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Encyclopedia > Trabzon
Trabzon
The historic Ortahisar neighbourhood of Trabzon
The historic Ortahisar neighbourhood of Trabzon
Location in Turkey
Overview
Province Trabzon Province
Population 275.137 (2006)
Area 4.685 km² km²
Population density 58,7 inh./km²
Elevation 0 m
Postal code 61xxx
Area code (+90) 462
Licence plate code 61

Trabzon, formerly known as Trebizond (Greek: Τραπεζοῦς Trapezûs or Τραπεζούντα Trapezúnta), is a city on the Black Sea coast of north-eastern Turkey and the capital of Trabzon Province. Throughout history, Trabzon has been an important meeting point for international trade and cultural exchange due to its strategic location which controls the east-west (Asia-Europe) and north-south (Russia-Middle East) trading routes. Trabzon formed the basis of several states in its long history, and was the capital city of the Empire of Trebizond. The population of the city is 275,137 (2006 census). Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Misailli Shows the location of the province Trabzon in Turkey File links The following pages link to this file: Trabzon Province ... Provinces of Turkey are called iller in Turkish (singular is il, see Turkish alphabet for capitalization of i). ... Trabzon is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Postal codes in Turkey are usually found generally start with the two digit license plate code followed by three digits to specify the location within the province. ... Turkey went from six (2+4) to seven digits (3+4) local phone numbers c. ... Turkish car number plates are license plates found on Turkish vehicles. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Trabzon is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

Ancient and Mediaeval

Originally, it was founded as Trapezus (Τραπεζοῦς) by Greek traders from Miletus (traditionally in 756 BCE). The lower half of the benches and the remnants of the scene building of the theater of Miletus (August 2005) Miletus (Carian: Anactoria Hittite: Milawata or Millawanda, Greek: Μίλητος transliterated Miletos, Turkish: Milet) was an ancient city on the western coast of Anatolia (in what is now Aydin Province, Turkey), near... 756 BC — Founding of Cyzicus. ...


The city was one of a number (about ten) of Milesian emporia, or trading colonies along the shores of the Black Sea. Others include Sinope, Abydos and Cyzicus (in the Dardanelles). Like most Greek colonies, the city was a small enclave of Greek life, and not an empire unto its own, in the later European sense of the word. Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city, not from a territory-at-large. ... Sinope was an ancient city on the Black Sea, in the region of Galatia, modern-day Sinop, Turkey. ... Abydos, an ancient city of Mysia, in Asia Minor, situated at Nagara Point on the Hellespont, which is here scarcely a mile broad. ... Cyzicus was an ancient town of Mysia in Asia Minor, situated on the shoreward side of the present peninsula of Kapu-Dagh (Arctonnesus), which is said to have been originally an island in the Sea of Marmara, and to have been artificially connected with the mainland in historic times. ... Map of the Dardanelles The Dardanelles (Turkish: Çanakkale Boğazı, Greek: Δαρδανέλλια, Dardanellia), formerly known as the Hellespont (Greek: Eλλήσποντος, Hellespontos), is a narrow strait in northwestern Turkey connecting the Aegean Sea to the Sea of Marmara. ...


Trapezus's trade partners included the Mossynoeci. When Xenophon and the "ten thousand" Greek mercenaries were fighting their way out of Persia, the first Greek city they reached was Trapezus (Xenophon, Anabasis, 5.5.10). The city and the local Mossynoeci had become estranged from the Mossynoecian capital, to the point of civil war. Xenophon's force resolved this in the rebels' favor, and so in Trapezus' interest. Mossynoikoi, latinised Mossynoeci, is a Greek compound noun meaning dwellers in wooden towers. The Greeks of the Euxine Sea applied it to the peoples of the northern Anatolian coast just west of Trebizond. ... Xenophon, Greek historian Xenophon (In Greek , ca. ...


The city was added to the kingdom of Pontus by Mithridates VI Eupator and it became home port for the Pontic fleet. Traditional rural Pontic house A man in traditional clothes from Trabzon, illustration Pontus is the name which was applied, in ancient times, to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the main), by... Mithridates VI of Pontus, (132 BC- 63 BC), called Eupator Dionysius, was the king of Pontus in Asia Minor and one of Romes most formidable and successful enemies. ...

