sense coordinated. ... The International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC) is the worlds largest trade union federation. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (abbreviated UDHR) is an advisory declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, 10 December 1948 at Palais de Chaillot, Paris). ... Look up freedom in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals from birth. ... This article is about virtue. ... Look up brotherhood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Parties to the ICCPR: members in green, non-members in grey The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights is a United Nations treaty based on the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, created in 1966 and entered into force on 23 March 1976. ... The term right to life is a political term used in controversies over various issues that involve the taking of a life (or what is perceived to be a life). ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... Human security refers to an emerging paradigm for understanding global vulnerabilities whose proponents challenge the traditional notion of national security by arguing that the proper referent for security should be the individual rather than the state. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... “Cruel And Unusual” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Person (disambiguation). ... Equality before the law or equality under the law or legal egalitarianism is the principle under which each individual is subject to the same laws, with no individual or group having special legal privileges. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Arbitrary arrest and detention, or (AAD), is the arrest and detention of an individual in a case in which there is no likelihood or evidence that he or she committed a crime against legal statute, or where there has been no proper due process of law. ... Exile (band) may refer to: Exile - The American country music band Exile - The Japanese pop music band Category: ... The Right to a fair trial is an essential right in all countries respecting the rule of law. ... Presumption of innocence is a legal right that the accused in criminal trials has in many modern nations. ... An ex post facto law (from the Latin for from something done afterward) or retroactive law, is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences of acts committed or the legal status of facts and relationships that existed prior to the enactment of the law. ... Privacy is the ability of an individual or group to control the flow of information about themselves and thereby reveal themselves selectively. ... Title page of a European Union member state passport. ... Right of asylum (or political asylum) is an ancient judicial notion, under which a person persecuted for political opinions or religious beliefs in his or her country may be protected by another sovereign authority, a foreign country, or Church sanctuaries (as in medieval times). ... Nationality law is the branch of a countrys legal system wherein legislation, custom and court precedent combine to define the ways in which that countrys nationality and citizenship are transmitted, acquired or lost. ... Matrimony redirects here. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Freedom of thought (also called freedom of conscience and freedom of ideas) is the freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, regardless of anyone elses view. ... This article is about the general concept. ... Group of women holding placards with political activist slogans: know your courts - study your politicians, Liberty in law, Law makers must not be law breakers, and character in candidates photo 1920 Freedom of assembly is the freedom to associate with, or organize any groups, gatherings, clubs, or organizations that one... Freedom of association is a Constitutional (legal) concept based on the premise that it is the right of free adults to mutually choose their associates for whatever purpose they see fit. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Public Administration can be broadly described as the development, implementation and study of government policy. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Universal suffrage (also general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to all adults, without distinction as to race, sex, belief, intelligence, or economic or social status. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... Social security primarily refers to social welfare service concerned with social protection, or protection against socially recognized conditions, including poverty, old age, disability, unemployment and others. ... ... Equal pay for women is an issue involving pay inequality between men and women. ... Remuneration is pay or salary, typically monetary compensation for services rendered, as in a employment. ... A relaxing afternoon of leisure: a young girl resting in a pool. ... The standard of living refers to the quality and quantity of goods and services available to people and the way these services and goods are distributed within a population. ... Mothers Rights concern the rights of mothers including both Womens Rights and Parental Rights. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Fundamentalism · Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth rights... This article is about institutional education. ... Human rights education is the teaching of the history, theory, and law of human rights in schools as well as outreach to the general public. ... Freedom of education incorporates the right of any person to manage their own education, start a school, or to have access to education of their choice without any constraints. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... Social order is a concept used in sociology, history and other social sciences. ... Social responsibility is an ethical or ideological theory that an entity whether it is a government, corporation, organization or individual has a responsibility to society. ... Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Webb, Sidney; Webb, Beatrice (1920). History of Trade Unionism. Longmans and Co. London.  ch. I
  2. ^ Fraser, W. Hamish (1974). Trade Unions and Society (The Struggle for Acceptance, 1850–1880). New Jersey: Rowman and Littlefield. ISBN 0-87471-514-8.  pg. 34
  3. ^ Trade Unions and Socialism International Socialist Review, Vol.1 No.10, April 1901.
  4. ^ Trade Union Census. Australian Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved on 2006-08-05.
  5. ^ ICFTU press release - regarding Cambodia.
  6. ^ Amnesty International report 23 September 2005 - fear for safety of SINALTRAINAL member José Onofre Esquivel Luna
  7. ^ Australian Centre for Industrial Relations Research and Training report.
  8. ^ Economics, 16th edition, Samuelson Nordhaus
  9. ^ F. A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, 1960 Routledge Classics
  10. ^ F. A. Hayek, The Constitution of Liberty, 1960 Routledge Classics
  11. ^ http://www.mises.org/story/2839
  12. ^ Card David, Krueger Alan. (1995). Myth and measurement: The new economics of the minimum wage. Princeton, NJ. Princeton University Press.
  13. ^ Charles Baird, "Unions and Antitrust: Governmental Hypocrisy." The Freeman, Vol. 50 No. 2. Foundation for Economic Education, New York.
  14. ^ Kramarz, Francis (2006-10-19). Outsourcing, Unions, and Wages: Evidence from data matching imports, firms, and workers. Retrieved on 2007-01-22.
  15. ^ http://journals.sfu.ca/archivar/index.php/archivaria/article/viewFile/10489/11328
  16. ^ http://www.indiatogether.org/combatlaw/vol2/issue6/strike.htm

