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Encyclopedia > Tournament (medieval)

A Tournament, or tourney (from Old French torneiement, tornei[1]) is the name popularly given to chivalrous competitions or mock fights of the Middle Ages and Renaissance (12th to 16th centuries). It is one of various types of hastiludes. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... A knight receiving a ladys favour at a hastilude. ...

German Tournament ca. 1480, by the Master of the Housebook
German Tournament ca. 1480, by the Master of the Housebook

Contents

Pair of Lovers - C. 1480, a painting thought to be by the dry point engraver identified as the Master of the Housebook Master of the Housebook and Master of the Amsterdam Cabinet are two names used for an engraver and painter working in South Germany in the last quarter of...

Definition

Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée

Of the several medieval definitions of the tournament given by Du Cange (Glossarium, s.v. "Tourneamentum"), the best is that of Roger of Hoveden, who described tournaments as "military exercises carried out, not in the spirit of hostility (nullo interveniente odio), but solely for practice and the display of prowess (pro solo exercitio, atque ostentatione virium)." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (654x822, 332 KB) Codex Manesse, fo. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (654x822, 332 KB) Codex Manesse, fo. ... Folio 371r shows Johannes Hadlaub Folio 124r shows Walther von der Vogelweide The Manesse Codex or Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg Library, Cod. ... Charles du Fresne, sieur du Cange or Ducange (Amiens, December 18, 1610 – Paris, October 23, 1688) was a distinguished philologist and historian of the Middle Ages and Byzantium. ... Roger of Hoveden, or Howden (fl. ...


Origins

Men who carry weapons have in all ages played at the game of war in time of peace. Military games were organized in Europe around 1000. Equestrian games of war are known from before the Romans: chariot racing and the like were popular in Celtic Europe for example. Something like the medieval tourney was practiced by the Roman cavalry, from early on a critically important arm of the legions: two teams took turns chasing and fleeing each other, casting javelins in the attack and covering themselves with their shields in the retreat. These games, known as Hippica Gymnasia are known from ample archaeological and literary evidence to have been quite elaborate displays and were intended to impress their audiences. Special armour was made for them, including helms that fully covered the face against accidental injury, unlike the war helmets that left the face open for unimpeded vision and hearing. During the Early Middle Ages such cavalry games were still central to military training as is evidenced by Louis and Charles' military games at Worms in 843. At this event, recorded by Nithard, the initial chasing and fleeing was followed by a general melee of all combatants. But the tournament, properly so called, does not appear in Europe before the 11th century. Medieval people themselves devised myths about its origins. A chronicler of Tours in the late twelfth century records the death, in 1066, of an Angevin baron named Geoffroi de Preulli, who supposedly "devised (invenit) tournaments." Rüxner's sixteenth-century Thurnierbuch details the supposed tournament laws of Henry the Fowler (king of Germany, 919-936). A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Gari Melchers, Mural of Peace, 1896. ... Justinians wife Theodora and her retinue, in a 6th century mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale in Ravenna. ... Nithard (790 - 844), a Frankish historian, was the illegitimate son of Angilbert, the friend of Charlemagne, by Bertha, a daughter of the great emperor. ... For other uses, see Melee (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Heinrich I depicted as The Bamberg Knight Henry I, the Fowler (German: Heinrich der Finkler or Heinrich der Vogler) (876 - July 2, 936), was Duke of Saxony from 912 and king of the Germans from 919 until his death in 936. ...


In fact the earliest use of the word 'tournament' comes from the peace legislation by Count Baldwin III of Hainaut for the town of Valenciennes, dated to 1114. It refers to the keepers of the peace in the town leaving it 'for the purpose of frequenting javelin sports, tournaments and such like.' The earliest reference to a recognisable tournament event is in the history of his church of St Martin of Tournai composed by Hermann of Tournai in the early 1140s, who refers to the accidental death of Count Henry III of Brabant in his town in 1095 in a meeting between his knights and those of the castellan of Tournai. A pattern of regular tournament meetings across northern France is evident in sources for the life of Count Charles of Flanders (1119-1127). The sources of the 1160s and 1170s portray the event in the developed form it maintained into the fourteenth century. The virtually independent county of Hainaut emerged from chaotic conditions at the end of the 9th century as a semi-independent state, at first a vassal of the crown of Lotharingia. ... Tournai (in Dutch: Doornik in Latin: Tornacum) is a municipality located 85 kilometres southwest of Brussels, on the river Scheldt (in French: Escaut, in Dutch: Schelde), in the Belgian province of Hainaut. ... Historically, Brabant has been the name of several administrative entities in the Low Countries with quite different geographical extent: as Carolingian shire (pagus Bracbatensis), located between the rivers Scheldt and Dijle (between 9th-11th century); as landgraviat: the part of the shire between the rivers Dender and Dijle (from 1085...


