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Encyclopedia > Tower of London
Tower of London*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

State Party United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Type Cultural
Criteria ii, iv
Reference 488
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1988  (12th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower), is a historic monument in central London, on the north bank of the River Thames. It is located within the London Borough of Tower Hamlets and is separated from the eastern edge of the City of London by the open space known as Tower Hill. Tower of London most commonly refers to the Tower of London, a former Royal residence. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Download high resolution version (1417x1296, 233 KB)Tower of London, seen from the river, with a view of Traitors Gate, created by Viki Male 17/09/03 16:38  ©  This image is copyrighted. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Several places exist with the name Thames, and the word is also used as part of several brand and company names Most famous is the River Thames in England, on which the city of London stands Other Thames Rivers There is a Thames River in Canada There is a Thames... The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London borough to the east of the City of London and north of the River Thames in East London. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... Tower Hill is an elevated spot outside the Tower of London and just outside the limits of the City of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ...


The Tower of London is often identified with the White Tower, the original stark square fortress built by William the Conqueror in 1078. However, the tower as a whole is a complex of several buildings set within two concentric rings of defensive walls and a moat. The White Tower, as seen from the South West, showing the original - but now externally much altered entrance at ground level The White Tower The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. ... William I of England (c. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ...


The tower's primary function was a fortress, a royal palace, and a prison (particularly for high status and royal prisoners, such as the Princes in the Tower and the future Queen Elizabeth I). This last use has led to the phrase "sent to the Tower" (meaning "imprisoned"). It has also served as a place of execution and torture, an armoury, a treasury, a zoo, the Royal Mint, a public records office, an observatory, and since 1303, the home of the Crown Jewels of the United Kingdom. The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473 – 1483... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Execution is a synonym for the actioning of something, of putting something into effect. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... The Royal Armoury, Leeds An armory (Armoury) is a military depot used for the storage of weapons and ammunition. ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ... For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ... The Royal Mint is the body permitted to manufacture, or mint, coins in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about scientific observatories. ... Coronation Chair and Regalia of England The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at various other state functions. ...

Contents

Location

The Tower viewed from the Swiss Re Tower
The Tower viewed from the Swiss Re Tower

The Tower is located at the eastern boundary of the City of London financial district, adjacent to the River Thames and Tower Bridge. Between the river and the Tower is Tower Wharf, a freely accessible walkway with views of the river, tower and bridge, together with HMS Belfast and London City Hall on the opposite bank. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x612, 240 KB) The Tower of London, viewed from the SwissRe tower. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (816x612, 240 KB) The Tower of London, viewed from the SwissRe tower. ... Looking south down Bishopsgate, one of the main roads leading through Londons financial district. ... Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... This article is about the River Thames in southern England. ... For the bridge of the same name in California, see Tower Bridge (California). ... Belfast at her London berth in 2004. ... City Hall in London is the headquarters of the Greater London Authority, and stands on the south bank of the River Thames near to Tower Bridge. ...


The nearest public transport locations are:

Categories: Circle Line stations | District Line stations | London Underground stubs ... The London Underground is a rapid transit system that serves a large part of Greater London and some neighbouring areas of Essex, Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. ... Tower Gateway is a Docklands Light Railway station near the Tower of London on Tower Hill. ... London Transport Portal The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) is a light rail system serving the redeveloped Docklands area of East London, England. ... Fenchurch Street is a railway station in the south eastern corner of the City of London close by the Tower of London and two miles (3. ... National Rail uses the BR double-arrow logo A typical National Rail station sign showing the double-arrow logo National Rail is a brand name of the Association of Train Operating Companies (ATOC). ... Tower Millennium Pier is a pier on the River Thames, in the City of Westminster. ... St Katherine`s Docks were one of the commercial docks serving London, and are situated on the north side of the river Thames just east (downstream) of the Tower of London and Tower Bridge. ... Thames Clippers are a water-bus service operating in London on the River Thames. ...

Description

The Middle Tower (centre) guards the outer perimeter entrance across the (now) dry moat
The Middle Tower (centre) guards the outer perimeter entrance across the (now) dry moat
The White Tower and courtyard
The White Tower and courtyard
The Battlements from Tower Bridge approach
The Battlements from Tower Bridge approach

At the centre of the Tower of London stands the Norman White Tower. It is 90 feet (27 m) high and the walls vary from 15 feet (4.5 m) thick at the base to almost 11 feet (3.3 m) in the upper parts. Above the battlements rise four turrets; three of them are square, but the one on the northeast is circular. This turret once contained the first royal observatory. Henry III had the exterior of the building whitewashed in 1240, which is how the tower got its name. Tower of London taken 27/11/03 by a brady File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tower of London taken 27/11/03 by a brady File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3513x2007, 2545 KB) Summary This is a 3x3 segment panorama of the White Tower of the Tower of London. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3513x2007, 2545 KB) Summary This is a 3x3 segment panorama of the White Tower of the Tower of London. ... Tower of London taken by a brady 27/11/03 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tower of London taken by a brady 27/11/03 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the bridge of the same name in California, see Tower Bridge (California). ... The White Tower, as seen from the South West, showing the original - but now externally much altered entrance at ground level The White Tower The White Tower is a central tower at the Tower of London. ...