Trabzon as of mid 19th century

When the kingdom was annexed to the Roman province of Galatia in 6465 CE, the fleet simply passed to new commanders, becoming the Classis Pontica. Trapezus gained importance under Roman rule in the 1st century CE for its access to road leading over the Zigana Pass to the Armenian frontier or the upper Euphrates valley. New roads were constructed from Persia and Mesopotamia under the rule of Vespasian, and Hadrian commissioned improvements to give the city a more structured harbor. A mithraeum now serves as a crypt for the church of Panaghia Theoskepastos in nearby Kizlara, east of the citadel and south of the modern harbor. The city was pillaged by the Goths in 258, and, although it was afterwards re-built, Trapezus did not recover until the trade route regained importance in the 8th to 10th centuries. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... July 18 - Great fire of Rome: A fire began to burn in the merchant area of Rome and soon burned completely out of control while Emperor Nero allegedly played his lyre and sang while watching the blaze from a safe distance, although there is no hard evidence to support this... Headline text Events By place Roman Empire Gaius Calpurnius Piso conspires against Roman emperor Nero. ... Roman trireme, a warship, 31 BC. Note the bank of oars (two on the hidden side), the square-rigged sails, the steering oars, the tower on deck, the ram at the prow, the ballistae and the Greek fire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Persian Empire was a series of historical empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the old Persian homeland, and beyond in Western Asia, Central Asia and the Caucasus. ... For other uses, see Mesopotamia (disambiguation). ... Imperator Caesar Vespasianus Augustus (born November 17, 9, died June 23, 79), known originally as Titus Flavius Vespasianus and usually referred to in English as Vespasian, was emperor of Rome from 69 to 79. ... Publius Aelius Traianus Hadrianus (January 24, 76 –– July 10, 138), known as Hadrian in English, was emperor of Rome from 117 A.D. to 138 A.D., as well as a Stoic and Epicurean philosopher. ... A mithraeum found in the ruins of Ostia Antica, Italy. ... This article is about the Germanic tribes. ... Events Sun Xiu succeeds Sun Liang as ruler of the Chinese kingdom of Wu The Goths ravage Asia Minor and Trabzon Gaul, Britain and Spain break off from the Roman Empire to form the Gallic Empire Nanjing University first founded in Nanjing, China Births Emperor Hui of Jin China (approximate... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


After the Fourth Crusade in 1204, a Byzantine successor state was founded there with support of Queen Tamar of Georgia, the Empire of Trebizond, which ruled part of the Black Sea coast from Trabzon until 1461, when its ruler, David, surrendered to Mehmed II, ruler of the Ottoman Empire. Following this takeover Mehmed sent many Turkish settlers into the area, but the old ethnic Armenian, Greek and Laz communities remained. During the late Ottoman period, the city had a great Christian influence in terms of culture, and a wealthy merchant class who created several Western consulates. The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... [Neilhughandafriendlypeasant. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Succession of states. ... Tamar (Georgian: თამარი; 1160–1213), from the House of Bagrationi, was Queen of the Kingdom of Georgia from 1184 to 1213. ... The Empire of Trebizond and other states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The Empire of Trebizond (Greek: Βασίλειον τῆς Τραπεζούντας) was a Byzantine Greek successor state of the Byzantine Empire founded in 1204 as a result of the capture of Constantinople by... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... David Comnenus (died November 1, 1463), the last ruling member of the Comnenus Dynasty which had produced such Byzantine Emperors as Alexius I, ruled the Empire of Trebizond from 1459 to 1461. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... The Laz (Lazi (ლაზი) or Lazepe (ლაზეფე) in Laz, Lazlar in Turkish, Lazi (ლაზი) or Chani (ჭანი) in Georgian) are an ethnic group who live primarily on the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia. ...


Modern era

Atatürk Köşkü in Trabzon
Ortahisar neighbourhood in winter
Ortahisar neighbourhood in winter

The city was the site of one of the key battles between the Ottoman and Russian armies during the Caucasus Campaign of World War I which resulted in the capture of Trabzon by the Russian army under command of Grand Duke Nicholas and Nikolai Yudenich in April 1916. Following the Treaty of Sèvres and subsequent Treaty of Lausanne, Trabzon again became a part of Turkey. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Azerbaijan Democratic Republic Mountainous Republic of the Northern Caucasus Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Democratic Republic of Armenia Central Caspian Dictatorship Democratic Republic of Georgia Commanders Enver Pasha Vehip Pasha Kerim Pasha Mustafa Kemal Kazım Karabekir Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein Illarion Vorontsov-Dashkov Nikolai Yudenich Andranik Ozanian Drastamat Kanayan Garegin Njdeh Movses Silikyan Lionel Dunsterville Strength •3rd... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai Nikolaevich Grand Duke Nikolai (Nicholas) Nikolayevich Romanov (Russian: Николай Николаевич Романов (младший - the younger)) (6 November 1856 - 5 January 1929) was a Russian general in World War I. A grandson of Nicholas I of Russia, he was commander in chief of the Russian armies on the main... General Nikolai Yudenich Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (July 18, 1862 (July 30, New Style ) – October 5, 1933), was the most successful general of the Russian Imperial Army during World War I. Later a leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ... The Treaty of Sèvres is a peace treaty that the Allies of World War I and the Ottoman Empire signed on 10 August 1920 after World War I. Representatives from the governments of the parties involved signed the treaty in Sèvres, France. ... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly...