The Shape of the Tournament

Tournament by Jörg Breu the Elder 1510s, depicting jousting
Tournament by Jörg Breu the Elder 1510s, depicting jousting

Tournaments centred around the mêlée, a general fight where the knights were divided into two sides and came together in a charge (MFr 'estor'). Jousting, a single combat of two knights riding at each other, was a component of the tournament, but was never its main feature. ca 1510 - 1515, pen and black ink over black chalk, diameter 25cm. ... ca 1510 - 1515, pen and black ink over black chalk, diameter 25cm. ... Bernard of Clairvaux curing a possession, Zwettl altarpiece Jörg Breu the Elder (ca. ... ---- Events and Trends Peter Henlein builds the first pocketwatch Battle of Orsha; Belarussians and Poles defeat the Russian army Martin Luther posts his 95 Theses on the door of the Wittenberg Castle Church Selim I, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire conquers Palestine and Egypt, and declares himself Caliph Hernán... Codex Manesse: a picture of mêlée at a tournament (from the French, IPA: .) generally refers to disorganized close combat involving a group of fighters. ... Joust redirects here. ...


The standard form of a tournament is evident in sources as early as the 1160s and 1170s, notably the Life of William Marshal and the romances of Chrétien de Troyes. Tournaments might be held at all times of the year except the penitential season of Lent (the forty days preceding the Triduum of Easter). The general custom was to hold them on Mondays and Tuesdays, though any day but Friday and Sunday might be used. The site of the tournament was customarily announced a fortnight before it was to be held. The most famous tournament fields were in northeastern France (such as that between Ressons-sur-Matz and Gournay-sur-Aronde near Compiègne, in use between the 1160s and 1240s) which attracted hundreds of foreign knights from all over Europe for the 'lonc sejor' (the tournament season). Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ... For other uses, see Lent (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... Compiègne is a commune in the Oise département of France, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ...


Knights arrived individually or in companies to stay at one or other of the two settlements designated as their lodgings. The tournament began on a field outside the principal settlement, where stands were erected for spectators. On the day of the tournament one side was formed of those 'within' the principal settlement, and another of those 'outside'.


The evening before the event parties hosted by the principal magnates present were held in both settlements, and preliminary jousts (called the 'vespers' or premieres commençailles) offered knights an individual showcase for their talents. On the day of the event, the tournament was opened by a review (regars) in which both sides paraded and called out their war cries. Then followed a further opportunity for individual jousting carried out between the rencs, the two line of knights. The opportunity for jousting at this point was customarily offered to the new, young knights present.


At some time in mid morning the knights would line up for the charge (estor). At a signal, a bugle or herald's cry, the lines would ride at each other and meet with levelled lances. Those remaining on horseback would turn quickly (the action which gave the tournament its name) and single out knights to attack. There is evidence that squires were present at the lists (the staked and embanked line in front of the stands) to offer their masters up to three replacement lances. The mêlée would tend then to degenerate into running battles between parties of knights seeking to take ransoms, and would spread over several square miles between the two settlements which defined the tournament area. Most tournaments continued till both sides were exhausted, or till the light faded. A few ended earlier, if one side broke in the charge, panicked and ran for its home base looking to get behind its lists and the shelter of the armed infantry which protected them. Following the tournament the patron of the day would offer lavish banquets and entertainments. Prizes were offered to the best knight on either side, and awarded during the meals.