The White Tower is situated in the Inner Ward, defended by a massive curtain wall, which has thirteen towers: Glass curtain wall of the Bauhaus Dessau. ...

  • Bloody Tower (or the Garden Tower), so named after a legend that the Princes in the Tower were murdered there.
  • Bell Tower
  • Beauchamp Tower (pronounced 'Beecham')
  • Deveraux Tower
  • Flint Tower
  • Bowyer Tower
  • Brick Tower
  • Martin Tower
  • Constable Tower
  • Broad Arrow Tower
  • Salt Tower
  • Lanthorn Tower
  • Wakefield Tower

The entrance to the Inner Ward is on the south side under the Bloody Tower. Outside of this is the Outer Ward, defended by a second massive curtain wall, flanked by six towers facing the river: The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473 – 1483... The Salt Tower is a tower located at the Tower of London Categories: ...

  • Byward Tower
  • St Thomas's Tower, built between 1275-1279 by Edward I to provide additional royal accommodation for the King.
  • Cradle Tower
  • Develin Tower
  • Middle Tower
  • Well Tower

On the north face of the outer wall are three semicircular bastions. A Ditch or Moat, now dry, encircles the whole, crossed at the southwestern angle by a stone bridge, leading to the Byward Tower from the Middle Tower - a gateway which had formerly an outwork, called the Lion Tower.


The water entrance to the Tower is often referred to as Traitor's Gate because prisoners accused of treason such as Queen Anne Boleyn and Sir Thomas More passed through it. Traitor's Gate cuts through St Thomas's Tower and replaced Henry III's watergate in the Bloody Tower behind it. Behind Traitors Gate in the pool was an engine used to raise water to a cistern located on the roof of the White Tower. The engine was originally powered by the force of the tide or by horsepower and eventually by steampower; this was adapted around 1724 to drive machinery for boring gun barrels. It was removed in the 1860s. The Tudor Timber Framing seen above the great arch of Traitor's Gate dates from 1532 and was restored in the 19th century. Traitors Gate Many Tudor prisoners entered the Tower of London through the notorious Traitors Gate. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke[1] (ca. ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ...


The Tower today is principally a tourist attraction. Besides the buildings themselves, the British Crown Jewels, a fine armour collection from the Royal Armouries, and a remnant of the wall of the Roman fortress are on display. Looking up the main stairwell of the armouries The Royal Armouries houses the British national collection of arms and armour. ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ...


The tower is manned by the Yeomen Warders (known as Beefeaters), who act as tour guides, provide security, and are a tourist attraction in their own right. Every evening, the warders participate in the Ceremony of the Keys as the Tower is secured for the night. A Beefeater in everyday undress uniform Yeoman Warder The Yeomen Warders of Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress the Tower of London, popularly known as the Beefeaters, are ceremonial guardians of the Tower of London. ... London The Ceremony of the Keys is an ancient ceremony that takes place every night at the Tower of London. ...


History

The 15th century Tower in a manuscript of poems by Charles, Duke of Orléans (1391-1465) commemorating his imprisonment there (British Library).
The 15th century Tower in a manuscript of poems by Charles, Duke of Orléans (1391-1465) commemorating his imprisonment there (British Library).

The Tower of London was founded in 1078 when William the Conqueror ordered the White Tower to be built inside the southeast angle of the city walls, adjacent to the Thames.[1] This was as much to protect the Normans from the people of the City of London as to protect London from outside invaders. William ordered the tower to be built of Caen stone, which he had specially imported from France. He appointed Gundulf, Bishop of Rochester, as the architect. tower of london -- from manuscript (in the british museum) of poems by charles, duke of orleans (1391-1465); commemorating his imprisonment there This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... tower of london -- from manuscript (in the british museum) of poems by charles, duke of orleans (1391-1465); commemorating his imprisonment there This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Charles of Valois, Duc dOrléans (November 24, 1394 – January 5, 1465) became Duke of Orléans in 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis of Valois on the orders of Duke John-the-Fearless of Burgundy. ... July 18 - Battle of the Kondurcha River - Timur defeats Tokhtamysh in the Volga. ... Events July 13 - Battle of Montlhéry Troops of King Louis XI of France fight inconclusively against an army of the great nobles organized as the League of the Public Weal. ... Norman conquests in red. ... ‘Caen stone’ is a light creamy-yellow Jurassic limestone. ... Gundulf was a Norman monk who came to England following the Conquest. ... The Bishop of Rochester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Rochester in the Province of Canterbury. ... For other uses, see Architect (disambiguation). ...


Some writers, such as William Shakespeare in his play Richard III, have ascribed an earlier origin to the Tower of London and have stated that it was built by Julius Caesar. This supposed Roman origin is a myth, however, as is the story that the mortar used in its construction was tempered by the blood of beasts. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ...


In the 12th century, King Richard the Lionheart enclosed the White Tower with a curtain wall and had a moat dug around it filled with water from the Thames. The moat was not successful until Henry III, in the 13th century, employed a Dutch moat-building technique. This king greatly strengthened the curtain wall, breaking down the city wall to the east, to extend the circuit, despite the protests of the citizens of London and even supernatural warnings, according to chronicler Matthew Paris. Henry III transformed the tower into a major royal residence and had palatial buildings constructed within the Inner Bailey. Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England and ruler of the Angevin Empire from 6 July 1189 until his death. ... Glass curtain wall of the Bauhaus Dessau. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Self portrait of Matthew Paris from the original manuscript of his Historia Anglorum (London, British Library, MS Royal 14. ...


