FACTOID # 1: Idaho produces more milk than Iowa, Indiana and Illinois combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tower of Babel
Engraving The Confusion of Tongues by Gustave Doré (1865), who based his conception on the Minaret of Samarra[citation needed]
Engraving The Confusion of Tongues by Gustave Doré (1865), who based his conception on the Minaret of Samarra[citation needed]

The Tower of Babel (Hebrew: מגדל בבלMigdal Bavel Arabic: برج بابلBurj Babil) is a structure featured in chapter 11 of the Book of Genesis, an enormous tower intended as the crowning achievement of the city of Babilu, the Akkadian name for Babylon. According to the biblical account, Babel was a city that united humanity, all speaking a single language and migrating from the east; it was the home city of the great king Nimrod, and the first city to be built after the Great Flood. The people decided their city should have a tower so immense that it would have "its top in the heavens." (וְרֹאשׁוֹ בַשָּׁמַיִם). However, the Tower of Babel was not built for the worship and praise of God, but was dedicated to false man-made religion[citation needed], with a motive of making a 'celebrated name' for the builders[citation needed]. - Genesis 11:4. God seeing what the people were doing and sinning[citation needed] against him, confused their languages and scattered the people throughout the earth. The Tower of Babel in Jewish mythology was a tower built by a united humanity to reach the heavens. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Doré photographed by Felix Nadar. ... The Great Mosque of Samarra is a mosque located in the Iraqi city of Samarra and was built in the 9th century. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Babel (Hebrew: ; Bavel) (Arabic|بابل: Babel) is the name used in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran for the city of Babylon (Akkadian Babilu), notable in Genesis as the location of the Tower of Babel. ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... The Human Race could be: The Human race. ... Look up Nimrod in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Gustave Dorés interpretation of the confusion of tongues. ...


Babel is the Hebrew equivalent of Akkadian Babilu (Greek Babylon), a cosmopolitan city typified by a confusion of languages.[1] The Tower of Babel has often been associated with known structures, notably the Etemenanki, the ziggurat to Marduk, by Nabopolassar (610s BC). A Sumerian view of this story is preserved in Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta. Etemenanki, The temple of the creation of heaven and earth, was the name of a ziggurat to Marduk in the city of Babylon of the 6th century BC Chaldean (Neo-Babylonian) dynasty. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... Nabopolassar (Akkadian:Nabû-apal-usur) was the first king (626-605 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. ... Centuries: 8th century BC - 7th century BC - 6th century BC Decades: 660s BC 650s BC 640s BC 630s BC 620s BC - 610s BC - 600s BC 590s BC 580s BC 570s BC 560s BC Events and trends 619 BC - Alyattes becomes king of Lydia. ... Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar, native ki-en-gir) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia. ... Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta is a legendary Sumerian account of the greatest antiquity, possibly based on genuine events of the 3rd millennium BC. It is one of a series of accounts describing the conflicts between Enmerkar, king of Unug-Kulaba (Uruk), and the unnamed king of Aratta (probably...

Contents

Biblical narrative and themes

Narrative

The story is found in Genesis 11:1-9 (KJV) as follows: Download high resolution version (1061x800, 196 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1061x800, 196 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Tower of Babel is an oil painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder. ... Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ...

1 And the whole earth was of one language, and of one speech. 2 And it came to pass, as they journeyed from the east, that they found a plain in the land of Shinar; and they dwelt there. 3 And they said one to another, Go to, let us make brick, and burn them thoroughly. And they had brick for stone, and slime had they for mortar. 4 And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth. 5 And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children builded. 6 And the Lord said, Behold, the people is one, and they have all one language; and this they begin to do; and now nothing will be restrained from them, which they have imagined to do. 7 Go to, let us go down, and there confound their language, that they may not understand one another's speech. 8 So the Lord scattered them abroad from thence upon the face of all the earth: and they left off to build the city. 9 Therefore is the name of it called Babel; because the Lord did there confound the language of all the earth: and from thence did the Lord scatter them abroad upon the face of all the earth.

The phrase Tower of Babel does not actually appear in the Bible; it is always, "the city and its tower" (אֶת-הָעִיר וְאֶת-הַמִּגְדָּל) or just "the city" (הָעִיר).

German Late Medieval (ca. 1370s) depiction of the construction of the tower.
German Late Medieval (ca. 1370s) depiction of the construction of the tower.

Themes

The story explains the origin of nations, of their languages, and of Babylon (Babel). The story's theme of competition between the Lord and humans appears elsewhere in Genesis, in the story of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden.[1] The story displays the Lord's contempt for human pride.[1]


The traditional Judaeo-Christian interpretation, as found for example in Flavius Josephus, explains the construction of the tower as a hubristic act of defiance against God, ordered by the arrogant tyrant, Nimrod. Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... For the supervillain, see Barry Hubris. ... For other uses, see Nimrod (disambiguation). ...


Historical context

The Tower of Babel in the background of a depiction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon by Martin Heemskerck.
The Tower of Babel in the background of a depiction of the Hanging Gardens of Babylon by Martin Heemskerck.

The Greek form of the name is from the native Akkadian Bāb-ilim, which means "Gate of the god". This correctly summarizes the religious purpose of the great temple towers (the ziggurats) of ancient Sumer (Biblical Shinar). In Genesis 10, Babel is said to have formed part of Nimrod's kingdom. It is not specifically mentioned in the Bible that he ordered the tower to be built, but Nimrod is often associated with its construction in other sources. The Hebrew version of the name of the city and the tower, Babel, is attributed in Gen. 11:9 to the verb balal, which means to confuse or confound in Hebrew. The ruins of the city of Babylon are near Hillah, Babil Governorate, Iraq. The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Hanging Gardens redirects here. ... ... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Dur-Untash, or Choqa Zanbil, built in 13th century BC by Untash Napirisha and located near Susa, Iran is one of the worlds best-preserved ziggurats. ... Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Å umeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ... Shinar (Hebrew Å in`ar, Septuagint Σεννααρ Sennaar) is a broad designation applied to Mesopotamia, occurring eight times in the Hebrew Bible. ... In the Bible and in legend, Nimrod (Standard Hebrew נִמְרוֹד Nimrod, Tiberian Hebrew נִמְרֹד Nimrōḏ), son of Cush, grandson of Ham, great-grandson of Noah, was a Mesopotamian monarch and a mighty hunter before Yahweh. He is mentioned in the Table of Nations (Genesis 10), in the First Book of Chronicles, and... Hebrew redirects here. ... Al Hillah is a city in central Iraq on the river Euphrates, 100 km (62 miles) south of Baghdad, with an estimated population of 364,700 in 1998. ... Babil (Arabic: ???? ) is a province in Iraq. ...