Popularity and Prohibitions

Watercolour, probably by Barthélemy d'Eyck, from King René's Tournament Book
Watercolour, probably by Barthélemy d'Eyck, from King René's Tournament Book

There is no doubting the massive popularity of the tournament as early as the sources permit us to glimpse it. The first English mention of tourneying is in a charter of Osbert of Arden, a Warwickshire knight of English descent, which reveals that he travelled to Northampton and London but also crossed the Channel to join in events in France. The charter dates to the late 1120s. The great tournaments of northern France attracted many hundreds of knights from Germany, England, Scotland, Occitania and Spain. There is evidence that 3000 knights attended the tournament at Lagny-sur-Marne in November 1179 promoted by Louis VII of France in honour of his son's coronation. The state tournaments at Senlis and Compiègne held by Philip III of France in 1279 can be calculated to have been even larger events. Miniature from the Livre du cueur damour esprit. ... Le Livre des tournois (tournament book; Traicte de la Forme de Devis dun Tournoi) by René dAnjou of ca. ... Louis VII may refer to: Louis VII of France the Younger (1120–1180). ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ...


Aristocratic enthusiasm for the tournament meant that it had travelled outside its northern French heartland before the 1120s. The first evidence for it in England and the Rhineland is found in the 1120s. References in the Marshal biography indicate that in the 1160s tournaments were being held in central France and Brittany. The contemporary works of Bertran de Born talk of a tourneying world which also embraced northern Spain, Scotland and the Empire. The chronicle of Lauterberg indicates that by 1175 the enthusiasm had reached the borders of Poland. Bertran de Born (1140s – by 1215) was a baron from the Limousin in France, and one of the major Occitan troubadours of the twelfth century. ... Bad Lauterberg is a town in the district of Osterode, in Lower Saxony, Germany. ...


In view of this huge interest and wide distribution, it is odd how quickly royal and ecclesiastical authority was deployed to prohibit the event. In 1130 Pope Innocent II at a church council at Clermont denounced the tournament and forbade Christian burial for those killed in them. The usual ecclesiastical justification for prohibiting them was that it distracted the aristocracy from more acceptable warfare in defence of Christianity. However, the reason for the ban imposed on them in England by Henry II had to have lain in its persistent threat to public order. Knights going to tournaments were accused of theft and violence against the unarmed. Henry II was keen to re-establish public order in England after the disruption of the reign of Stephen (1135-1154). He did not prohibit tournaments in his continental domains, and indeed three of his sons were avid pursuers of the sport. Henry II of England (called Curtmantle; 25 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Events January - Byland Abbey founded Stephen of Blois succeeds King Henry I. Empress Maud, daughter of Henry I and widow of Henry V opposed Stephen and claims the throne as her own Owain Gwynedd of Wales defeats the Normans at Crug Mawr. ... King Stephen of England dies at Dover, and is succeeded by his adopted son Henry Plantagenet who becomes King Henry II of England, aged 21. ...


Tournaments were allowed in England once again after 1192, when Richard I identified six sites where they would be permitted and gave a scale of fees by which patrons could pay for a license. But both King John and his son, Henry III, introduced fitful and capricious prohibitions which much annoyed the aristocracy and eroded the popularity of the events. In France Louis IX prohibited tourneying within his domains in 1260, and his successors for the most part maintained the ban. Louis IX of France, as painted by El Greco in the 16th Century. ...


Bohorts, Tirocinia and Urban Festivities

There was a family of events which resembled the tournament in their day, and which are often confused with it. The most common was the bohort (buhurdicium). This was a play tournament, which might be held informally on a variety of occasions. There is a record of one being held regularly by the youth of the city of London in the life of Thomas Becket by William fitz Stephen (composed 1171). Bohorts might be held between travelling knights, or between parties of squires, or within an encamped army. They might also form part of court festivities. Their main feature was the limited use of arms and armour and emphasis on horsemanship. Saint Thomas Becket, St. ...


The tirocinium is first mentioned by Otto of Freising, referring back to an event at Würzburg in 1127. That and later references indicate that it was a tournament held exclusively for newly-knighted youths (tirones). The new knight was often an easy victim for older and more experienced colleagues. The tirocinium allowed them to gain experience with less danger. Tirocinia were often held following the knighting of royal and princely youths, who were usually knighted in company with dozens or scores of other aspirants. Otto of Freising Otto of Freising Otto von Freising {Otto Frisingensis) (c. ... For the German World War II radar system of the same name, see Würzburg radar. ...


A further addition to the family of related events was the urban tournament, designed for the youths and young men of wealthy patrician families. These were facsimiles of the aristocratic event rather than simple bohorts. The most famous of them were the tournaments held in the market streets of the great Flemish cities, notably at the religious feast of the Epinette, which is mentioned at Lille as early as 1283. They were not exclusively urban, and attracted neighbouring country knights, but their location and patronage distinguished them from the parallel aristocratic events. This form of mêlée tournament survived the longest. For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ...


