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Encyclopedia > Toxicogenomics

Toxicogenomics is a form of analysis by which the activity of a particular toxin or chemical substance on living tissue can be identified based upon a profiling of its known effects on genetic material. Once viable, the technique should serve for toxicology and toxin-determination a role analogous to DNA-testing in the forensic identification of individuals. A toxin, in a scientific context, is a biologically produced substance that causes injury to the health of a living thing on contact or absorption, typically by interacting with biological macromolecules such as enzymes and receptors. ... Biological tissue is a group of cells that perform a similar function. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicon and logos) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule DNA Under electron microscope Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) or deoxyribose nucleic acid is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and many viruses). ... Forensics or forensic science is the application of science to questions which are of interest to the legal system. ...


Toxicogenomics may also be of use as a preventative measure to predict adverse "side", i.e. toxic, effects, of pharmaceutical drugs on susceptible individuals. This involves using genomic techniques such as gene expression level profiling and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis of the genetic variation of individuals. Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ... Genomics is the study of an organisms genome and the use of the genes. ... Gene expression (also protein expression or often simply expression) is the process by which a genes information is converted into the structures and functions of a cell. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ...


Studies of those types are then correlated to adverse toxicological effects in clinical trials so that suitable diagnostic markers (measurable signs) for these adverse effects can be developed. Toxicology (from the Greek words toxicon and logos) is the study of the adverse effects of chemicals on living organisms. ... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Diagnosis (from the Greek words dia = by and gnosis = knowledge) is the process of identifying a disease by its signs, symptoms and results of various diagnostic procedures. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


Using such methods, it would then theoretically possible to test an individual patient for his or her susceptibility to these adverse effects before administering a drug. Patients that would show the marker for an adverse effect would be switched to a different drug. While this approach is currently theoretical, it has great potential. In semantics, the patient is the passive part of a process. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... In semantics, the patient is the passive part of a process. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ... A drug is any substance that can be used to modify a chemical process or processes in the body, for example to treat an illness, relieve a symptom, enhance a performance or ability, or to alter states of mind. ...


There are many well-publicized cases in which popular drugs such as Vioxx and fen-phen were pulled from the market because of toxic effects experienced by a small percentage of patients, with a cost of many billions of dollars to the companies responsible, and the loss of a helpful drug to individuals not at risk for the side effects. If an accurate test using toxicogenomic mehods could be developed that successfully identified patients who are susceptible to these adverse effects, these drugs could be returned to market with very little risk. Rofecoxib is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) that was used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, acute pain conditions, and dysmenorrhoea. ... Fen-phen was an anti-obesity medication (an anorectic) which consisted of two drugs: fenfluramine and phentermine. ... For a list of biologically injurious substances, including toxins and other materials, as well as their effects, see poison. ... Adverse effect, in medicine, is an abnormal, harmful, undesired and/or unintended side-effect, although not necessarily unexpected, which is obtained as the result of a therapy or other medical intervention, such as drug/chemotherapy, physical therapy, surgery, medical procedure, use of a medical device, etc. ...


Such would have the triple benefit of re-allowing the therapeutic use of a previously banned drug, preventing potentially life-threatening side effects, and restoring the majority of the lost market share of these drugs to the company that developed them. A side-effect is any effect other than an intended primary effect. ... Market share, in strategic management and marketing, is the percentage or proportion of the total available market or market segment that is being serviced by a company. ...


See also: pharmacogenomics Pharmacogenomics is the branch of pharmaceutics which deals with the influence of genetic variation on drug response in patients. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
New study shows promise of toxicogenomics in environmental monitoring (953 words)
There also is a chronic toxicity test that assesses the impact of lower levels of exposure on reproduction, but again, exactly how the toxicant is affecting the organism is unclear, the researchers said.
But with toxicogenomics, scientists are hoping to understand toxicants based upon characteristic changes in an organism's gene expression.
Toxicogenomics could also be used for chemical screening, the researchers said.
Toxicogenomics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (277 words)
Toxicogenomics is a form of analysis by which the activity of a particular toxin or chemical substance on living tissue can be identified based upon a profiling of its known effects on genetic material.
Toxicogenomics may also be of use as a preventative measure to predict adverse "side", i.e.
If an accurate test using toxicogenomic mehods could be developed that successfully identified patients who are susceptible to these adverse effects, these drugs could be returned to market with very little risk.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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