The peoples listed in Chapter 10 of Genesis (the Table of Nations) are stated by 11:8-9 to have been scattered over the face of the earth from Shinar only after the abandonment of the Tower. Some[who?] see an internal contradiction between the mention already in Genesis 10:5 that "From these the maritime peoples spread out into their territories by their clans within their nations, each with his own language" and the subsequent Babel story, which begins "Now the entire earth was of one language and uniform words" (Genesis 11:1). However, this view presupposes a rigid chronological sequence of 10:5 and 11:1, whereas the normal interpretation is that 10:5 refers to the same later scattering as mentioned more fully in 11:9. The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... Some religions believe that the Bible was inspired or received in singular events. ...


In other sources

Destruction

The account in Genesis makes no mention of any destruction of the tower. The people whose languages are confounded simply stop building their city, and are scattered from there over the face of the Earth. However, in other sources such as the Book of Jubilees, Cornelius Alexander (frag. 10), Abydenus (frags. 5 and 6), Josephus (Antiquities 1.4.3), and the Sibylline Oracles (iii. 117-129), God overturns the tower with a great wind. The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ... Lucius Cornelius Alexander Polyhistor was a Greek scholar who was enslaved by the Romans during the Mithridatic War and taken to Rome as a tutor. ... Abydenus, a Greek historian, was the author of an History of the Chaldeans and Assyrians, of which some fragments are preserved by Eusebius in his Praeparatio Evangelica, and by Cyril in his work against Julian. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... The surviving Sibylline Oracles are not the famous Sibylline Books of Roman history, which were lost not once, but twice, and thus there is very little knowledge of the actual contents. ...


Etemenanki, the ziggurat at Babylon

Reconstruction of the Etemenanki (total height 91 m)
Main article: Etemenanki

Etemenanki (Sumerian: "temple of the foundation of heaven and earth") was the name of a ziggurat dedicated to Marduk in the city of Babylon. It was famously rebuilt by the 6th century BC Neo-Babylonian dynasty rulers Nabopolassar and Nebuchadnezzar II. According to modern scholars such as Stephen L. Harris, the biblical story of the Tower of Babel was likely influenced by Etemenanki during the Babylonian captivity of the Hebrews. Etemenanki, The temple of the creation of heaven and earth, was the name of a ziggurat to Marduk in the city of Babylon of the 6th century BC Chaldean (Neo-Babylonian) dynasty. ... Nabopolassar (Akkadian:Nabû-apal-usur) was the first king (626-605 BC) of the Neo-Babylonian Empire. ... Nebuchadnezzar (or Nebudchadrezzar) II (ca. ...


Nebuchadnezzar wrote that the original tower had been built in antiquity: "A former king built the Temple of the Seven Lights of the Earth, but he did not complete its head. Since a remote time, people had abandoned it, without order expressing their words. Since that time earthquakes and lightning had dispersed its sun-dried clay; the bricks of the casing had split, and the earth of the interior had been scattered in heaps."


The Greek historian Herodotus (440 BC) later wrote of this ziggurat, which he called the "Temple of Zeus Belus", giving an account of its vast dimensions. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (c. ...


Book of Jubilees

The Book of Jubilees contains one of the most detailed accounts found anywhere of the Tower. The Book of Jubilees expands and reworks material found in Genesis to Exodus 15. ...

And they began to build, and in the fourth week they made brick with fire, and the bricks served them for stone, and the clay with which they cemented them together was asphalt which comes out of the sea, and out of the fountains of water in the land of Shinar. And they built it: forty and three years were they building it; its breadth was 203 bricks, and the height [of a brick] was the third of one; its height amounted to 5433 cubits and 2 palms, and [the extent of one wall was] thirteen stades [and of the other thirty stades].(Jubilees 10:20-21, Charles' 1913 translation) This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts nine historical units of measurement: the Yard, the Span, the Cubit, the Flemish Ell, the English Ell, the French Ell, the Fathom, the Hand , and the Foot. ... Introduction Many systems of weights and measures have existed throughout history in different civilisations. ...

The Book of Jubilees recounts Genesis and the first twelve chapters of Exodus, elaborating on the text (similar to a Midrash). It is often categorized as one of the Pseudepigrapha and dated to the late 2nd century BC[1], but it is still in the canon of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church[2]. This article is about the second book in the Torah. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ... Pseudepigrapha (from the Greek words pseudos = lie and epigrapho = write) is a text or a number of texts whose claimed authorship or authenticity is incorrect. ... Ethiopian Church in jerusalem The Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (in transliterated Amharic:Yäityopya ortodoks täwahedo bétäkrestyan) is an Oriental Orthodox church in Ethiopia that was part of the Coptic Orthodox Church until 1959, when it was granted its own Patriarch by Coptic Orthodox Pope of...


Josephus' Antiquities of the Jews

The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, in his Antiquities of the Jews (c 94 AD), recounted history as found in the Hebrew Bible and mentioned the Tower of Babel. He wrote that it was Nimrod who had the tower built and that Nimrod was a tyrant who tried to turn the people away from God. In this account, God confused the people rather than destroying them because destroying people with a Flood hadn't taught them to be godly.[3] Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... Antiquities of the Jews (Antiquitates Judaicae in Latin) was a work published by the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus about 93-94 (cf. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...