The fortification was completed between 1275 and 1285 by Edward I, who built the outer curtain wall, completely enclosing the inner wall and thus creating a concentric double defence. He filled in the moat and built a new moat around the new outer wall. Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ...


The tower remained a royal residence until the time of Oliver Cromwell, who demolished the old palatial buildings. Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ...


Menagerie

A Royal Menagerie was established at the tower in the 13th century, possibly as early as 1204 during the reign of John I, and probably stocked with animals from an earlier menagerie started in 1125 by Henry I at his palace in Woodstock, near Oxford; William of Malmesbury reported that Henry had lions, leopards, lynxes and camels among other animals there.[2] Its year of origin is often stated as 1235, when Henry III received a wedding gift of three leopards (so recorded, although they may have been lions) from Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. In 1264, they were moved to the Bulwark, which was duly renamed the Lion Tower, near the main western entrance. It was opened as an occasional public spectacle in the reign of Elizabeth I. A lion skull was radiocarbon dated to between 1280 and 1385, making it the earliest medieval big cat known in Britain.[3] For other uses, see Zoo (disambiguation). ... John of England depicted in Cassells History of England (1902) John (French: Jean) (December 24, 1166/67–October 18/19, 1216) reigned as King of England from 1199 to 1216. ... Henry I (c. ... Map sources for Woodstock at grid reference SP4416 Woodstock is a small town in Oxfordshire in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... For other uses, see Lion (disambiguation). ... This article is about the big cat. ... For other uses, see Lynx (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Camel (disambiguation). ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was the son and successor of John Lackland as King of England, reigning for fifty-six years from 1216 to his death. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Carbon-14 is the radioactive isotope of carbon discovered February 27, 1940, by Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben. ...


The menagerie was open to the public by the 18th century; admission was a sum of three half-pence or the supply of a cat or dog for feeding to the lions.[4] This was where William Blake saw the tiger which may have inspired his poem The Tyger. The menagerie's last director, Alfred Cops, who took over in 1822, found the collection in a dismal state but restocked it and issued an illustrated scientific catalogue. Partly for commercial reasons and partly for animal welfare, the animals were moved to the London Zoo when it opened. The last of the animals left in 1835, and most of the Lion Tower was demolished soon after, although Lion Gate remains. For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Tyger William Blakes original plate for The Tyger. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that animals, especially those under human care, should not suffer. ... The giant ZSL London Zoo aviary ZSL London Zoo is the worlds oldest scientific zoo. ...


Ravens

A Tower raven
A Tower raven

It had been thought that there have been at least six ravens in residence at the tower for centuries. It was said that Charles II ordered their removal following complaints from John Flamsteed, the Royal Astronomer.[5] However, they were not removed because Charles was then told of the legend that if the ravens ever leave the Tower of London, the White Tower, the monarchy, and the entire kingdom would fall (the London Stone has a similar legend). Charles, following the time of the English Civil War, superstition or not, was not prepared to take the chance, and instead had the observatory moved to Greenwich. Image File history File links White_Tower_(July-2003). ... Image File history File links White_Tower_(July-2003). ... Binomial name Corvus corax Linnaeus, 1758 Common Raven range Subspecies The Common Raven (Corvus corax), also known as the Northern Raven, is a large all-black passerine bird in the crow family, with iridescent feathers. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... John Flamsteed - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... London Stone 111 Cannon Street London The London Stone is an ancient stone, that is said to be the place from which the Romans measured all distances in Great Britain. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... This article is about Greenwich in England. ...


The earliest known reference to a tower raven is a picture in the newspaper The Pictorial World in 1885.[6] This and scattered subsequent references to the tower ravens, both literary and visual, which appear in the late nineteenth to early twentieth century place them near the monument commemorating those beheaded at the tower, popularly known as the “scaffold.” This strongly suggests that the ravens, which are notorious for gathering at gallows, were originally used to dramatize tales of imprisonment and execution at the tower told by the Yeomen Warders to tourists.[7] There is evidence that the original ravens were donated to the tower by the Earls of Dunraven,[8] perhaps because of their association with the Celtic raven-god Bran.[9] However wild ravens, which were once abundant in London and often seen around meat markets (such as nearby Eastcheap) feasting for scraps, could have roosted at the tower in earlier times.[10] A Beefeater in everyday undress uniform Yeoman Warder The Yeomen Warders of Her Majestys Royal Palace and Fortress the Tower of London, popularly known as the Beefeaters, are ceremonial guardians of the Tower of London. ... Celtic mythology is the mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the religion of the Iron Age Celts. ... Eastcheap is a road in the City of London. ...