During World War II shipping activity was limited because the Black Sea had again become a battlefield. Hence the most important export products, tobacco and hazelnut, could not be sold and living standards degraded. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in genus Nicotiana. ... Binomial name Corylus avellana L. The Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) is a shrub native to Europe and Asia. ...


As a result of the general development of the country, Trabzon has developed its economic and commercial life. The Coastal Highway and a new harbour have increased commercial relations with Central Anatolia, which has led to some growth. However, progress has been slow in comparison with the western and the southwestern parts of Turkey. Coastal Highway is built in Sind and Balochistan provinces of Pakistan. ...


Trabzon is famous throughout Turkey for its anchovies, which are the main meal in many restaurants in the city. Major exports from Trabzon are hazelnuts and tea. The anchovies are a family (Engraulidae) of small but common fish. ... Binomial name Corylus avellana L. The Common Hazel (Corylus avellana) is a shrub native to Europe and Asia. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ...


The city still has a sizable community of Greek-speaking Muslims, most of whom are originally from the vicinities of Tonya and Of. However, the Pontic Greek language (known as Ποντιακά, Pontiaka) is spoken mostly by the older generations.[1] Greek Muslims, also known as Greek-speaking Muslims, are Muslims of Greek ethnic origin, and are found primarily in Turkey, Cyprus, and Greece, although migrations to Lebanon and Syria have been reported[1]. The vast majority of the autochthonous Muslim minority in Greece (including the Greek-speaking Muslims), most of... For the pre-modern Japanese trade association, see Tonya (Japan). ... Of is a town and a district of Trabzon Province in the Black Sea region of Turkey. ... Pontic Greek is a form of the Greek language originally spoken on the shores of the Black Sea, the Pontus, today mainly in Greece. ...


Trabzon is known as a stronghold of ultra-nationalistic political currents in Turkey.[2] In April 2006, Catholic priest Andrea Santoro was murdered in his church in Trabzon.[1] Ogün Samast, the suspect in the January 2007 murder of Armenian intellectual Hrant Dink, is from Trabzon.[3] Don Andrea Santoro was a Catholic priest who was murdered on February 5, 2006 at the Santa Maria Church in Trabzon, Turkey, where he served as a member of the Catholic churchs Fidei donum missionary program. ... Still shot from the CCTV video footage showing Ogün Samast, the presumed assassin of Hrant Dink (published by the Istanbul Police Department) Ogün Samast (b. ... Hrant Dink (Armenian: , IPA: [][1]) (September 15, 1954 – January 19, 2007) was a Turkish-Armenian editor, journalist and column writer. ...


Geography and climate

The city has a total area of 4.685 km² and It is bordered by the cities of Rize, Giresun and Gümüşhane. The total area is 22,4% plateaux and 77,6% hills. Rize is the capital of Rize Province, in north-east Turkey, on the Black Sea coast. ... Giresun (Greek: Κερασούντα ) is a town on the Black Sea of northeastern Turkey, about 110 miles (175 km) west of the city of Trabzon. ... Gümüşhane is a city in northeastern Turkey. ...


Rivers

The Değirmendere (former Piksidis), Yanbolu, Fol, Karadere, Koha, Sürmene (former Manahos), Solaklı, Baltacı and İyidere (former Kalopotamos)


Lakes

Çakırgöl, Uzungöl, Serra Gölü Uzungöl Uzungöl (Long lake in Turkish) is a village and lake situated to the south of the city of Trabzon in Turkey. ...


Climate

Trabzon has a typical Black Sea climate, with rain the year round and temperatures reaching up to around 27°C in the summer. Winters are cool and damp, and the lowest temperature is around 5°C in January. The water temperature fluctuates between 10°–20°C throughout the year. The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ...


People

Greek has been spoken in the region since early antiquity. The local dialect has developed along its own lines and is today partly intelligible to speakers of Standard Greek. It was spoken in Turkey mainly by a Greek Orthodox population up until the population exchange in large parts of the coastal region of the Eastern Black Sea. Laz people also live in Trabzon. Greek Orthodox Church can refer to any of several hierarchical churches within the larger group of mutually recognizing Eastern Orthodox churches: the Orthodox Church of Constantinople, headed by the Patriarch of Constantinople, who is also the first among equals of the Eastern Orthodox Communion. ... Cartoon depicting a Turk and a Greek arguing over the exchange. ... The Laz (Lazi (ლაზი) or Lazepe (ლაზეფე) in Laz, Lazlar in Turkish, Lazi (ლაზი) or Chani (ჭანი) in Georgian) are an ethnic group who live primarily on the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia. ...