Greek Apocalypse of Baruch

Third Apocalypse of Baruch (or 3 Baruch, c 2nd century), one of the pseudepigrapha, describes the just rewards of sinners and the righteous in the afterlife.[1] Among the sinners are those who instigated the Tower of Babel. In the account, Baruch is first taken (in a vision) to see the resting place of the souls of "those who built the tower of strife against God, and the Lord banished them." Next he is shown another place, and there, occupying the form of dogs, 3 Baruch or the Greek Apocalypse of Baruch is a Jewish pseudepigraphical text written in the late 1st century CE or early 2nd century CE, after the fall of Jerusalem to the Romans in 70 CE. It is not part of the canon of either the Jewish or most Christian... Pseudepigrapha (from the Greek words pseudos = lie and epigrapho = write) is a text or a number of texts whose claimed authorship or authenticity is incorrect. ...

Those who gave counsel to build the tower, for they whom thou seest drove forth multitudes of both men and women, to make bricks; among whom, a woman making bricks was not allowed to be released in the hour of child-birth, but brought forth while she was making bricks, and carried her child in her apron, and continued to make bricks. And the Lord appeared to them and confused their speech, when they had built the tower to the height of four hundred and sixty-three cubits. And they took a gimlet, and sought to pierce the heavens, saying, Let us see (whether) the heaven is made of clay, or of brass, or of iron. When God saw this He did not permit them, but smote them with blindness and confusion of speech, and rendered them as thou seest. (Greek Apocalypse of Baruch, 3:5-8)

Midrash

Rabbinic literature offers many different accounts of other causes for building the Tower of Babel, and of the intentions of its builders. The Mishnah (the first written record of the Oral Law, c 200 AD) describes the Tower as a rebellion against God. Some later midrash record that the builders of the Tower, called "the generation of secession" in the Jewish sources, said: "God has no right to choose the upper world for Himself, and to leave the lower world to us; therefore we will build us a tower, with an idol on the top holding a sword, so that it may appear as if it intended to war with God" (Gen. R. xxxviii. 7; Tan., ed. Buber, Noah, xxvii. et seq.). Rabbinic literature, in the broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of Judaisms rabbinic writing/s throughout history. ... Babel (Hebrew: ; Bavel) (Arabic|بابل: Babel) is the name used in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran for the city of Babylon (Akkadian Babilu), notable in Genesis as the location of the Tower of Babel. ... The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... An oral law is a code of conduct in use in a given culture, religion or other regroupement, by which a body of rules of human behaviour is transmitted by oral tradition and effectively respected, or the single rule that is orally transmitted. ... Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש; plural midrashim) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of exegesis of a Biblical text. ...


The building of the Tower was meant to bid defiance not only to God, but also to Abraham, who exhorted the builders to reverence. The passage mentions that the builders spoke sharp words against God, not cited in the Bible, saying that once every 1,656 years, heaven tottered so that the water poured down upon the earth, therefore they would support it by columns that there might not be another deluge (Gen. R. l.c.; Tan. l.c.; similarly Josephus, "Ant." i. 4, § 2). For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ...


Some among that sinful generation even wanted to war against God in heaven (Talmud Sanhedrin 109a.) They were encouraged in this wild undertaking by the notion that arrows which they shot into the sky fell back dripping with blood, so that the people really believed that they could wage war against the inhabitants of the heavens (Sefer ha-Yashar, Noah, ed. Leghorn, 12b). According to Josephus and Midrash Pirke R. El. xxiv., it was mainly Nimrod who persuaded his contemporaries to build the Tower, while other rabbinical sources assert, on the contrary, that Nimrod separated from the builders. Sefer haYashar, Hebrew ספר הישר (also transliterated Sēper haiYāšār), Book of the Upright, often only half-translated into English as Book of Jasher or as Book of Jashar. ... A fanciful representation of Flavius Josephus, in an engraving in William Whistons translation of his works Josephus (37 – sometime after 100 CE),[1] who became known, in his capacity as a Roman citizen, as Titus Flavius Josephus,[2] was a 1st-century Jewish historian and apologist of priestly and... Look up Nimrod in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Kabbalah

Some Kabbalistic mystics provide intriguing and unusual descriptions of the Tower of Babel. According to Menachem Tsioni, an Italian Torah commentator of 15th century, the Tower was a functional flying craft, empowered by some powerful magic or technology [1]; the device was originally intended for holy purposes, but was later misused in order to gain control over the whole world. Isaac of Acre wrote that the Tower builders had reached, or at least planned to reach the distance of 2,360,000,000 parsas or 9-10 billion kilometers above the Earth surface, which is about the radius of the Solar System, including most Trans-Neptunian objects. [2]. Similar accounts are also found in the writing of Jonathan Eybeschutz and the ancient book Brith Menuchah [3], according to which the builders of the Tower planned to equip it with some shield technology ("shielding wings") and powerful weapons. Many Kabbalists believed that the ancient peoples possessed magic knowledge of the Nephilim, which allowed them to construct such powerful devices. Moreover, according to some commentaries, some Talmudic sages possessed a manual for building such a flying tower. This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Not to be confused with Isaac ben Samuel of Dampierre. ... The parasang (Persian فرسنگ farsang) is an ancient Persian unit of itinerant distance corresponding to approximately 3. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Jonathan Eybeschutz (Kraków 1690 - Altona 1764), was a Talmudist, Halachist and Kabbalist, holding positions as Dayan of Prague, and later as Rabbi of the Three Communities: Altona, Hamburg and Wandsbek. ... For other uses, see Nephilim (disambiguation). ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ...


These accounts coincide with some of Zecharia Sitchin's speculations and the ufological theories concerning the ancient Indian vimanas[citation needed]. According to another mysterious Kabbalistic account, one third of the Tower builders were punished by turning into various semi-demonic creatures and banished into three parallel dimensions, inhabited now by their descendants [4]. Zecharia Sitchins photograph from The 12th Planet Zecharia Sitchin (born 1922)[1] is a best-selling author of books promoting the ancient astronaut theory for human origins. ... Artistic representation of UFOs Ufology is the study of unidentified flying object (UFO) reports, sightings, alleged physical evidence, and other related phenomena. ... This page deals with the flying chariots of Hindu mythology. ...