Jousting and the Tournament

As has been said jousting formed part of the tournament event from as early a time as it can be observed. It was an evening prelude to the big day, and was also a preliminary to the grand charge on the day itself. In the 12th century jousting was occasionally banned in tournaments. The reasons given are that it distracted knights from the main event, and allowed a form of cheating. Count Philip of Flanders made a practice in the 1160s of turning up armed with his retinue to the preliminary jousts, and then declining to join the mêlée until the knights were exhausted and ransoms could be swept up. Philip of Alsace was count of Flanders from 1168 to 1191. ...


But jousting had its own devoted constituency by the early 13th century, and in the 1220s it began to have its own exclusive events outside the tournament. The biographer of William Marshal observed c.1224 that in his day noblemen were more interested in jousting than tourneying. In 1223 we have the first mention of an exclusively jousting event, the 'Round Table' held in Cyprus by John d'Ibelin, lord of Beirut. Round Tables were a 13th-century enthusiasm and can be reconstructed to have been an elimination jousting event. They were held for knights and squires alike. Other forms of jousting also arose during the century, and by the 14th century the joust was poised to take over the vacancy in aristocratic amusement caused by the decline of the tournament. William Marshal was the greatest jouster of his age. ...


Equipment

Assorted maces
Assorted maces

It is a vexed issue as to what extent specialised arms and armour were used in mêlée tournaments. A further question that might be raised is to what extent the military equipment of knights and their horses in the 12th and 13th centuries was devised to meet the perils and demands of tournaments, rather than warfare. It is however clear from the sources that the weapons used in tournaments were initially the same as those used in war. It is not by any means certain that swords were blunted for most of the history of the tournament. This must have changed by the mid 13th century, at least in jousting encounters. There is a passing reference to a special spear for use in jousting in the Prose Lancelot (c.1220). In the 1252 jousting at Walden, the lances used had 'sokets', curved ring-like punches instead of points. The Statute of Arms of Edward I of England of 1292 says that blunted knives and swords should be used in tournaments, which rather hints that their use had not been general until then. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Jousting is the most well-known use of horses during the medieval era, but was seen in tournaments more than actual battle. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ...


The Latter Days of the Tournament

The decline of the true tournament was not a straightforward process, although the word continued to be used for jousts until the sixteenth century. Tourneying continued to be regarded as the best test of a warrior in 14th-century society, an idea reinforced by the prominent place that tourneying occupied in popular Arthurian romance literature. The tournament had a resurgence of popularity in England in the reign of the martial and crusading king, Edward I (1272-1307) and under his grandson, Edward III (1327-1377), yet nonetheless the tournament died out in the latter's reign. Edward III encouraged the move towards pageantry and a predominance of jousting in his sponsored events. In the last true tournament held in England in 1342 at Dunstable, the mêlée was postponed so long by jousting that the sun was sinking by the time the lines charged. The tournament survived little longer in France or Burgundy. The last known to be held was at Bruges in 1379. That same year the citizens of Ghent rioted when the count of Flanders announced a tournament to be held at their city. The cause of their discontent was the associated expense for them. Edward III King of England Edward III (13 November 1312–21 June 1377) was one of the most successful English Kings of medieval times. ... For the town in the United States, see Dunstable, Massachusetts. ... Geography Country Belgium Community Flemish Community Region Flemish Region Province West Flanders Arrondissement Bruges Coordinates , , Area 138. ... This article is about the Belgian city. ...


Primary sources

There are a few surviving tournament books describing the style, horsemanship and rules of the tournaments of the 15th and 16th centuries,[2] as well as accounts of tournaments dating back to the 13th century.

