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Council-manager government - Wikipedia

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Council-manager government

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The council-manager government is one of two main variations of representative municipal government (for contrast, also see Mayor-Council government). In the council-manager form of government, an elected city council (typically between 5 and 11 people) is responsible for making policy, passing ordinances, voting appropriations, and having overall supervisory authority in the city government. In such a government, the mayor (or equivalent executive) will perform strictly ceremonial duties or will act as a member and presiding officer of the council. Representative democracy comprises a form of democracy and theory of civics wherein voters choose (in free, secret, multi-party elections) representatives to act in their interests, but not as their proxies—i. ... As a general term, Municipal government refers to local government operating at the level of a city, town, or village. ... Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments. ... A mayor (from the Latin maÄ«or, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ...


The council will hire a city manager or administrator who will be responsible for supervising government operations and implementing the policies adopted by the council. The manager serves the council, usually with a contract that specifies duties and responsibilities. Ideally, the manager is apolitical, but this is often difficult. The council-manager government is one of 2 main variations of representative municipal government (for contrast, also see Mayor-Council government). ...


Municipal governments are usually administratively divided into several departments, depending on the size of the city. Though cities differ in the division of responsibility, the typical arrangement is to have the following departments handle the following roles: A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ...

  1. Urban planning and zoning:
  2. Public Works: construction and maintenance of all city-owned or operated assets, including the water supply system, sewer, streets, snow removal, street signs, vehicles, buildings, land, etc.
  3. Parks and Recreation: (construction and maintenance of) city parks, common areas, parkways, publicly owned lands, etc. Also, operation of various recreation programmes and facilities. Note: often this department operates as a regional entity with its own tax authority and governmental structure.
  4. Police
  5. Fire
  6. Accounting / Finance: collects taxes owed by the city, incorporates human resources department for city workers,
  7. Legal - Risk Management: handles all legal matters including writing municipal bonds, verifying the city is in compliance with state and federal mandates, responding to citizen lawsuits such as lawsuits allegedly stemming from city actions or inactions. Typical legal actions include someone who fell on city-owned sidewalks suing the city for negligence, or a city annexing land.
  8. Transportation (varies widely): If the city has a municipal bus or light rail service, this function may be its own department or it may be folded into the another of the above departments.

The council-manager system can be seen to place all power into the hands of the legislative branch. However, a city manager can be seen as a similar role to that of corporate CEO in providing professional management to an organization. Council-manager government is much like a publicly traded corporation. In a corporation, the board of directors appoints a CEO, makes major decisions and wields representative power on behalf of shareholders. Likewise in council-manager government, the city council appoints a city manager, makes major decisions, and wields representative power on behalf of the citizens. Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... In general, zoning is the division of an area into sub-areas, called zones. ... The notion of internal improvements or public works is a concept in economics and politics. ... Sewers transport wastewater from buildings to treatment facilities. ... Fire is a form of combustion. ... Accountancy (British English) or accounting (American English) is the process of maintaining, auditing, and processing financial information for business purposes. ... Finance studies and addresses the ways in which individuals, businesses and organizations raise, allocate and use monetary resources over time, taking into account the risks entailed in their projects. ... Generally, risk management is the process of measuring, or assessing risk and then developing strategies to manage the risk. ... Manufacturers are reponsible for adequately warning consumers of possibly dangerous products. ... Annexation is the legal merging of some territory into another body. ... A corporation is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name AS (anonymous society) or something similar, depending on language (see below). ...


The International City/County Management Association (ICMA) (see http://icma.org ) is a professional organization for city managers. It was founded in 1914, and has more than 8000 members worldwide.


This system of government is used in the majority of American cities with populations over 25,000.


In New England, where municipal government is often invested in an incorporated town, the city manager may be called town manager, and the council can often be referred to its traditional name of Board of Selectmen. Modern New England, the six northeastern-most states of the United States, indicated by red The New England region of the United States is located in the northeastern corner of the country. ... A street in Ynysybwl, Wales, relatively stereotypical of a small town A town is usually an urban area which is not considered to rank as a city. ... A Board of Selectmen is a common executive arm of a towns government in New England. ...


History of the council-manager government

This form of government was first adopted by Staunton, Virginia in 1908; Dayton, Ohio became the first major city to use the system in 1913. Staunton is an independent city within the confines of Augusta County in the state of Virginia. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dayton, Ohio Dayton is the county seat of Montgomery County, Ohio. ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


See also: mayor-council government, City Commission government, political science Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments. ... City Commission government is a form of municipal government that was once common in the United States, but has fallen out of favor, most cities formerly governed by Commission having switched to the Council-Manager form. ... Niccolò Machiavelli, ca 1500, became the key figure in realistic political theory, crucial to political science Political Science is an academic and research discipline that deals with the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behavior. ...


References


 
 

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