Qur'an and Islamic traditions

Though not mentioned by name, the Qur'an has a story with similarities to the Biblical story of the Tower of Babel, though set in the Egypt of Moses. In Suras 28:38 and 40:36-37 Pharaoh asks Haman to build him a clay tower so that he can mount up to heaven and confront the God of Moses. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... In the Quran, Haman was a notable companion of the Pharaoh in Moses time, whom he asked to build him a tower so he could go up to the heavens and try to see the god of Moses, in whom he disbelieved. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


Another story in Sura 2:102 mentions the name of Babil, but tells of when two angels taught the people of Babylon the tricks of magic and warned them that magic is a sin and that their teaching them magic is a test of faith. A tale about Babil appears more fully in the writings of Yaqut (i, 448 f.) and the Lisan el-'Arab (xiii. 72), but without the tower: mankind were swept together by winds into the plain that was afterwards called "Babil", where they were assigned their separate languages by Allah, and were then scattered again in the same way. Babil is the Arabic name of Babylon. ... Yaqut (Yaqut ibn-Abdullah al-Hamawi) (1179 - 1229) was an Arab biographer and geographer. ...


In the History of the Prophets and Kings by the 9th century Muslim historian al-Tabari, a fuller version is given: Nimrod has the tower built in Babil, Allah destroys it, and the language of mankind, formerly Syriac, is then confused into 72 languages. Another Muslim historian of the 13th century, Abu al-Fida relates the same story, adding that the patriarch Eber (an ancestor of Abraham) was allowed to keep the original tongue, Hebrew in this case, because he would not partake in the building. The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Tabari from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim history. ... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... أبو الفدا or Abu al-Fida or Abul Fida Ismail ibn Kathir (fully Abu Al-fida Ismail Ibn Kathir imad Ad-din, (also transliterated Abulfeda, Abu Alfida, and other ways) ( 1301 - 1373) was an Syrian historian and mufassir. ... Eber (עֵבֶר, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew , Arabic: هود) is mentioned in the Hebrew Bible. ...


Book of Mormon

In the Book of Mormon, a man named Jared and his family are warned by God about the destruction of the tower. Their language is preserved, and they are led across the sea into America. See the Book of Ether [5] in the Book of Mormon. // The Book of Mormon [1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... In the book of Ether in the Book of Mormon, Jared was the name of the primary anscestor of the Jaredites. ... The Book of Ether is one of books that make up the Book of Mormon. ... // The Book of Mormon [1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. ...


Irish folklore

Irish texts such as Lebor Gabála Érenn and Auraicept na n-Éces claim that the legendary king Fenius Farsa chose the best features of all the confused languages and fused them together to create Goidelic, the forerunner of the Irish language. Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. ... fol. ... Fenius Farsa (also Phoeniusa, Phenius, Fénius; Farsaid, Farsaidh, many variant spellings) was a legendary king of Scythia who shows up in many legends of Irish folklore. ... Goidelic is one of two major divisions of modern-day Celtic languages (the other being Brythonic). ... This article is about the modern Goidelic language. ...


In Western culture

Further information: confusion of tongues and origin of language

Historical linguistics has long wrestled with the idea of a single original language. In the Middle Ages, and down to the 17th century, attempts were made to identify a living descendent of the Adamic language, e.g. in the Irish legend of Fenius Farsa. Gustave Dorés interpretation of the confusion of tongues. ... The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ... Historical linguistics (also diachronic linguistics or comparative linguistics) is primarily the study of the ways in which languages change over time. ... The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ... The Adamic language is a term for the hypothetical proto-language believed spoken by Adam and Eve in paradise, either identical with the language used by God to address Adam, or invented by Adam (Genesis 2:19). ... Fenius Farsa (also Phoeniusa, Phenius, Fénius; Farsaid, Farsaidh, many variant spellings) was a legendary king of Scythia who shows up in many legends of Irish folklore. ...


Pieter Brueghel's influential portrayal is based on the Colosseum in Rome, while later conical depictions of the tower (as depicted in Doré's illustration) resemble much later Muslim towers observed by 19th century explorers in the area, notably the Minaret of Samarra. M. C. Escher depicts a more stylized geometrical structure in his woodcut representing the story. Bruegels The Painter and The Connoisseur drawn c. ... The Colosseum by night: exterior view of the best-preserved section. ... The Great Mosque of Samarra is a mosque located in the Iraqi city of Samarra and was built in the 9th century. ... Maurits Cornelis Escher (June 17, 1898 – March 27, 1972), usually referred to as M. C. Escher, was a Dutch graphic artist. ... Tower of Babel M. C. Escher, 1928 Woodcut Tower of Babel is a 1928 woodcut by M. C. Escher. ...


According to one modern legend, "sack" was the last word uttered before the confusion of languages.[4]


Comparable mythemes

Sumerian parallel

There is a Sumerian myth similar to that of the Tower of Babel, called Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta, where Enmerkar of Uruk is building a massive ziggurat in Eridu and demands a tribute of precious materials from Aratta for its construction, at one point reciting an incantation imploring the god Enki to restore (or in Kramer's translation, to disrupt) the linguistic unity of the inhabited regions — named as Shubur, Hamazi, Sumer, Uri-ki (Akkad), and the Martu land, "the whole universe, the well-guarded people — may they all address Enlil together in a single language."[5] Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enmerkar and the Lord of Aratta is a legendary Sumerian account of the greatest antiquity, possibly based on genuine events of the 3rd millennium BC. It is one of a series of accounts describing the conflicts between Enmerkar, king of Unug-Kulaba (Uruk), and the unnamed king of Aratta (probably... Enmerkar, according to the Sumerian king list, was the builder of Uruk, and was said to have reigned for 420 years. It adds that he brought the official kingship with him from the city of Eana, after his father Mesh-ki-ag-gasher, son of Utu, had entered the sea... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Aratta was an ancient state formation of renown somewhere in the Middle East, ca. ... Enki (DEN.KI(G)) was a deity in Sumerian mythology, later known as Ea in Babylonian mythology, originally chief god of the city of Eridu. ... The land of Subar (Sumerian Su-bir4/Subar/Å ubur) or Subartu (Akkadian Å ubartum/Subartum/ina Šú-ba-ri, Assyrian mât Å ubarri) was situated at the Tigris, north of Babylonia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the Egyptian writer, see Abbas Al-Akkad. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Amurrū (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the middle Euphrates area from the second half of the third millennium BC and also appear in the Tanakh. ...