The legend that Britain will fall if the ravens leave the tower appears to date from autumn of 1944, and to come from the Stag Brewery in London, where ravens were used as mascots and perhaps unofficial spotters for enemy bombers.[11]


No one can remember the tower without ravens, though during the Second World War most of them perished through shock during bombing raids – the sole survivor being a bird called 'Grip'.[10] However, before the tower reopened to the public on 1 January 1946, care was taken to ensure that a new set of ravens was in place.[12] Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


There are currently nine ravens, whose wings are clipped to prevent them from flying away, and they are cared for by the Ravenmaster, a duty given to one of the Yeomen Warders. The ravens' names/gender/age are (as of November 2006):[13]

  • Gwylum (male, 18 years old)
  • Thor (male, 15 years old)
  • Hugin (female, 11 years old)
  • Munin (female, 11 years old)
  • Branwen (female, 3 years old)
  • Bran (male, 3 years old)
  • Gundulf (male, 1 year old)
  • Baldrick (male, 1 year old)
  • Fleur (female, 4 years old)

The oldest raven ever to serve at the Tower of London was called Jim Crow, who died at the age of 44.[14]


In 2006, ahead of the H5N1 avian influenza scare, the ravens were moved indoors; as of July 2006, they are once again free to roam about the grounds within the tower complex. Influenza A virus subtype H5N1, also known as A(H5N1) or simply H5N1, is a subtype of the Influenza A virus which can cause illness in humans and many other animal species. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ...


Prisoners

The first prisoner was Ranulf Flambard in 1100 who, as Bishop of Durham, was found guilty of extortion. He had been responsible for various improvements to the design of the tower after the first architect Gundulf moved back to Rochester. He escaped from the White Tower by climbing down a rope, which had been smuggled into his cell in a wine casket. Ranulf Flambard, or Squiffy (died September 5, 1128) was Bishop of Durham and an influential government minister of William Rufus. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ...


Other prisoners include:

  • Charles I de Valois, Duke of Orléans was one of the many French noblemen wounded in the Battle of Agincourt on October 25, 1415. Captured and taken to England as a hostage, he remained in captivity for twenty-five years, at various places including Wallingford Castle. Charles is remembered as an accomplished poet owing to the more than five hundred extant poems he produced, most written while a prisoner.
  • Thomas More was imprisoned on April 17, 1535. He was executed on July 6, 1535 and his body was buried at the Tower of London.
  • Sir William de la Pole. A distant relative of King Henry VIII, he was incarcerated at the Tower for 37 years (1502-1539) for allegedly plotting against Henry VII, thus becoming the longest-held prisoner.
  • John Gerard, S.J., an English Jesuit priest operating undercover during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, when Catholics were being persecuted. He was captured and tortured and incarcerated in the Salt Tower before making a daring escape by rope across the moat.
  • Sir Walter Raleigh spent thirteen years (1603-1616) imprisoned at the Tower but was able to live in relative comfort in the Bloody Tower with his wife and two children. For some of the time he even grew tobacco on Tower Green, just outside his apartment. While imprisoned, he wrote The History of the World.
  • Nicholas Woodcock. He was a sailor who had worked for the Muscovy Company on voyages of exploration and exploitation (walruses and whales) in the early 17th century. He spent sixteen months (1612-13) in the "gatehouse and tower" for leading a ship from San Sebastián on a whaling voyage to Spitsbergen in 1612.
  • Guy Fawkes, famous for his part in the Gunpowder Plot, was brought to the Tower to be interrogated by a council of the King's Ministers. However, he was not executed at the tower. When he confessed, he was sentenced to be hanged, drawn and quartered in the Old Palace Yard at Westminster; however, he escaped his fate by jumping off the scaffold at the gallows which in turn broke his neck and killed him.
  • Johan Anders Jägerhorn, a Swedish officer from Finland, Lord Edward FitzGerald's friend, participating in the Irish independence movement. He spent two years in the Tower (1799-1801), but was released because of Russian interests.
  • Rudolf Hess, deputy leader of the German Nazi Party, the last State prisoner to be held in the tower, in May 1941.