  • L'Histoire Guillaume le Maréschal (ed. P. Meyer, Paris, 1901), ca. 1219
  • Sarrazin, Le Roman du Hem, poetic account of a tournament of 1275.
  • Ulrich von Liechtenstein, Frauendienst, 13th century, ed. R. Bechstein (Leipzig, 1888).
  • Le Tournoi de Chauvency, 1285 (ed. M. Delbouille, Liege, 1932).
  • The Book of Chivalry and Questions Concerning the Joust, Tournaments and War by Geoffroi de Charny, 14th century[3]
  • Chroniclghjhjes of Jean Froissart, 14th century
  • Livro da ensinanca de bem cavalgar (1438)
  • Traictié de la forme et devise d'ung tournoy by René d'Anjou (ca. 1460)
  • Pero Rodríguez de Lena, El passo honroso de Suero de Quiñones, 15th century (ed. Amancio Labandeira, Madrid: Fundación Universitaria España, 1977).
  • Alfonso de Cartagena, Chivalric Vision, ca. 1444[4]
  • La form quon tenoit des tournoys et assemblees au temps du uterpendragon et du roy artus, 15th century[5]
  • Díaz de Gámez, Gutierre. El victorial: cronica de don Pero Niño, 15th century (Madrid, 1989).
  • Pas de Saumur, kept in the Russian National Library, St. Petersburg[6]
  • manuals produced at the court of Maximilian I: Freydahl, Die Ehrenpforte
  • Turnierbuch of Duke William IV of Bavaria (1541)
  • Rüxner Turnierbuch (1530, 1532)
  • tournament book of Duke Heinrich II of Brunswick-Lüneburg, State Library, Berlin
  • Challenges and Combats Afoot, Dresden Library
  • Tournament book, Metropolitan Museum of Art, before 1597[7]
  • The Great Tournament Roll of Westminster, 16th century[8]
  • Chacón, Hernán. Tractado de la cauallería de la gineta (1551)[9]

Jean Froissart (~1337 - ~1405) was one of the most important of the chroniclers of medieval France. ... Bem Cavalgar (Livro Da Ensinança De Bem Cavalgar Toda Sela book on the instruction of riding well on every saddle) is a book written by Edward of Portugal, left incomplete as Edward died of a plague in 1438. ... Le Livre des tournois (tournament book; Traicte de la Forme de Devis dun Tournoi) by René dAnjou of ca. ... Alfonso de Santa María de Cartagena (variants: Alfonso de Carthagena, Alonso de Cartagena) (1384, Burgos—1456, Villasandino) was a Jewish convert to Christianity, a Roman Catholic bishop, diplomat, historian and writer of pre-Renaissance Spain. ... Maximilian I of Habsburg (March 22, 1459 – January 12, 1519) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1508 until his death. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Enéas, c. 1150, ultimately from Latin tornare "to turn" so named owing to the rapid turning of the horses (Skeat[citation needed]); Medieval Latin torneamentum is back-formed from Old French (OED), e.g. Reims Synod, Canon 4 (1157), and Lateran Council, Canon 20 (1179).
  2. ^ [http://www.nipissingu.ca/department/history/MUHLBERGER/tourbib.htm Select Bibliography on Medieval Tournaments, Jousts and Formal Deeds of Arms Steve Muhlberger, Nipissing University]
  3. ^ (Charny, Geoffroi de.) Kaeuper, Richard W. and Elspeth Kennedy, The Book of Chivalry of Geoffroi de Charny: Text, context and translation (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996).
  4. ^ Fallows, Noel. The Chivalric Vision of Alfonso de Cartagena: Study and Edition of the “Doctrinal de los caualleros. Newark, Delaware: Juan de la Cuesta, 1995.
  5. ^ Sandoz, Edouard. "Tourneys in the Arthurian Tradition," Speculum 19 (1944): 389-420.
  6. ^ Das Turnierbuch für Rene D'Anjou (Pas de Saumur) Folio Edition, 2 vols. (limited to 580 copies), Commentaries by N. Elagina, J. Malinin, T. Voronova, D. Zypkin, Akademische Druck-u Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria ISBN 3-201-01674-8 [1]
  7. ^ Bashford Dean, An Early Tournament Book, The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin (1922)
  8. ^ Anglo, Sydney, ed. The Great Tournament Roll of Westminster: A collotype reproduction of the manuscript. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1968]
  9. ^ Introduction, Text and Notes, Bibliography, Lexicographical Index., ed. Noel Fallows. Exeter Hispanic Texts 55. Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1999.