One recent theory first advanced by David Rohl associates Nimrod, the hunter, builder of Erech and Babel, with Enmerkar (i.e., Enmer the Hunter) king of Uruk, also said to have been the first builder of the Eridu temple. (Amar-Sin (c. 2046-2037 BC), third monarch of the Third Dynasty of Ur, later attempted to complete the Eridu ziggurat.) This theory proposes that the remains of the historical building that via Mesopotamian legend inspired the story of the Tower of Babel are the ruins of the ziggurat of Eridu, just south of Ur. Among the reasons for this association are the larger size of the ruins, the older age of the ruins, and the fact that one title of Eridu was NUN.KI ("mighty place"), which later became a title of Babylon[6]. Both cities also had temples called the E-Sagila. David M. Rohl is a British Egyptologist and historian who has put forth several controversial theories concerning the chronology of Ancient Egypt and Palestine. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Amar-Sin (2046-2037 BCE High chronology) was the third ruler of the Ur III Dynasty, son of Shulgi (2094-2047 BCE). ... The Third Dynasty of Ur refers simultaneously to a 21st to 20th century BC (short chronology) Sumerian ruling dynasty based in the city of Ur and a short-lived territorial-political state that some historians regard as a nascent empire. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ...


Towers

Various traditions similar to that of the tower of Babel are found in Central America. One holds that Xelhua, one of the seven giants rescued from the deluge, built the Great Pyramid of Cholula in order to storm Heaven. The gods destroyed it with fire and confounded the language of the builders. The Dominican friar Diego Duran (1537-1588) reported hearing this account from a hundred-year-old priest at Cholula, shortly after the conquest of Mexico. For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... Xelhua is one of the seven giants in Aztec mythology who escaped the flood by ascending the mountain of Tlaloc in the terrestrial paradise, and afterwards built the Great Pyramid of Cholula. ... The Great Pyramid of Cholula, the worlds largest monument and largest Pre-Columbian pyramid by volume, is a huge complex located in Cholula, Puebla, Mexico. ... Laudare, Benedicere, Praedicare (Praise, Bless, Preach) Saint Dominic saw the need for a new type of organization to address the needs of his time, one that would bring the dedication and systematic education of the older monastic orders to bear on the religious problems of the burgeoning population of cities... It has been proposed below that Diego Duran be renamed and moved to Deigo Durán. ...


Another story, attributed by the native historian Don Ferdinand d'Alva Ixtilxochitl (c. 1565-1648) to the ancient Toltecs, states that after men had multiplied following a great deluge, they erected a tall zacuali or tower, to preserve themselves in the event of a second deluge. However, their languages were confounded and they went to separate parts of the earth. The Toltecs (or Toltec or Tolteca) were a Pre-Columbian Native American people who dominated much of central Mexico between the 10th and 12th century AD. Their language, Nahuatl, was also spoken by the Aztecs. ...


Still another story, attributed to the Tohono O'odham Indians, holds that Montezuma escaped a great flood, then became wicked and attempted to build a house reaching to heaven, but the Great Spirit destroyed it with thunderbolts. (Bancroft, vol. 3, p.76; also in History of Arizona) The Tohono Oodham are a Native American tribe formerly known as the Papago who reside primarily in the Sonoran Desert of the southwest United States and northwest Mexico. ... Montezuma was the name of a hero-god in the mythology of certain Indian tribes of the Southwest United States, notably the Tohono Oodham, Apache, and Pueblo — not to be confused with the two historical Aztec Emperors of the same name in Mexico, Moctezuma I and Moctezuma II. In... This article needs to be updated. ...


According to Dr Livingstone, the Africans whom he met living near Lake Ngami in 1879 had such a tradition, but with the builders' heads getting "cracked by the fall of the scaffolding" (Missionary Travels, chap. 26). David Livingstone David Livingstone (March 19, 1813–May 1, 1873) was a Scottish missionary and explorer of the Victorian era, now best remembered because of his meeting with Henry Morton Stanley which gave rise to the popular quotation, Livingstone was born in the village of Blantyre in Lanarkshire, Scotland and... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Lake Ngami is a lake in Botswana north of the Kalahari desert. ...


In his 1918 book, Folklore in the Old Testament, Scottish social anthropologist Sir James George Frazer documented similarities between Old Testament stories, such as the Flood, and indigenous legends around the world. He identified Livingston's account with a tale found in Lozi mythology, wherein the wicked men build a tower of masts to pursue the Creator-God, Nyambe, who has fled to Heaven on a spider-web, but the men perish when the masts collapse. He further relates similar tales of the Ashanti that substitute a pile of porridge pestles for the masts. Frazer moreover cites such legends found among the Kongo people, as well as in Tanzania, where the men stack poles or trees in a failed attempt to reach the moon [7]. He further cited the Karbi and Kuki people of Assam as having a similar story. The traditions of the Karen people of Myanmar, which Frazer considered to show clear 'Abrahamic' influence, also relate that their ancestors migrated there following the abandonment of a great pagoda in the land of the Karenni 30 generations from Adam, when the languages were confused and the Karen separated from the Karenni. He notes yet another version current in the Admiralty Islands where mankind's languages are confused following a failed attempt to build houses reaching to heaven. Some of these stories were later revealed to have derived recently from Christian missionary teaching. Folklore in the Old Testament: Studies in Comparative Religion Legend and Law written in 1918 by Sir James Frazer, compares episodes of the Old Testament with similar legends from other cultures in the ancient world. ... Sir James George Frazer (January 1, 1854 - May 7, 1941), a social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion, was born in Glasgow, Scotland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Ashanti (disambiguation). ... The Bakongo or the Kongo people (meaning hunter) live along the Atlantic coast of Africa from Pointe-Noire (Brazzaville) to Luanda, Angola. ... Language(s) Karbi language Religion(s) Related ethnic groups Other tribes of Assam The Karbi, mentioned as the Mikir in the Constitution Order of the Government of India, constitute an important ethnic group in the hill areas of Assam. ... The term Kuki people refers to Zo ethnic entity that spreads out in a contiguous region in Northeast India, Northwest Burma (Myanmar), and the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh. ... , Assam (  ) (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a suburb of the city Guwahati. ... The Karen (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ), self-titled Pwa Ka Nyaw Po, and also known in Thailand as the Kariang (Thai: ) or Yang, are an ethnic group in Burma and Thailand. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... Myanmars Shwedagon Pagoda is one of the most recognizable and revered pagodas in the Buddhist World A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia For other uses, see Pagoda (disambiguation). ... Karenni, also known as Red Karen or Kayah, are a Sino-Tibetan people, living mostly in Kayah State of Myanmar. ... The Admiralty Islands are a group of 18 islands in the Bismarck Archipelago. ...