The Chepnis, an Oghuz tribe that played an important role in the history of the Eastern Black Sea area in the 13th and 14th centuries, live in the Şalpazarı (Ağasar valley) region of the Trabzon Province.[4] The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz, Ghuzz and Uz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Åžalpazarı is a district of Trabzon Province of Turkey. ...


An Armenian community existed in Trebizond as early as the 7th century.[5] During the Mongol invasions of the 13th and 14th centuries, numerous Armenian families fled here from Ani.[5] Mongol invasions can refer to: 1205–1209 invasion of Western China 1211–1234 invasion of Northern China 1218–1220 invasion of Central Asia 1220-1223, 1235-1330 invasions of Georgia and the Caucasus 1220–1224 of the Cumans 1223–36 invasion of Volga Bulgaria 1231–1259 invasion of Korea 1237... The walls of Ani showing a defensive tower Ani (Armenian: , Latin: Abnicum[1] ) is a ruined and uninhabited medieval city-site situated in the Turkish province of Kars, beside the border with Armenia. ...


There is some controversy regarding the extent of the presence of Armenians in the Trabzon area. A study of tax registers from 1515 by Turkish scholar M. Tayyip Gökbilgin indicates there were only 15 Armenian households in Trabzon at that time (1.6 percent; there were 774 Greek and 179 Muslim households).[6] On the other hand, according to Ronald C. Jennings, in the early 1500's, Armenians made up approximately 13 percent[7] of the city's population, and they numbered roughly equal to the Muslims in the city in that period.[8] 1515 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the late 19th century the Armenian community was persecuted during the Hamidian massacres.[9][10] Prior to WWI, a sizable Armenian community of 30,000 was present in the city[5]. During the Armenian Genocide, most were killed or deported.[5] Following the Russian capture of Trabzon in April 1916, some 500 Armenian survivors,[5] as well as monks of the local Armenian monastery returned.[11] They remained there till after the war.[5] Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Contemporary political cartoon portraying Hamid as a butcher of the Armenians During the long reign of Sultan Hamid, unrest and rebellion occurred in many areas of the Ottoman Empire. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Russian Empire Commanders Vehip Pasha Yudenich Strength Third Army Russian Caucasus Army The Trebizond Campaign, also known as the Battle of Trebizond was a series of brilliant Russian naval and land operations that resulted in the capture of Trebizond. ... Kaymakli monastery on a pre-1915 postcard. ...


Trabzon has a sizeable Russian minority, who began emigrating to the region after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Russian language shops and facilities can be found in the town. Russians are generally subject to stereotypes and suspicion. A subset of Russian women work in the local prostitution industry and are thus derisively known as "Natashas" by Trabzonites.


Because of the presence of Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon hosts students from all over Turkey, especially the East and the Black Sea region, as well as students from Central Asian states. Outside of the university student population, most Trabzon Turks would likely self-identify as Black Sea Region Turks, in addition to possible minority identifications such as Kurdish, Laz, Circassian, Armenian, or Pontic Greek. As in the whole of Turkey, the populations of these and other minority groups are unknown and the subject of debate, due to the government's omission of ethnic group details in the census, and a historical nationalist policy which promotes self-identification with a united Turkish identity. Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi (KTU) (English: ) is a public research university in Trabzon, Turkey, founded in 1955. ... Look up Kurdish in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Laz may refer to one of the following: Lazs (a Caucasian (Kartvelian) people) Laz language The wife of the Babylonian God Nergal Laz, Finistère (a commune in the Finistère département, France) Lvivskyi Avtobusnyi Zavod (a bus factory in Ukraine) This page concerning a three-letter acronym or... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ... Pontus was a name applied in ancient times to extensive tracts of country in the northeast of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) bordering on the Euxine (Black Sea), which was often called simply Pontos (the Main), by the Greeks. ...