Gruffydd ap Llywelyn (c. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1244. ... Llywelyn ap Iorwerth ( 1173–April 11, 1240) was a Prince of Gwynedd and eventually ruler of much of Wales. ... King John, his crown and sceptre symbolically broken as depicted in the 1562 Forman Armorial, produced for Mary, Queen of Scots. ... Edward I; illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902. ... David II (March 5, 1324 – February 22, 1371) king of Scotland, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. ... John II the Good (French: Jean II le Bon) (April 16, 1319 – April 8, 1364), was King of France 1350–1364, Duke of Normandy and Count of Anjou and Maine 1332–1350, Count of Poitiers 1344–1350, and Duke of Guienne 1345–1350. ... Henry Laurens Henry Laurens (1724–1792) was an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence depicts the five-man drafting committee presenting the first draft of the Declaration of Independence to the Second Continental Congress. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... Charles of Valois, Duke of Orléans (November 24, 1394 – January 5, 1465) became Duke of Orléans in 1407, following the murder of his father, Louis, Duke of Orléans on the orders of John the Fearless of Burgundy. ... Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Wallingford Castle 1913. ... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1471, not the BT caller ID service accessible by dialling 1-4-7-1. ... This article is about King Richard III of England. ... The Kings College of Our Lady of Eton beside Windsor, commonly known as Eton College or just Eton, is a public school (privately funded and independent) for boys, founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. It is located in Eton, near Windsor in England, north of Windsor Castle, and... For other uses, see Kings College. ... Edward V with his parents Edward IV and Elizabeth Woodville Edward V (November 4, 1470-1483?) was an English monarch, although never crowned. ... The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473 – 1483... Margaret of Anjou (Marguerite dAnjou, March 23, 1429 – August 25, 1482) was the Queen consort of Henry VI of England from 1445 to 1471, and led the Lancastrian contingent, in the Wars of the Roses. ... William de la Pole is the name of several prominent Englishmen in the 14th century, all from the same family. ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Edward Seymour Edward Seymour, 1st Duke of Somerset (c. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... Wyatts Rebellion (1554) is a popular rising named for Thomas Wyatt the younger (son of Sir Thomas Wyatt). ... John Gerard, S.J. (1564-1606) was an English Jesuit priest. ... Alternatively, Professor Walter Raleigh was a scholar and author circa 1900. ... Location Image:Donostia (San Sebastian), Euskadi location. ... Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen) is a Norwegian island, the largest island in the Svalbard archipelago, situated in the Arctic Ocean. ... Niall Garve ODonnell (1560 - 1626), who was incensed at the elevation of his cousin Hugh Roe to the chieftainship in 1592, was further alienated when the latter deprived him of his castle of Lifford, and a bitter feud between the two ODonnells was the result. ... Red Hugh Roe ODonnell (1571-1603) was an Irish Chieftain who led ODonnells Rebellion from 1593-1596 and later helped lead the Nine Years War, a revolt against English occupation, from 1593-1603. ... For other uses, see Guido Fawkes (disambiguation). ... To be hanged, drawn and quartered was the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... Johan (Jan) Anders Jägerhorn af Spurila was a Swedish nobleman born in Finland 8 April 1757 in Helsinki county, Finland. ... Lord Edward FitzGerald (15 October 1763–4 June 1798) was an Irish aristocrat and revolutionary. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... The Gordon Riots is a term used to refer to a number of events in a predominantly Protestant religious uprising in London aimed against the Roman Catholic Relief Act, 1778, relieving his Majestys subjects, of the Catholic Religion, from certain penalties and disabilities imposed upon them during the reign... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Ronald Ronnie Kray (24 October 1933 – 17 March 1995) and Reginald Reggie Kray (24 October 1933 – 1 October 2000) were identical twin brothers, and the foremost organised crime leaders dominating Londons East End during the 1950s and 1960s. ... National service is a common name for compulsory or voluntary military service programs. ...

Torture

Inside the torture chambers of the tower various implements of torture were used such as the Scavenger’s daughter, a kind of compression device, and the Rack, also known as the Duke of Exeter's Daughter.[15][16] The Tower of London and Traitors Gate. ... Scavenger’s daughter Scavenger’s daughter was a type of torture rack. ... A torture rack in the Tower of London The rack is a term for certain physical punishment devices. ... Scavenger’s daughter The Scavenger’s daughter was a type of torture rack, also known as the Stork. ...


Anne Askew is the only woman on record to have been tortured in the tower, after being taken there in 1546 on a charge of heresy. Sir Anthony Kingston, the Constable of the Tower of London, was ordered to torture Anne in an attempt to force her to name other Protestants. Anne was put on the Rack. Kingston was so impressed with the way Anne behaved that he refused to carry on torturing her, and Henry VIII's Lord Chancellor had to take over. Anne Askew (1521 - 16 July 1546) was an English member of the Reformed Church who was persecuted as a heretic and then burned at the stake. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ...


Executions

The Tower in 1597 (an 18th century engraving)
The Tower in 1597 (an 18th century engraving)

Lower-class criminals were usually executed by hanging at one of the public execution sites outside the Tower. High-profile convicts, such as Thomas More, were publicly beheaded on Tower Hill. Seven nobles (five of them ladies) were beheaded privately on Tower Green, inside the complex, and then buried in the "Chapel Royal of St. Peter ad Vincula" (Latin for "in chains," making him an appropriate patron saint for prisoners) next to the Green. Some of the nobles who were executed outside the Tower are also buried in that chapel. (External link to Chapel webpage) The names of the seven beheaded on Tower Green for treason are: For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... Tower Hill is an elevated spot outside the Tower of London and just outside the limits of the City of London in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. ... The Chapel Royal did not originally refer to a building but an establishment in the Royal Household. ... , Side of St. ...

The Traitors' Gate
The Traitors' Gate

George, Duke of Clarence, the brother of Edward IV of England, was executed for treason in the Tower in February 1478, but not by beheading (and probably not by being drowned in a butt of Malmsey wine, despite what Shakespeare wrote). William Hastings, 1st Baron Hastings of Hungerford (~1431 - 1483) became one of the great powers of the realm during the reign of Edward IV of England, but after being found for conspiracy against one time companion, Richard III, was executed a week later. ... Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and religious... Margaret Pole (1473 - 1541), Countess of Salisbury, was the daughter of George, Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV and Isabella Neville . ... Cathrine Howard (between 1520 and 1525 – 13 February 1542), also called Katherine Howard[1] was the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England (1540-1542), and sometimes known by his reference to her as the rose without a thorn. Her birth date and place of birth is unknown, (occasionally cited... Jane Boleyn, Viscountess Rochford (c. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex (10 November 1566 – 25 February 1601), favourite of Queen Elizabeth I of England, is the best-known of the many holders of the title Earl of Essex. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 596 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 596 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... George (Plantagenet), Duke of Clarence (October 21, 1449 - February 18, 1478) was the third son of Richard, Duke of York and Cecily Neville, and the brother of King Edward IV of England. ... Edward IV (April 28, 1442 – April 9, 1483) was King of England from March 4, 1461 to April 9, 1483, with a break of a few months in the period 1470–1471. ... Malmsey (also known as Malvasia or Malvazia) is a sweet Madeira wine made — in Portugal, the Azores, the Canary Islands, Sardinia, and Sicily — from fully ripe Malvasia grapes that are partially dried on the vine. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