Traces of a somewhat similar story have also been reported among the Tharus of Nepal and northern India (Report of the Census of Bengal, 1872, p. 160). To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Multiplication of languages

There have also been a number of traditions around the world that describe a divine confusion of the one original language into several, albeit without any tower. Aside from the Ancient Greek myth that Hermes confused the languages, causing Zeus to give his throne to Phoroneus, Frazer specifically mentions such accounts among the Wasania of Kenya, the Kacha Naga people of Assam, the inhabitants of Encounter Bay in Australia, the Maidu of California, the Tlingit of Alaska, and the K'iche' of Guatemala [8]. (See also: Mythical origins of language) For other uses, see Hermes (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, Phoroneus was a culture-hero, son of Inachus and Melia. ... Naga people The Naga people of about two and half million are found in Nagaland, parts of Manipur, Assam, Arunachal Pradesh and Myanmar. ... Encounter Bay is located on the south coast of Australia. ... The Maidu are a group of Native Americans who lived in Northern California. ... A Tlingit totem pole in Ketchikan ca. ... The Kiche (or Quiché in Spanish spelling), are a Native American people, one of the Maya ethnic groups. ... There have been many explanations of the origin of language prior to any scientific theories. ...


The Estonian myth of "the Cooking of Languages" [9] has also been compared.


Height of the tower

The Tower of Babel as depicted in Metropolis was modeled after Brueghel's 1563 painting
The Tower of Babel as depicted in Metropolis was modeled after Brueghel's 1563 painting[10]

The narrative in the book of Genesis does not mention how tall the Biblical tower was, but the tower's height is discussed in various extra-canonical sources. For other uses, see Metropolis (disambiguation). ... The Tower of Babel is an oil painting by Pieter Brueghel the Elder. ...


The Book of Jubilees mentions the tower's height as being 5433 cubits and 2 palms, or nearly 2.5 kilometers. The Third Apocalypse of Baruch mentions that the 'tower of strife' reached a height of 463 cubits (212 meters), taller than any structure built in human history until the construction of the Eiffel Tower (324 meters) in 1889. This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts nine historical units of measurement: the Yard, the Span, the Cubit, the Flemish Ell, the English Ell, the French Ell, the Fathom, the Hand , and the Foot. ... This derivation of the Vitruvian Man by Leonardo da Vinci, depicts nine historical units of measurement: the Yard, the Span, the Cubit, the Flemish Ell, the English Ell, the French Ell, the Fathom, the Hand , and the Foot. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ...


Gregory of Tours (I, 6) writing ca. 594, quotes the earlier historian Orosius (ca. 417) as saying the tower was "laid out foursquare on a very level plain. Its wall, made of baked brick cemented with pitch, is fifty cubits wide, two hundred high, and four hundred and seventy stades in circumference. A stade contains five agripennes. Twenty-five gates are situated on each side, which make in all one hundred. The doors of these gates, which are of wonderful size, are cast in bronze. The same historian [Orosius] tells many other tales of this city, and says: 'Although such was the glory of its building still it was conquered and destroyed.'" Saint Gregory of Tours (c. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... For the unit of information, see qubit Cubit is the name for the ancient Egyptian and Sumerian units of measure. ... Introduction Many systems of weights and measures have existed throughout history in different civilisations. ... The circumference is the distance around a closed curve. ... A gate is a point of entry to a space enclosed by walls, or an opening in a fence. ...


A typical mediaeval account is given by Giovanni Villani (1300): He relates that "it measured eighty miles round, and it was already 4,000 paces high and 1,000 paces thick, and each pace is three of our feet." [11]. The 14th century traveler John Mandeville also included an account of the tower, and reported that its height had been 64 furlongs (= 8 miles), according to the local inhabitants. Giovanni Villani (ca 1275-1348), the Florentine writer of the famous chronicles (the Cronica) is the greatest Italian chronicler of his own times and the cornerstone of the early medieval history of Florence. ... A pace (or double-pace) is a measure of distance used by Ancient Rome. ... Full-page portrait of Sir John Mandeville. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ...


The 17th century historian Verstegan provides yet another figure - quoting Isidore, he says that the tower was 5164 paces high, about 7.6 kilometers, and quoting Josephus that the tower was wider than it was high, more like a mountain than a tower. He also quotes unnamed authors who say that the spiral path was so wide that it contained lodgings for workers and animals, and other authors who claim that the path was wide enough to have fields for growing grain for the animals used in the construction. Richard Rowlands (before 1560- after 1620), Anglo-Dutch antiquary, whose real name was Verstegen, was the son of a cooper whose father, Theodore Roland Verstegen, a Dutch emigrant, came from the Seventeen Provinces to the Kingdom of England c. ... The word grain has several meanings, most being descriptive of a small piece or particle. ...


In his book, "Structures or why things don't fall down" (pub Pelican 1978 - 1984), Professor J.E. Gordon considers the height of the Tower of Babel. He wrote, 'brick and stone weigh about 120 lb per cubic foot (2000 kg per cubic metre) and the crushing strength of these materials is generally rather better than 6000 lbf per square inch or 40 megapascals. Elementary arithmetic shows that a tower with parallel walls could have been built to a height of 7000 feet or 2 kilometres before the bricks at the bottom were crushed. However by making the walls taper towards the top they ... could well have been built to a height where the men of Shinnar would run short of oxygen and had difficulty in breathing before the brick walls crushed beneath their own dead weight." The cubic foot is an imperial and US customary (non-metric) unit of volume, used in the United States, Canada and the United Kingdom. ...