Origin of the Pontic Turks and Greeks

It is most likely that the majority of the population of Trabzon and Rize (and other ancient Greek colonies in the Pontus region) — except up to the time of the Chepni Turk immigration waves — consisted of indigenous Caucasian tribes (the Colchians and the Laz) who had been partly Hellenized religiously and linguistically.[12] Michael Meeker, for example, stresses the cultural resemblances (e.g. in village structure, house types, and pastoral techniques) between the Eastern Black Sea coast and the areas in the Caucasus proper.[13] Rize is the capital of Rize Province, in north-east Turkey, on the Black Sea coast. ... In ancient geography, Colchis (sometimes spelled also as Kolchis) (Greek: Κολχίς, kŏl´kĬs; Georgian: კოლხეთი, Kolkheti) was a nearly triangular district in Caucasus. ... The Laz (Lazi (ლაზი) or Lazepe (ლაზეფე) in Laz, Lazlar in Turkish, Lazi (ლაზი) or Chani (ჭანი) in Georgian) are an ethnic group who live primarily on the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia. ... Hellenization (or Hellenisation) is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something non-Greek becomes Greek (Hellenistic civilization). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ...


Very little has been written on the Turkification of the area. There are no historical records of any considerable Turkish-speaking groups in the Trabzon area until the late 15th century, with the exception of the Chepnis. The original Greek (and in some regions Armenian) speakers imposed features from their mother language into Turkish. Heath W. Lowry's[14] work about Ottoman tax books[15] (Tahrir Defteri) with Halil İnalcık claims that most Turks of Trabzon city are of Greek origin. Turkification is a term used to describe a cultural change in which something or someone non-Turkish is made to become Turkish. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ...


Tourist attractions

The 10th century Trebizond Gospel is a testimony to the ancient artistic traditions of the city.

Trabzon has a number of tourist attractions, some of them dating back to the times of the ancient empires that once existed in the region. In the city itself, one can find a hub of shops, stalls and restaurants surrounding the "Meydan", a square in the center of the city, which includes a tea garden. Image File history File links Trapezunt_gospel. ... Image File history File links Trapezunt_gospel. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Illumination representing Mark the Evangelist. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... Empires is currently a Half-Life 2 modification that saw its first public release for the HL2 source engine on March 4, 2006. ...

  • The Hagia Sophia (Turkish: Ayasofya Müzesi), a stunning Byzantine church, is probably the town's most important tourist attraction.
  • Trabzon Castle ruins are visible in the town but cannot be visited as they fall in a military zone. The outside wall of the castle now serves as the back wall of a military building.
  • Atatürk Köşkü is a lovely Victorian-era villa, which was given to Ataturk when he visited Trabzon in 1924. It houses period rooms and acts as a shrine to the memory of the Turks' beloved great leader.
  • Boztepe Park is a small park and tea garden on the hills above Trabzon that has a panoramic view of nearly the entire city. The terrain in Trabzon is such that although the view is far above that of the buildings below, it is still close enough to be able to observe the flow of traffic and the people moving about in the city.
  • Trabzon Museum is located in the town center and offers interesting exhibits on the history of the region, including an impressive collection of Byzantine-era artifacts.
  • Trabzon's Bazaar District offers interesting shopping opportunities on ancient narrow streets, continuing from Kunduracilar Street from the Meydan (town square).

Within Trabzon Province, the main attractions are the Sümela Monastery and Uzungöl. The monastery is built on the side of a very steep mountain overlooking the green forests below and is about 50km south of the city. Uzungöl is famous for the natural beauty of the area and the amazing scenery. Hagia Sophia museum, Trabzon, 2002 The Hagia Sophia Museum (in Turkish: Ayasofya Müzesi) is a former church and mosque located in the city of Trabzon in the north-eastern part of Turkey. ... Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881–November 10, 1938), Turkish army officer, revolutionary, and anti-imperialist statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ... Trabzon is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. ... Sümela Monastery Sümela Monastery, 1903 Chapels, 2006 The Sümela Monastery (Greek: , Turkish: ) stands at the foot of a steep cliff facing the Altındere valley in the region of Maçka in Trabzon Province, Turkey. ... Uzungöl Uzungöl (Long lake in Turkish) is a village and lake situated to the south of the city of Trabzon in Turkey. ...


Other important sites of interest include: Kaymaklı Monastery, Kızlar (Panagia Theoskepastos) Monastery, Kuştul (Gregorios Peristera) Monastery, Kızlar (Panagia Kerameste) Monastery, Vazelon Monastery, Hagios Savvas (Maşatlık) Cave Churches, Hagia Anna (Little Ayvasıl), Sotha (St. John), Hagios Theodoros, Hagios Konstantinos, Hagios Khristophoras, Hagios Kiryaki, Santa Maria, Hagios Mikhail and Panagia Tzita churches, Fatih Mosque (originally the Panagia Khrysokephalos Church), Yeni Cuma Mosque (originally the Hagios Eugenios Church), Nakip Mosque (originally the Hagios Andreas Church), Hüsnü Köktuğ Mosque (originally the Hagios Eleutherios Church), İskender Pasha Mosque, Semerciler Mosque, Çarşı Mosque, and the Gülbahar Hatun Mosque and Türbe. Kaymakli monastery on a pre-1915 postcard. ... KuÅŸtul Monastery KuÅŸtul Monastery (Turkish: , Greek: [1]) is located near ÅžimÅŸirli village, Maçka district, Trabzon Province, Turkey. ...