When Edward IV died, he left two young sons behind: the Princes in the Tower. His brother Richard, the Duke of Gloucester, was made Regent until the older of his two sons, Edward V, should come of age. According to Thomas More's History of Richard III, Richard hired men to kill them, and, one night, the two Princes were smothered with their pillows. Many years later, bones were found buried at the foot of a stairway in the Tower, which are thought to be those of the princes. Richard was crowned King Richard III of England. The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473 – 1483... For the Elizabethan play, see Sir Thomas More (play). ... This article is about King Richard III of England. ...


The last execution at the Tower was that of German spy Josef Jakobs on 14 August 1941 by firing squad formed from the Scots Guards. Josef Jakobs, a German agent, was shot by firing squad in the Tower of London during the Second World War after conviction under the Treachery Act of 1940. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Scots Guards are a regiment of the British Army, part of the Guards Division, and have a long and proud history stretching back hundreds of years. ...


Recent history

The military use of the Tower as a fortification, like that of other such castles, became obsolete with the introduction of artillery, and the moat was drained in 1830. However the Tower did serve as the headquarters of the Board of Ordnance until 1855, and the Tower was still occasionally used as a prison, even through both World Wars. In 1780, the Tower held its only American prisoner, former President of the Continental Congress, Henry Laurens. In World War I, eleven German spies were shot in the Tower. Irish rebel Roger Casement was imprisoned in the Tower during his trial on treason charges in 1916. For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... The British Board of Ordnance was responsible for the design, testing and production of armaments and munitions. ... The President of the Continental Congress was the presiding officer of the Continental Congress. ... Henry Laurens Henry Laurens (1724–1792) was an American merchant and rice planter from South Carolina who became a political leader during the Revolutionary War. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Roger David Casement (Irish: ;[1] 1 September 1864 – 3 August 1916), known as Sir Roger Casement, CMG between 1905 and July 1916, was an Irish patriot, poet, revolutionary and nationalist by inclination. ...

Reconstruction of the interior of the Bloody Tower
Reconstruction of the interior of the Bloody Tower

In 1942, Adolf Hitler's deputy, Rudolf Hess, was imprisoned in the tower for four days. During this time, RAF Wing Commander George Salaman was placed in the same cell undercover, impersonating a Luftwaffe officer, to spy on Hess. Although acting covertly and not held as a true inmate, Salaman remains the last Englishman to be locked in the Tower of London. The tower was used as a prison for German prisoners of war throughout the conflict. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 749 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tower of London Walter Raleigh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x768, 749 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Tower of London Walter Raleigh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Rudolf Hoess. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... A Wing Commanders sleeve/shoulder insignia A Wing Commanders command flag Wing Commander is a commissioned rank in the Royal Air Force and the air forces of many other Commonwealth countries. ... George Salaman (16 May 1907—1983) was an English businessman, friend of Sir Winston Churchill, and RAF Wing Commander during the Second World War. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ...


Waterloo Barracks, the location of the Crown Jewels, remained in use as a base for the 1st Battalion Royal Fusiliers (City of London Regiment) into the 1950s; during 1952, the Kray twins were briefly held there for failing to report for national service, making them among the last prisoners of the Tower; the last British citizen held for any length of time was the traitorous Army officer Norman Baillie-Stewart from 1933 to 1937. Fusilier was originally the name of a soldier armed with a light flintlock musket called the fusil. ... Ronald Ronnie Kray (24 October 1933 – 17 March 1995) and Reginald Reggie Kray (24 October 1933 – 1 October 2000) were identical twin brothers, and the foremost organised crime leaders dominating Londons East End during the 1950s and 1960s. ... Norman Baillie-Stewart (January 15, 1909 – 1966) was a British army officer and traitor known as The Officer in the Tower when he was imprisoned in the Tower of London. ...

A sentry posted outside the Jewel House
A sentry posted outside the Jewel House

Although it is no longer a royal residence, the Tower officially remains a royal palace and maintains a permanent guard: this is found by the unit forming the Queen's Guard at Buckingham Palace. Two sentries are maintained during the hours that the Tower is open, with one stationed outside the Jewel House and one outside the Queen's House. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1728 × 2304 pixel, file size: 3. ... The Jewel House in the Tower of London is both a building and an institution. ... Sentry of the Grenadier Guards posted outside St Jamess Palace The Queens Guard and Queens Life Guard are the names given to contingents of infantry and cavalry soldiers charged with guarding the official royal residences in London. ... Buckingham Palace and the Victoria Memorial. ...


In 1974, there was a bomb explosion in the Mortar Room in the White tower leaving one person dead and 41 injured. No one claimed responsibility for the blast, however the police were investigating suspicions that the IRA was behind it.[17] US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern...