Enumeration of scattered languages

There are several mediaeval historiographic accounts that attempt to make an enumeration of the languages scattered at the Tower of Babel. Because a count of all the descendants of Noah listed by name in chapter 10 of Genesis (LXX) provides 15 names for Japheth's descendants, 30 for Ham's, and 27 for Shem's, these figures became established as the 72 languages resulting from the confusion at Babel — although the exact listing of these languages tended to vary over time. (The LXX Bible has two additional names, Elisa and Cainan, not found in the Masoretic text of this chapter, so early rabbinic traditions such as the Mishna speak instead of "70 languages".) Some of the earliest sources for 72 (sometimes 73) languages are the 2nd century Christian writers Clement of Alexandria (Stromata I, 21) and Hippolytus of Rome (On the Psalms 9); it is repeated in the Syriac book Cave of Treasures (c. AD 350), Epiphanius of Salamis' Panarion (c. 375) and St. Augustine's The City of God 16.6 (c. 410). The chronicles attributed to Hippolytus (c. 234) contain one of the first attempts to list each of the 72 peoples who were believed to have spoken these languages. This T and O map, which abstracts that societys known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography and identifies the three known continents as populated by descendents of Shem (Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth) The Table of Nations is... Clement of Alexandria (Titus Flavius Clemens), was the first member of the Church of Alexandria to be more than a name, and one of its most distinguished teachers. ... The Stromata (Clement entitled this work Stromateis, patchwork, because it dealt with such a variety of matters), third in the great trilogy of Clement of Alexandria, goes further than its two predecessors and aims at the perfection of the Christian life by initiation into complete knowledge. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Cave of Treasures, sometimes referred to simply as The Treasure, is a book of the New Testament apocrypha, which was later declared heretical by the Roman Catholic Church. ... Epiphanius (ca 310–20 – 403) was a Church Father, a heresiologist who was a strong defender of orthodoxy, known for tracking down deviant teachings (heresies) wherever they could be traced, during the troubled era in the Christian Church following the Council of Nicaea. ... Of early Christian heresiology, the Panarion (Greek: Πανάριον, Medicine Chest), also known as Adversus Haereses (Latin: Against Heresies), is the most important of the works of Epiphanius (d. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... The City of God, opening text, created c. ...


Isidore of Seville in his Etymologiae (c. 600) mentions the number of 72, however his list of names from the Bible drops the sons of Joktan and substitutes the sons of Abraham and Lot, resulting in only about 56 names total; he then appends a list of some of the nations known in his own day, such as the Longobards and the Franks. This listing was to prove quite influential on later accounts which made the Lombards and Franks themselves into descendants of eponymous grandsons of Japheth, eg. the Historia Brittonum (c. 833), The Meadows of Gold by al Masudi (c. 947) and Book of Roads and Kingdoms by al-Bakri (1068), the 11th cent. Lebor Gabála Érenn, and the midrashic compilations Yosippon (c. 950), Chronicles of Jerahmeel, and Sefer haYashar. Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or , Latin: ) (c. ... First printed edition of 1472 (by Guntherus Ziner, Augsburg), title page of chapter 14 (de terra et partibus), illustrated with a T and O map. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, from which the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Scandinavia that entered the late Roman Empire. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The Historia Britonum, or The History of the Britons, is a historical work that was first written sometime shortly after AD 820, and exists in several recensions of varying difference. ... Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Masudi (transl: ) (born c. ... Abu Abdullah al-Bakri (1014–1094) was a Spanish-Arab geographer and historian. ... Lebor Gabála Érenn (The Book of the Taking of Ireland) is the Middle Irish title of a loose collection of poems and prose narratives recounting the mythical origins and history of the Irish race from the creation of the world down to the Middle Ages. ... Josephus, also known as Flavius Josephus (c. ... The Chronicles of Jerahmeel were written in the Rhineland in the 14th century. ... Sefer haYashar (midrash), a Hebrew midrash known in English translation mostly as The Book of Jasher. ...


Other sources that mention 72 (or 70) languages scattered from Babel are the Old Irish poem Cu cen mathair by Luccreth moccu Chiara (c. 600); the Irish monastic work Auraicept na n-Éces; History of the Prophets and Kings by the Persian historian Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (c. 915); the Anglo-Saxon dialogue Solomon and Saturn; the Jewish Kabbalistic work Bahir (1174); the Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson (c. 1200); the Syriac Book of the Bee (c. 1221); the Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum (c. 1284; mentions 22 for Shem, 31 for Ham and 17 for Japheth for a total of 70); Villani's 1300 account; and the rabbinic Midrash ha-Gadol (14th c.). Villani adds that it "was begun 700 years after the Flood, and there were 2,354 years from the beginning of the world to the confusion of the Tower of Babel. And we find that they were 107 years working at it; and men lived long in those times". According to the Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum, however, the project was begun only 200 years following the Deluge. Old Irish is the name given to the oldest form of the Irish language, or, rather, the Goidelic languages, for which extensive written texts are possessed. ... fol. ... The History of the Prophets and Kings (Arabic: تاريخ الرسل والملوك Tarikh al-Rusul wa al-Muluk, popularly Tarikh al-Tabari) is a history by Persian author and historian Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838–923) from the Creation to AD 915, and is renowned for its detail and accuracy concerning Arab and Muslim... Balamis 14th century Persian version of Universal History by al-Tabari Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Jarir at-Tabari 838–923 (father of Jafar, named Muhammad, son of Jarir from the province of Tabaristan, Arabic الطبري), was an author from Persia, one of the earliest, most prominent and famous Persian... Solomon and Saturn is a work in the corpus of Anglo-Saxon literature. ... This article is about traditional Jewish Kabbalah. ... Bahir or Sefer Ha-Bahir סֵפֶר הַבָּהִיר (Hebrew, Book of the Brightness) is an anonymous mystical work, attributed pseudepigraphically to a first century rabbinic sage Nehunya ben ha-Kanah (a contemporary of Yochanan ben Zakai) because it begins with the words, R. Nehunya Ben Ha-Kanah said. It is also known as... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... A statue of Snorri Sturluson by Norwegian sculptor Gustav Vigeland was erected at Reykholt in 1947. ... Syriac is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... The Book of the Bee is an historical/theological compilation containing numerous bible legends. ... The Gesta Hunnorum et Hungarorum (Deeds of the Huns and Hungarians) or just Gesta Hungarorum (II) (Deeds of the Hungarians) written mainly by Simon of Kéza is one of the sources of early Hungarian history. ... Giovanni Villani (ca 1275-1348), the Florentine writer of the famous chronicles (the Cronica) is the greatest Italian chronicler of his own times and the cornerstone of the early medieval history of Florence. ... Midrash ha-Gadol or The Great Midrash (Hebrew: מדרש הגדול) is an anonymous late compilation of aggadic midrashim on the Pentateuch taken from the two Talmuds and earlier Midrashim. ...