Food

Trabzon regional cuisine is traditionally reliant on fish, especially hamsi (fresh anchovies). While not a gourmet-food center, there are some delicious regional dishes such as Akcabaat kofte (spicy lamb meatball from the Akcabaat district), pide (Turkish pizza without tomato sauce and with fresh butter), kuymak (Turkish polenta made with cornmeal and plenty of fresh butter and cheese), and kara lahana corbasi (bean and cabbage soup). The best way to experience real Trabzon cuisine is to get yourself invited to a local's home.


Culture

Trabzon culture has a reputation for being religiously conservative and nationalist [12]. Many Trabzonites generally show a strong sense of loyalty to family, friends, Ataturk, their religion, and Turkey. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881—November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ...


The Black Sea region has a myriad of village and local folk culture, especially evident in folk music, folk dances, and local cuisine specialties. Black Sea Region // Black Sea Region Amasya Province Artvin Province Bartın Province Bayburt Province Bolu Province Çorum Province Düzce Province Giresun Province Gümüşhane Province Karabük Province Kastamonu Province Ordu Province Rize Province Samsun Province Sinop Province Tokat Province Trabzon Province Zonguldak Province The Black Sea...


Outside of the relatively urban space of Trabzon proper, and within it as well, rural traditions from Black Sea village life are still thriving. This includes traditional gender roles, social conservatism, hospitality and willingness to help strangers, and all the trappings, both positive and negative, of an agrarian lifestyle, such as hard work, poverty, strong family ties, and a closeness to nature.


Sports

Football is by far the most popular sport in Trabzon, as Trabzonspor is the only Turkish club in Anatolia to win the Turkish Super League (6 times) apart from the "Big Three" of Istanbul (Galatasaray, Fenerbahçe and Beşiktaş). Due to Trabzonspor's success, the decades-old term "Big Three" which defined the largest clubs of Turkey had to be modified into the "Big Four". Trabzonspor is also one of the most successful Turkish clubs in the European Cups, managing to beat numerous prominent teams like Barcelona, Inter, Liverpool, Aston Villa and Olympique Lyonnais. Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Trabzonspor is a Turkish football club, from the Black Sea port city of Trabzon playing in the Turkish Premier Super League. ... Anatolia and Europe Anatolia (Turkish: from Greek: Ανατολία - Anatolia) is a peninsula of Western Asia which forms the greater part of the Asian portion of Turkey, as opposed to the European portion (Thrace, or traditionally Rumelia). ... The Turkcell Super League (formerly National League, First Football League and First Super League respectively, Turkish: Turkcell Süper Lig) is the top-flight league in Turkish nationwide football, and the most popular sporting competition in the country. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ... Galatasaray SK Logo Galatasaray Spor Kulübü (Galatasaray Sports Club) is a Turkish sports club based in İstanbul which is most famous for its football section. ... Fenerbahçe Spor Kulübü (Fenerbahçe Sports Club), commonly known as Fenerbahçe [pronounced fe-nehr-baah-che], is a sports club of Ä°stanbul, Turkey. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Union Européenne de Football Association or Union of European Football Associations in English, almost always referred to by the acronym UEFA (pronounced (you-AY-fuh) or (oo-Ay-fuh) or ), is the administrative and controlling body for European football. ... Futbol Club Barcelona, known familiarly as Barça (IPA: baɾ.sÉ™), is a sports club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Football Club Internazionale Milano, commonly referred to as simply Internazionale, Inter or Inter Milan,[1] is an Italian professional football club based in Milan, Lombardy and was originally founded in 1908. ... Liverpool Football Club are an English professional football club based in Liverpool, Merseyside, who play in the Premier League; they are historically the most successful club in the history of English football, having won more trophies than any other English club. ... “Aston Villa” redirects here. ... Olympique Lyonnais (popularly known as OL, or simply Lyon) is a French football club based in Lyon. ...


Trabzon will host the First Edition of the Black Sea Games on July, 2007.