The Roman dEnéas is a roman of Medieval French literature, dating to ca. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... Medieval Latin was the form of Latin used in the Middle Ages, primarily as a medium of scholarly exchange and as the liturgical language of the medieval Roman Catholic Church, but also as a language of science, literature, law, and administration. ... OED stands for Oxford English Dictionary Office of Enrollment & Discipline This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

References

  • D. Crouch, Tournament (London, 2005)
  • J.R.V. Barker, The Tournament in England,1100-1400 (Woodbridge, 1986) ISBN 0851159427
  • R. Barber and J.R.V. Barker, Tournaments: Jousts, Chivalry and Pageants in the Middle Ages (Woodbridge, 1989)
  • J.Bumke, Höfische Kultur: Literatur und Gesellschaft im hohen Mittelalter (Munich, 1986) English Translation by Thomas Dunlap: Courtly Culture: Literature and Society in the High Middle Ages, New York: overlook Duckworth, 2000, ISBN 0715632736
  • M. Parisse, 'Le tournoi en France, des origines à la fin du xiiie siècle, in, Das ritterliche Turnier in Mittelalter: Beitrage zu einer vergleichenden Formentund verhallengeschichte des Rittertum, ed. J. Fleckenstein (Göttingen, 1985)
  • E. van den Neste, Tournois, joutes, pas d'armes dans les villes de Flandre à la fin du moyen âge, 1300-1486 (Paris, 1996)
  • L. Carolus-Barré, 'Les grand tournois de Compiègne et de Senlis en l'honneur de Charles, prince de Salerne (mai 1279)', Bullétin de la société nationale des antiquaires de France (1978/79)
  • J. Vale, Edward III and Chivalry: Chivalric Society and its Context, 1270-1350 (Woodbridge, 1983).
  • S. Muhlberger, Jousts and Tournaments: Charny and Chivalric Sport in the Fourteenth Century (Chivalry Bookshelf, 2003)
  • S. Muhlberger, Deeds of Arms: Formal Combats in the Late Fourteenth Century (Chivalry Bookshelf, 2005)

Juliet Barker is a British historian, specialising in the Middle Ages and literary biography. ... Richard Barber is a prominent British historian specializing in medieval history and literature. ...

External links

  • Academy of European Medieval Martial Arts (AEMMA), Toronto, Canada. The structure of the tournament at AEMMA focuses on "combats on foot" only and encompasses numerous attributes of a late 14th and early 15th centuries balanced to satisfy the expectations of the spectators in a 21st century context by allowing them to witness extraordinary unscripted armoured and unarmoured combat, while providing opportunities for the combatants to demonstrate their prowess and technique through the challenges presented in the bouts by the appellants and all the while, maintaining a strong foothold in its historical counterpart.
  • What Was At Stake in Formal Deeds of Arms of the 14th Century? "Thus the formal deed of arms had an individual aspect and a collective one, and in both aspects something very real was at stake. The individual was there to be tested. Every man entered the contest intending not just to look good, but to survive, and to come away from the field worthy of greater respect. Some inevitably gained more than others. For the group, the formal deed was not so much a test but an act of definition. It was, at least in the eyes of its participants, proof that they were all armed gentlemen and that armed gentlemen deserved the lofty place in society that they in fact enjoyed. The group itself was reaffirmed in a way that was essential to its self-image. "
  • The Tournament at St. Inglevert "Three French knights hold a tournament at Saint Inglevert, near Calais, and defend the lists for thirty days against all comers."
  • A Collection of Accounts of Formal Deeds of Arms of the Fourteenth Century "Modern people often make a big distinction between 'tournaments' and 'real war,' but the distinction was much more fluid in the fourteenth century."

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Tournament
For the smoked fish, see kipper. ... Pas dArmes (Passage of Arms) was a type of knightly chivalric tournament that evolved in the late 14th century and remained popular through the 15th century. ... Joust redirects here. ... Knights Dueling, by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ... A knight receiving a ladys favour at a hastilude. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Jousting Tournament in Medieval Times (1282 words)
In a tournament a knight could enjoy all the excitement, danger and glory of war, with none of the dirt, flies, disease or discomfort.
Tournaments were generally viewed with disapproval by the Church because they distracted the knights from the crusades, and by the state because of the unwarranted loss of life.
The other form of jousting in the practice tournament was "riding at the rings", the surviving form of jousting with which we are most concerned.
Tournament (medieval) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1775 words)
Tournament from the Codex Manesse, depicting the mêlée
Tournaments could include the mêlée, a general fight where the knights were divided between two sides, and later, jousting, a single combat of two knights tilting at each other.
For the Jousts of Peace held at Windsor Park in 1278 the sword-blades are of whalebone and parchment, silvered; the helms are of boiled leather and the shields of light timber.
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