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Encyclopedia > Toxic mold

Molds are ubiquitous in nature, and mold spores are a common component of household dust. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ... It has been suggested that Toxic mold be merged into this article or section. ...


The term toxic mold is sometimes used to refer to mold-related indoor air quality problems. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ...


Molds excrete liquids or gases as defecatory matter; not all can be detected by smell. Some molds generate toxic liquid or gaseous compounds, called mycotoxins. Of these molds, some only produce mycotoxins under specific growing conditions. Mycotoxins are harmful or lethal to humans and animals when exposure is high enough. Mycotoxin (from Gk. ...


Exposure to significant quantities of mold spores can also cause toxic/allergic reactions, but spores and mycotoxins are not the same thing.

Contents

Growing conditions

For significant mold growth to occur, there must be a source of water (which could be invisible humidity), a source of food, and a substrate capable of sustaining growth. Common building materials, such as plywood, drywall, furring strips, carpets, and carpet padding are food for molds. In carpet, invisible dust is the food source (see also dust mites). After a single incident of water damage occurs in a building, molds grow inside walls and then become dormant until a subsequent incident of high humidity; this illustrates how mold can appear to be a sudden problem, long after a previous flood or water incident that did not produce a mold-related problem. The right conditions re-activate mold. Studies also show that mycotoxin levels are perceptibly higher in buildings that have once had a water incident (source CMHC). This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Binomial name Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus Trouessart, 1897 The house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus in Europe and Dermatophagoides farinae in North America), sometimes abbreviated by allergists to HDM, is a cosmopolitan guest in human habitation. ...


History

Since Biblical times it has been known that indoor mold growth can be a health hazard. (See Leviticus 14:39-47.) In the 1930s, mold was identified as the cause behind the mysterious deaths of farm animals in Russia and other countries. Stachybotrys chartarum was found growing on wet grain used for animal feed. Leviticus is the third book of the Hebrew Bible, also the third book in the Torah (five books of Moses). ... Binomial name Stachybotrys chartarum (Ehrenberg) Hughes Synonyms Stachybotrys atra Corda Stachybotrys alternans Stilbospora chartarum Ehrenberg Stachybotrys chartarum (obsolete: Stachybotrys alternans and Stachybotrys atra) is a greenish-black mold that is commonly found outdoors and sometimes found in damp or flooded homes. ...


In the 1970s, building construction techniques changed in response to the energy crises. As a result, homes and buildings became more air-tight. Also, cheaper materials such as drywall came into common use. This combination of increased moisture and suitable substrates contributed to increased mold growth inside buildings. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about energy crises in general. ... For the musical group Drywall, see Drywall (musical project) Example of drywall with mud, the common interior building material. ...


Today, the agriculture industry keeps a close eye on mold and mycotoxin levels in grains in order to prevent the contamination of animal feed and human food supplies. In 2005 Diamond Pet Foods, a US pet food manufacturer, experienced a significant rise in the number of corn shipments containing elevated levels of aflatoxin. This mold toxin eventually made it into the pet food supply, and dozens of dogs died before the food could be recalled. Diamond Pet Foods, Inc. ...


Causes

Because common building materials are capable of sustaining mold growth, and mold spores are ubiquitous, mold growth in an indoor environment is typically related to an indoor water or moisture problem. Leaky roofs, building maintenance problems, or indoor plumbing problems can lead to mold growth inside homes, schools, or office buildings. Another common source of mold growth is flooding. A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings Plumbing, from the Latin for lead (plumbum), is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for potable water systems and the drainage of waste. ...


Common molds

Species Aspergillus caesiellus Aspergillus candidus Aspergillus carneus Aspergillus clavatus Aspergillus deflectus Aspergillus flavus Aspergillus fumigatus Aspergillus glaucus Aspergillus nidulans Aspergillus niger Aspergillus ochraceus Aspergillus oryzae Aspergillus parasiticus Aspergillus penicilloides Aspergillus restrictus Aspergillus sojae Aspergillus sydowi Aspergillus terreus Aspergillus ustus Aspergillus versicolor Aspergillus is a genus of around 200 filamentous fungi... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Cryptococcus is a genus of fungus. ... Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. ... Species Penicillium bilaiae Penicillium camemberti Penicillium candida Penicillium claviforme Penicillium crustosum Penicillium glaucum Penicillium marneffei Penicillium notatum Penicillium purpurogenum Penicillium roqueforti Penicillium stoloniferum Penicillium viridicatum Penicillium verrucosum Penicillium commune Penicillium is a genus of ascomyceteous fungi that includes: Penicillium bilaiae, which is an agricultural inoculant. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Diversity about 35 species; see List of Trichoderma species Trichoderma are in nearly all soils, where they are the most prevalent culturable fungi. ...

Symptoms

Human bodies can tolerate mycotoxins in small quantities. At what point they constitute a health hazard depends on each individual. Immune system reactions vary; the health effects of mycotoxin exposure include chronic fatigue and irritability, flu-like symptoms, respiratory problems, headaches, cognitive problems, and skin problems. A stressed immune system results in a weakened individual.


Another serious health threat from mold exposure is systemic fungal infection. Immunocompromised individuals exposed to high levels of mold, or individuals with chronic exposure paired with mycotoxin exposure may become infected. Sinuses and digestive tract infections are most common; lung and skin infections are also possible. Alcohol and mycotoxin production may result from the fungal growth, leading to myriad symptoms. Sudden food allergies and digestive problems can mislead diagnosis. Treatment can be long-term (many years). Systemic infection may be of the environmental mold itself, or by other common food-related molds consumed under a weakened immune system. A weakened immune system may also give rise to opportunistic infections, for example bacterial infection.


Environmental illnesses can be difficult for healthcare practitioners to diagnose. Those who are living in houses contaminated by the mold may not be able to smell any odor and may be unaware that the problem exists.


Remedies

The first step in solving an indoor mold problem is stopping the source of moisture. Next is to remove the mold growth. Common remedies for small occurrences of mold include:

  • Sunlight
  • Ventilation
  • Non-porous building materials
  • Household cleansers

Significant mold growth may require professional mold remediation and removal of affected building materials. A conservative strategy is to discard any building materials saturated by the water intrusion or having visible mold growth.


See Mold Assessment. Purpose: The purpose this document is to assist environmental health professionals in the assessment of mold concerns with homes and businesses. ...


References

External links

  • NIBS: Whole Building Design Guide: Air Decontamination

  Results from FactBites:
 
What is toxic mold? Toxic mold symptoms. Black Mold Symptoms (0 words)
Mold is a form of fungus frequently found in moist, warm environments.
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Toxic Mold has become almost epidemic in some parts of the United States where foam board was used as wall insulation with no air space to let walls breathe.
Toxic mold - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (666 words)
Molds are ubiquitous in nature, and mold spores are a common component of household dust.
The term toxic mold is sometimes used to refer to mold-related indoor air quality problems.
For significant mold growth to occur, there must be a source of water and a substrate capable of sustaining the growth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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