Notable natives

  • Suleiman the Magnificent, Ottoman Emperor
  • St. Eugenius of Trebizond, Christian saint and martyr
  • Johannes Bessarion, bishop, scholar and writer who influenced the Renaissance
  • George of Trebizond, philosopher, scholar and writer who influenced the Renaissance
  • Michael Panaretos, historian and statesman
  • Gregory Choniades, astronomer
  • John VIII, Greek Orthodox Patriarch
  • Cevdet Sunay, General and 5th President of Turkey
  • Hasan Saka, politician, Minister of Foreign Affairs and Prime Minister
  • Osman Şirin, President of the High Court of Appeals of Turkey
  • Ioannis Passalidis, Greek politician
  • Bahriye Üçok, theologist, politician, writer, columnist and women's rights activist
  • Arshak Fetvajian, Armenian artist, architecture expert
  • Altan Öymen, journalist, writer and politician
  • Engin Ardıç, writer and TV commentator
  • Şenol Güneş, football player and manager
  • Tugay Kerimoğlu, football player
  • Hami Mandıralı, football player
  • Fatih Tekke, football player
  • Nihat Genç, writer
  • Sunay Akın, writer
  • Tuğba Özay, top model

Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Saint Eugenios was martyred under Diocletian and a cult devoted to him developed in Trebizond. ... Johannes Bessarion, or Basilius (c. ... George of Trebizond (1395- August 12, 1484), Greek philosopher and scholar, one of the pioneers of the revival of letters in the Western world, was born in the island of Crete, and derived his surname Trapezuntios from the fact that his ancestors were from Trebizond. ... Michael Panaretos (1320 - ca. ... Gregory Choniades (Choniates, Chioniades) (d. ... Joannes Xiphilinus, a native of Trebizond, also known as John Xiphilinus or John VIII, was patriarch of Constantinople from 1064-1075. ... Cevdet Sunay was a Turkish army officer, political leader and the 5th president of Turkey. ... Hasan Saka was born in 1885 in Trabzon. ... Osman Şirin (born on November 5, 1943 in Vakfıkebir, a town in the Trabzon Province), is a high ranked Turkish judge and currently the Deputy First President of the High Court of Appeals of Turkey. ... Ioannis Passalidis (1886-1968) (Greek: Ιωάννης Πασαλίδης) was a prominent member of the Greek Left and founder of the United Democratic Left party. ... Bahriye Üçok (1919 - October 6, 1990) was a female Turkish academic of theology, left-wing politican, writer, columnist and womens rights activist, who was assassinated by Islamic militants. ... Altan Öymen (1932 Trabzon) is a Turkish journalist, author and former politician. ... Engin Ardıç is a well known Turkish journalist and writer who, with the commencement of private television broadcasting in Turkey, also worked as a television commentator in the early 1990s. ... Şenol Güneş (born 1 June 1952 in Trabzon) is one of the most famous Turkish footballers of all time, and is now also a very successful manager. ... Tugay Kerimoğlu (born August 24, 1970 in Trabzon, Turkey) is a Turkish footballer who has been playing for Blackburn Rovers since 2001. ... Hami Mandıralı, born on July 20, 1968 in Arsin, a coastal town east of Trabzon, Turkey. ... Fatih Tekke (born September 9, 1977) is a Turkish football player. ... Sunay Akın (born 1962, Trabzon, Turkey) is a Turkish poet, writer, TV host, and journalist. ... Tuğba Özay Tuğba Özay Tuğba Özay Tuğba Özay is an extremely high-profile Turkish model and a famous star in Turkey. ...

Sister cities

Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Sochi (Russian: , IPA: [soʨɪ]) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Rizhao (Chinese: 日照; pinyin: ) is a prefecture-level city in southeastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... Szigetvár (Croatian: , Serbian: or Sigetvar) is a town in Baranya County in southern Hungary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Georgia. ... A general view of Batumi Batumi Batumi (Georgian: , formerly Batum or Batoum) is a seaside city on the Black Sea coast and capital of Adjara, an autonomous republic in southwest Georgia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Map of Iran and surrounding countries, showing location of Rasht Rasht ( رشت in Persian, also transcribed as Resht) is the capital of Gilan province in northwestern Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Zanjan is the capital of Zanjan province in northwestern Iran. ...