The tradition of 72 languages persisted into later times. Both José de Acosta in his 1576 treatise De procuranda indorum salute, and António Vieira a century later in his Sermão da Epifania, expressed amazement at how much this 'number of tongues' could be surpassed, there being hundreds of mutually unintelligible languages indigenous only to Peru and Brazil, respectively. José de Acosta (1539–1600) was a Spanish 16th-century Jesuit missionary and naturalist in Latin America. ... P. Antonio Vieira, preaching Father António Vieira, pron. ...


See also

Anatomy of a babel fish as illustrated in the BBC TV series by Rod Lord. ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Borsippa was an important ancient city of Mesopotamia (Iraq), built on both sides of a lake about eleven km (7. ... Linguistic speciation, or linguistic divergence, is the fissioning of language groups. ... The origin of language (glottogony) is a topic that has attracted considerable speculation throughout human history. ... The Tower (XVI) The Tower (XVI) (most common modern name) is a Tarot trump card that has many different names, symbols, and meanings. ... This article is about the general history, iconography, and uses of tarot cards. ... The Major Arcana (Trumps Major, Major Trumps) of the Tarot deck consists of 22 cards. ... This T and O map, which abstracts that societys known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography and identifies the three known continents as populated by descendents of Shem (Sem), Ham (Cham) and Japheth (Iafeth) The Table of Nations is... Torre Espacio under construction (July 2007). ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  2. ^ The Book of Jubilees, translated by R. H. Charles
  3. ^ Now it was Nimrod who excited them to such an affront and contempt of God. He was the grandson of Ham, the son of Noah, a bold man, and of great strength of hand. He persuaded them not to ascribe it to God, as if it were through his means they were happy, but to believe that it was their own courage which procured that happiness. He also gradually changed the government into tyranny, seeing no other way of turning men from the fear of God, but to bring them into a constant dependence on his power... Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and they built a tower, neither sparing any pains, nor being in any degree negligent about the work: and, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect; but the thickness of it was so great, and it was so strongly built, that thereby its great height seemed, upon the view, to be less than it really was. It was built of burnt brick, cemented together with mortar, made of bitumen, that it might not be liable to admit water. When God saw that they acted so madly, he did not resolve to destroy them utterly, since they were not grown wiser by the destruction of the former sinners [in the Flood]; but he caused a tumult among them, by producing in them diverse languages, and causing that, through the multitude of those languages, they should not be able to understand one another. The place wherein they built the tower is now called Babylon, because of the confusion of that language which they readily understood before; for the Hebrews mean by the word Babel, confusion…
  4. ^ Entry on "Sack" in Betty Kirkpatrick (ed), Brewer's Concise Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, Cassell, London, 1992.
  5. ^ 145f.: an-ki ningin2-na ung3 sang sig10-ga den-lil2-ra eme 1-am3 he2-en-na-da-ab-dug4.
  6. ^ Rohl, David. Legend: The Genesis of Civilization, 1998.
  7. ^ Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old Testament(1918), chap. 5.
  8. ^ Folk-lore in the Old Testament by James George Frazer, p. 384 ff.
  9. ^ Kohl, Reisen in die 'Ostseeprovinzen, ii. 251-255
  10. ^ Bukatman, Scott. Blade Runner. BFI modern classics. London: British Film Institute, 1997. ISBN 0851706231. p. 62-63.
  11. ^ Selections from Giovanni's Chronicle in English.

Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... This page is about the religious concept of Tyranny. ... Ewer from Iran, dated 1180-1210CE. Composed of brass worked in repoussé and inlaid with silver and bitumen. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ... Babel (Hebrew: ; Bavel) (Arabic|بابل: Babel) is the name used in the Hebrew Bible and the Quran for the city of Babylon (Akkadian Babilu), notable in Genesis as the location of the Tower of Babel. ...

References

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • Pr. Diego Duran, Historia Antiqua de la Nueva Espana (Madrid, 1585)
  • Ixtilxochitl, Don Ferdinand d'Alva, Historia Chichimeca, 1658
  • Lord Kingsborough, Antiquities of Mexico, vol. 9
  • H.H. Bancroft, Native Races of the Pacific States (New York, 1874)
  • Klaus Seybold, Der Turmbau zu Babel: Zur Entstehung von Genesis XI 1-9, Vetus Testamentum (1976).
  • Samuel Noah Kramer, The "Babel of Tongues": A Sumerian Version, Journal of the American Oriental Society (1968).

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Frank Wu was the winner of the 2004 Hugo Award for Best Fan Artist. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tower of Babel - Academic Kids (1795 words)
"The Tower of Babel" by Pieter Brueghel the Elder
This, "Tower of Jupiter Belus" (the latinized spelling of Akkadian Bel), possibly corresponding to the Etemenanki ziggurat to Marduk is thought to have inspired the story of the Tower of Babel.
In the 1927 and 2001 film versions of Metropolis, the newly-rebuilt Tower of Babel (known in the 2001 anime film version as the Ziggurat) is the symbol of the titular grand city-state and the center of human imperial power.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Tower of Babel (1075 words)
Babel interpreted by the inspired writer as referring to the confusion of tongues.
Babel with the ruins of the Birs-Nimrud, in Borsippa, situated on the
Generally the corners of these towers faced the four points of the compass, while in Egypt this position was held by the sides of the pyramids.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m