In 2007 Moira Cameron became the first female Beefeater in history to go on duty at the Tower of London. Cameron beat five men to the job as a Yeomen Warder. Moira Cameron is a Yeoman Warder, also known as a Beefeater, at the Tower of London. ...


Administration

The Tower of London and its surrounding area has always had a separate administration from the adjacent City of London. It was under the jurisdiction of Constable of the Tower who also held authority over the Tower liberties until 1894. In addition the Constable was ex-officio Lord Lieutenant of the Tower division of Middlesex until 1889 and head of the Tower Hamlets Militia until 1871. Today the Tower is within the boundaries of the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Motto: Domine dirige nos Latin: Lord, guide us Shown within Greater London Sovereign state Constituent country Region Greater London Status City and Ceremonial County Admin HQ Guildhall Government  - Leadership see text  - Mayor David Lewis  - MP Mark Field  - London Assembly John Biggs Area  - Total 1. ... The Constable of the Tower of London is the governor of the Tower. ... The Liberties of the Tower, or the Tower Liberty was an area adjoining the Tower of London, which was outside the jurisdiction of either the City of London or the County of Middlesex. ... Flag of a Lord-Lieutenant The title Lord-Lieutenant is given to the British monarchs personal representatives around the United Kingdom. ... The Tower Division was a liberty in the ancient county of Middlesex. ... The Middlesex Guildhall at Westminster Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and was the second smallest (after Rutland). ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... The London Borough of Tower Hamlets is a London borough to the east of the City of London and north of the River Thames in East London. ...


Crown Jewels

Profile of the Imperial State Crown from the right, the crown's left.
Profile of the Imperial State Crown from the right, the crown's left.

The Crown Jewels have been kept at the Tower of London since 1303, after they were stolen from Westminster Abbey. It is thought that most, if not all, were recovered shortly afterwards. After the coronation of Charles II, they were locked away and shown for a viewing fee paid to a custodian. However, this arrangement ended when Colonel Thomas Blood stole the Crown Jewels after having bound and gagged the custodian. Thereafter, the Crown Jewels were kept in a part of the Tower known as Jewel House, where armed guards defended them. They were temporarily taken out of the Tower during World War II and reportedly were secretly kept in the basement vaults of the Sun Life Insurance company in Montreal, Canada, along with the gold bullion of the Bank of England; however, it has also been said that they were kept in the Round Tower of Windsor Castle, or the Fort Knox Bullion Depository in the United States. However the Windsor Castle option is the most likely, since it is illegal for the Crown Jewels to leave the United Kingdom.[citation needed] Coronation Chair and Regalia of England The collective term Crown Jewels denotes the regalia and vestments worn by the sovereign of the United Kingdom during the coronation ceremony and at various other state functions. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The name Charles II is used to refer to numerous persons in history: Kings Charles the Fat (also known as Charles II of France and Charles III of the Holy Roman Empire) Charles II of England Charles II of Naples Charles II of Navarre Charles II of Romania Charles II... Thomas Blood Thomas Blood (1618 - August 23, 1680) was an Irish-born Colonel best known for attempting to steal the Crown Jewels of England from the Tower of London in 1671. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sun Life Financial Inc. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... The United States Bullion Depository is a fortified vault building located near Fort Knox, Kentucky which is used to store the majority of United States gold metal holdings, as well as from time to time, other precious items belonging to the United States government. ... This article is about the castle in Windsor. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Ghosts

The Tower of London is reputedly the most haunted building in England. The ghost of Queen Anne Boleyn, beheaded in 1536 for treason against King Henry VIII, has allegedly been seen haunting the chapel of St Peter-ad-Vincula, where she is buried, and walking around the White Tower carrying her head under her arm. Other ghosts include Henry VI, Lady Jane Grey, Margaret Pole, and the Princes in the Tower. In January 1816 a sentry on guard outside the Jewel House witnessed an inexplicable apparition of a bear advancing towards him. Reportedly the sentry died of fright a few days later[18][19] Anne Boleyn, 1st Marchioness of Pembroke (1501/1507–19 May 1536) was a Queen Consort of England, the second wife of King Henry VIII and the mother of Queen Elizabeth I. Henrys marriage to Anne, and her subsequent execution, made her a key player in the political and religious... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... Henry VI (December 6, 1421 – May 21, 1471) was King of England from 1422 to 1461 (though with a Regent until 1437) and then from 1470 to 1471, and King of France from 1422 to 1453. ... Lady Jane Grey, formally Jane of England (1537 — 12 February 1554), a grand-niece of Henry VIII of England, reigned as uncrowned Queen regnant of the Kingdom of England for nine days[1] in July 1553. ... Margaret Pole (14 August 1473 – 27 May 1541), Countess of Salisbury, was the daughter of George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence and Isabella Neville. ... The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473 – 1483...