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... SINALTRAINAL is a Colombian food undustry labor union. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further materials

Films
  • The 2000 film Bread and Roses by British director Ken Loach depicted the struggle of cleaners in Los Angeles to fight for better pay, and working conditions, and the right to join a union.
  • The 1985 documentary film Final Offer by Sturla Gunnarsson and Robert Collision shows the 1984 union contract negotiations with General Motors.
  • The 1979 film Norma Rae, directed by Martin Ritt, is based on the true story of Crystal Lee Jordan's successful attempt to unionize her textile factory.
Books
  • The Government of British Trade Unions: A study of Apathy and the Democratic Process in the Transport and General Worker Union by Joseph Goldstein"[1]
  • The Early English Trade Unions: Documents from Home Office Papers in the Public Record Office by A Aspinall [2]
  • Magnificent Journey: The Rise of the Trade Unions, by Francis Williams [3]
  • Trade Unions by Allan Flanders [4]
  • Trade Union Government and Administration in Great Britain by B C Roberts [5]
  • Union Power: The Growth and Challenge in Perspective by Claud Cockburn [6]
  • Directory of Employer's Associations, Trade Unions, Joint Organisations & c - No author and produced in paperback [7]
  • The History of the TUC (Trades Union Congress) 1868-1968: A pictorial Survey of a Social Revolution - Illustrated with Contemporary Prints, Documents and Photographs edited by Lionel Birch [8]
  • Clarke, T.; Clements, L. (1978). Trade Unions under Capitalism. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press. ISBN 0-391-00728-9. 

Bread and Roses is a 2000 British film, starring Adrien Brody, and directed by Ken Loach. ... Ken Loach Kenneth Loach (born June 17, 1936), known as Ken Loach, is an English television and film director, known for his naturalistic style and socialist themes. ... A cleaner is a type of industrial, or domestic worker who cleans homes, or offices for payment. ... Final Offer is a Canadian film documenting the 1984 contract negotiations between the United Auto Workers Union (UAW) and GM. Ultimately, it provided a historical record of the birth of the Canadian Auto Workers Union (CAW) as Bob White, then head of the Canadian sector of the UAW, led his... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds most dominant automaker since 1931. ... Norma Rae is a 1979 film which tells the story of a woman from a small town in the Southern United States who becomes involved in the labor union activities at the textile factory where she works. ... Martin Ritt (March 2, 1914–December 8, 1990) was an American director, actor, and playwright who worked in both film and theatre. ... Image:TradeUnionsCongress20050108 CopyrightKaihsuTai. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
International
Australia
  • Australian Council of Trade Unions (ACTU)- Australian Council of Trade Unions
Europe
  • Trade union membership 1993-2003 - European Industrial Relations Observatory report on membership trends in 26 European countries
  • Trade Union Ancestors - Listing of 5,000 UK trade unions with histories of main organizations, trade union "family trees" and details of union membership and strikes since 1900.
  • TUC History online - History of the British union movement
  • Trade EU - European Trade Directory
United States
  • Labor rights in the USA
  • Labor Notes magazine
General
Organized Labour Portal 
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Syndicalism. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Union Law (3304 words)
Trade unions shall, in accordance with the provisions of laws and through the congresses of the workers and staff members or other forms, organize the workers and staff members to participate in democratic decision-making and management of and democratic supervision over their own work units.
Trade unions shall educate workers and staff members constantly in the need to improve their ideological, ethical, technical, professional, scientific and cultural qualities, in order to build a contingent team of well-educated and self-disciplined workers and staff members with lofty ideals and moral integrity.
Trade unions shall make proposals for solutions to the departments concerned, and have the right to demand that the persons who are directly in charge and the other persons who are responsible be investigated for their liabilities.
trade union: Definition and Much More from Answers.com (4719 words)
Trade unions have sometimes been seen as successors to the guilds of Medieval Europe, though the relationship between the two is disputed.
Unions may organise a particular section of skilled workers (craft unionism), a cross-section of workers from various trades (general unionism), or attempt to organise all workers within a particular industry (industrial unionism).
The legal status of trade unions in the United Kingdom was established by a Royal Commission in 1867, which agreed that the establishment of the organizations was to the advantage of both employers and employees.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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