See also

Gazianteps 1st Iraq International Fair, the second of which starts on 23 May 2007, was attended by more than 1000 companies from 35 countries. ... Karadeniz Teknik Üniversitesi (KTU) (English: ) is a public research university in Trabzon, Turkey, founded in 1955. ... Black Sea Region // Black Sea Region Amasya Province Artvin Province Bartın Province Bayburt Province Bolu Province Çorum Province Düzce Province Giresun Province Gümüşhane Province Karabük Province Kastamonu Province Ordu Province Rize Province Samsun Province Sinop Province Tokat Province Trabzon Province Zonguldak Province Provinces of Turkey... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... The Laz (Lazi (ლაზი) or Lazepe (ლაზეფე) in Laz, Lazlar in Turkish, Lazi (ლაზი) or Chani (ჭანი) in Georgian) are an ethnic group who live primarily on the Black Sea coastal regions of Turkey and Georgia. ... The term Pontic Greeks, Pontian Greeks, Pontians or Greeks of Pontus (Greek: or , Turkish: ) can refer to Greeks specifically from the area of Pontus in the region of the former Empire of Trebizond on the Black Sea coast of Eastern Turkey, or in other cases more generally all Greeks from... We dont have an article called Kemençe Start this article Search for Kemençe in. ... Trabzonspor is a Turkish football club, from the Black Sea port city of Trabzon playing in the Turkish Premier Super League. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Trabzon Greek: A language without a tongue, Ömer Asan
  2. ^ Turkey's nationalist hotbed March 1, 2007, report by BBC correspondent Sarah Rainsford.
  3. ^ Turkey's nationalist hotbed March 1, 2007, report by BBC correspondent Sarah Rainsford.
  4. ^ Bernt Brendemoen, The Turkish dialects of Trabzon, University of Oslo, 2002 p18
  5. ^ a b c d e f *Ambart︠s︡umi︠a︡n, Victor Amazaspovich; Abel Poghosi Simonyan; Makich‘ Vahani Arzumanyan, (1986). Haykakan sovetakan hanragitaran ("Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia") 12. 87. OCLC 10431241. 
  6. ^ M. Tayyip Gökbilgin. XVI.yüzyıl başlarında Trabzon livası ve Doğu Karadeniz Bölgesi, 1962, Türk Tarih Kurumu. p. 297
  7. ^ 15.5% of 85%
  8. ^ Jennings, Ronald C. (Jan. 1976) Urban Population in Anatolia in the 16th Century: International Journal of MiddleEast Studies, Vol. 7, No. 1 pp. 21-57.
  9. ^ Hundreds killed at Trebizond; Soldiers joined the mob in looting and in firing on Armenians, New York Times, October 18, 1895
  10. ^ Moslems desperate, New York Times, November 3, 1895
  11. ^ The Byzantine Churches of Trebizond, Selina Ballance, Anatolian Studies, volume 10, page 169.
  12. ^ Michael Meeker, "The Black Sea Turks: some aspects of their ethnic and cultural background", International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies (1971) 2:318–345
  13. ^ Meeker, 1971: p. 326 "As the mentioned, the villages along the Black Sea coast from Ordu to Artvin are composed of many hamlets, each dominating a hilltop or mountain side on which its own crops are separetly planted. This type of settlemet pattern is in sharp contrast with the typical nucleated anatolian village, but its charesterictic of many rural settlements of the Western Caucasus notably those of Abkhaz, Circassians, Georgians, Mingrelians and Ossetes…"
    For similar ideas See: Karl Koch, Reise duch Russland nach dem Kaukasis chen Istmus in den Jahren, 1836. vol1. p. 378; W.E.D. Allen, A History of the Georgian People, London 1932. pp. 54–5; Özhan Öztürk, Karadeniz. 2005. p. 35, 757–68. For lingusitic influence see: Bernt Brendomoen, Laz influence on the Black Sea Turkish Dialects, 1990 (Proceedings from 32nd meeting of the Permanent International Altaistic Conference)
  14. ^ Professor. Department of Near Eastern Studies. Princeton University
  15. ^ Trabzon Şehrinin İslamlaşması ve Türkleşmesi 1461–1583 ISBN 975-518-116-4
  • Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites eds. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister: "Trapezus"
  • Özhan Öztürk (2005). Karadeniz (Black Sea): Ansiklopedik Sözlük. 2 Cilt. Heyamola Yayıncılık. İstanbul. ISBN 975-6121-00-9
  • Bryer, Anthony (1985-03). Byzantine Monuments and Topography of the Pontos (Dumbarton Oaks Studies,20) Two Volume Set. Dumbarton Oaks Pub Service. ISBN 088402122X. 

12. See note 2. Also http://www.csmonitor.com/2007/0126/p06s01-woeu.html, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/08/world/europe/08turkey.html?ex=1328590800&en=b1c4ebf924e99da2&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss Picture of Ömer Asan, 2005 in Edirne. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The University of Oslo (in Norwegian Universitetet i Oslo, in Latin Universitas Osloensis) was founded in 1811 as Universitas Regia Fredericiana (the Royal Frederick University, in Norwegian Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet). ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ...


External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Trabzon

Coordinates: 41°00′N, 39°44′E Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


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