In fiction

William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... The Two Princes Edward and Richard in the Tower, 1483 by Sir John Everett Millais, 1878, part of the Royal Holloway picture collection The Princes in the Tower, Edward V of England (November 4, 1470 – 1483?) and his brother, Richard of Shrewsbury, 1st Duke of York (17 August 1473 – 1483... Richard III is a 1955 British film adaptation of William Shakespeares historical play Richard III, including elements of Henry VI, part 3. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ... June 1948 (rerelease) April 16, 1944 September 5, 1952=hiddenStructure Tower of London (1939) is a historical horror film released by Universal Pictures and directed by Rowland V. Lee. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tower of London is a 1962 historical drama and horror film, starring Vincent Price and Michael Pate. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Caricature from Punch, 1881: TO THE GREATEST AXE-AND-NECK-ROMANCER OF OUR TIME, WHO IS QUITE AT THE HEAD OF HIS PROFESSION, WE DEDICATE THIS BLOCK AD MULTOS ANNOS! William Harrison Ainsworth (1805 - 1882) was a British writer. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is the eleventh of Gilbert and Sullivans operettas. ... The Four False Weapons (1948), 1961 Pan paperback edition. ...

See also

The Constable of the Tower of London is the governor of the Tower. ... The Fortifications of London are extensive and mostly well maintained. ... London Wall was the defensive wall built by the Romans around Londinium, their strategically important port town on the river Thames in England. ... Newgate, the old city gate and prison. ... Pray remember ye poor debtors: inmates of the Fleet Prison beg passers by for alms. ... Outrage!, the official Tower of London board game, was first created in 1992 by Imperial Games. ... This article is about the paranormal. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Adrian Tinniswood, "A History of British Architecture: Buildings of the Middle Ages" (p.2), 2001-01-01, bbc.co.uk webpage: BBC-Arch.
  2. ^ Blunt, Wilfred (1976). The Ark in the Park: The Zoo in the Nineteenth Century. London: Hamish Hamilton, 15-16. ISBN 241-89331-3. 
  3. ^ "Big cats prowled London's tower" (report), BBC News Online, webpage: BBC-908. 24 October 2005.
  4. ^ Blunt, Wilfred (1976). The Ark in the Park: The Zoo in the Nineteenth Century. London: Hamish Hamilton, 17. ISBN 241-89331-3. 
  5. ^ Camelot Village: Tower of London
  6. ^ Boria Sax, "How Ravens Came to the Tower of London," Society and Animals 15, no. 3 (2007b), pp. 272-274.
  7. ^ ibid, pp. 270-281.
  8. ^ Maev Kennedy, "Tower’s Raven Mythology May Be a Victorian Flight of Fantasy," The Guardian, November 15 2004, p. 1.
  9. ^ Boria Sax, "Medievalism, Paganism, and the Tower Ravens," The Pomegranate:The International Journal of Pagan Studies 9, no. 1 (2007), pp. 71-73.
  10. ^ a b Jerome, Fiona. Tales from the Tower: 2006. pp. 148-9
  11. ^ Boria Sax, "Medievalism, Paganism, and the Tower Ravens," The Pomegranate:The International Journal of Pagan Studies 9, no. 1 (2007), pp. 73-74.
  12. ^ "Tower's raven mythology may be a Victorian flight of fantasy", The Guardian 15 November 2004.
  13. ^ "Tower's Ravens kept indoors", BBC News Online, 3 January 2006.
  14. ^ "Bird Flu Fears Coop Up London's Famous Ravens" (news), Washington Post, 22 February 2006, webpage:WPost-01042: with oldest raven.
  15. ^ The White Tower once held torture chambers within its crypt From Mysterious Britain website. Retrieved 5 March 2007
  16. ^ There was no permanent torture-chamber. The basement of the White Tower was used. But prisoners could also be tortured in their cells From Tudor website. Retrieved 5 March 2007
  17. ^ "On This Day 1974: Bomb blast at the Tower of London", BBC News Online, 17 July 1974
  18. ^ D. Farson (1978) Ghosts in Fact and Fiction. Hamlyn: London
  19. ^ Christina Hole (1950) Haunted England: 61-2, 155

The domain name bbc. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News website in June 2007. ... is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bennett, Edward Turner, The Tower Menagerie: Comprising the Natural History of the Animals Contained in that Establishment; with Anecdotes of their Characters and History, London, Robert Jennings, 1829.
  • A DVD box set of the Channel 4 documentary series 'The Tower' was released in June 2005.

Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the British television station. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Coordinates: 51°30′29″N, 0°4′34″W Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... William John Loftie (1839 – 1911) was a British clergyman and writer, on the history of London, travel, art and architecture. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tower of London -- Britain's Crown Jewels, British Historical and Travel Destination Site (430 words)
To e-mail the creators of the Tower of London Virtual Tour, or any of our contributors please click to Creators and Contributors page where we are all listed.
Just as the real Tower of London was added to and enhanced over time, so has this tour, and we expect to continue to do so in the future.
The Tower of London Virtual Tour is not officially connected with the Tower of London in London England, and is not connected with the British Government in any way.
Tower of London | Museum/Attraction Review | London | Frommers.com (1084 words)
The Tower is actually an intricately patterned compound of structures built throughout the ages for varying purposes, mostly as expressions of royal power.
The Tower, besides being a royal palace, a fortress, and a prison, was also an armory, a treasury, a menagerie, and, in 1675, an astronomical observatory.
According to a legend, the Tower of London will stand as long as those fl, ominous birds remain, so to be on the safe side, one of the wings of each raven is clipped.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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