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Encyclopedia > Tournament

A tournament is a competition involving a relatively large number of competitors, all participating in a single sport or game. More specifically, the term may be used in either of two overlapping senses: Competition is the act of striving against another force for the purpose of achieving dominance or attaining a reward or goal, or out of a biological imperative such as survival. ... Tug of war is an easily organized, impromptu game that requires little equipment. ...

  1. One or more competitions held at a single venue and concentrated into a relatively short time interval. Some game clubs focus on preparing members for such tournaments. Chess clubs, for instance, frequently employ similar ranking systems, chess clocks, and etiquette to those used in chess tournaments.
  2. A competition involving multiple matches, each involving a subset of the competitors, with the overall tournament winner determined based on the combined results of these individual matches. These are common in those sports and games where each match must involve a small number of competitors: often precisely two, as in most team sports, racket sports and combat sports, many card games and board games, and many forms of competitive debating. Such tournaments allow large numbers to compete against each other in spite of the restriction on numbers in a single match.

These two senses are distinct. All golf tournaments meet the first definition, but while matchplay tournaments meet the second, strokeplay tournaments do not, since there are no distinct matches within the tournament. In contrast, football (soccer) leagues like the FA Premier League are tournaments in the second sense, but not the first, having matches spread across many stadia over a period of up to a year. Many tournaments meet both definitions; for example, the Wimbledon tennis championship. A game club is an organization devoted to bringing game players together. ... Chess is an abstract strategy board game for two players that is played both recreationally and competitively. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A game clock consists of two adjacent clocks and buttons to stop one clock while starting the other, such that the two component clocks never run simultaneously. ... Etiquette, also known as decorum, is the code that governs the expectations of social behavior, the conventional norm. ... Womens Australian rules football is a team sport. ... Squash racquet and ball Racquetball racquet and ball Real tennis racquets and balls A tennis racquet Badminton racquets A racquet (or racket) is a sports implement consisting of a handled frame with an open hoop across which a network of cord is stretched. ... A combat sport is a competitive sport involving the use of punch, kick, throw, joint locks, and/or a weapon for attack and defence. ... // For the game on The Price Is Right, please see Card Game (pricing game). ... A board game is a game played with counters or pieces that are placed on, removed from, or moved across a board (a premarked surface, usually specific to that game). ... Debate (North American English) or debating (British English) is a formal method of interactive and position representational argument. ... Golfer teeing off at the start of a hole Golf is a game where individual players or teams hit a ball into a hole using various clubs. ... Match play is a scoring system for golf (compare to stroke play). ... Stroke play is a scoring system for golf (compare to match play). ... Football (soccer) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... For the Scottish equivalent see Scottish Premier League The FA Premier League (often referred to as the Barclays Premiership in England and the Barclays English Premier League or just simply The EPL internationally) is a league competition for football clubs located at the top of the English football league system... The Championships, Wimbledon, commonly referred to as simply Wimbledon, is the oldest event in the sport of tennis. ...


A tournament-match (or tie or fixture or heat) may involve multiple game-matches (or rubbers or legs) between the competitors. For example, in the Davis Cup tennis tournament, a tie between two nations involves five rubbers between the nations' players. The team that wins the most rubbers wins the tie. In the later rounds of UEFA Champions League of football (soccer), each fixture is played over two legs. The scores of each leg are added, and the team with the higher aggregate score wins the fixture. The great Australians Lew Hoad and Ken Rosewall with the Cup in 1953 The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in mens tennis. ... A tennis net Tennis is a game played between either two players (singles) or two teams of two players (doubles). Players use a stringed racquet to strike a hollow rubber ball covered with felt over a net into the opponents court. ... UEFA Champions League (which used to be named and is often called the European Cup) is an annual club football competition organized by the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) for the most successful football clubs in Europe. ...

Contents

Knockout tournaments

A knockout tournament is divided into successive rounds; each competitor plays in at most one fixture per round. The top-ranked competitors in each fixture progress to the next round. As rounds progress, the number of competitors and fixtures decreases, and the final round consists of just one fixture, the winner of which is the overall champion.


In a single-elimination tournament, only the top-ranked competitors in a fixture progress; in 2-competitor games, only the winner progresses. All other competitors are eliminated. This ensures a winner is decided with the minimum number of fixtures. However, most competitors will be eliminated after relatively few matches; a single bad or unlucky performance can nullify many preceding excellent ones. Other knockout formats provide a "second chance" for some or all losers. A single-elimination tournament, also called a knockout or sudden death tournament, is a type of tournament where the loser of each match is immediately eliminated from winning the championship or first prize in the event. ...


A double-elimination tournament may be used in 2-competitor games to allow each competitor a single loss without being eliminated from the tournament. All losers from the main bracket enter a losers' bracket, the winner of which plays off against the main bracket's winner. A double elimination bracket from the 2004 national Science Bowl A double-elimination tournament is a competition in which a participant ceases to be eligible to win the tournaments championship upon having lost two games or matches. ... In tournaments, bracket is commonly used to refer to the diagrammatic representation of the series of games played during the tournament. ...


Some formats allow losers to play extra rounds before re-entering the main competition in a later round. Rowing regattas often have repechage rounds for the "fastest losers" from the heats. The winners of these progress, but are at a disadvantage in later rounds owing to the extra effort expended during the repechage. A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... A regatta is a boat race or series of boat races. ... Repechage (French, pronounced re-pe-shage, literally re-fishing) is a practice amongst ladder competitions that allows participants that failed to meet qualifying standards by a small margin to continue to the next round. ...


In the playoffs of the Australian Football League, the teams with the best record before the playoffs are allowed to lose a game without being eliminated, whereas the lesser qualifiers are not. In athletics meetings, fastest losers may progress in a running event held over several rounds; e.g. the qualifiers for a later round might be the first 4 from each of 6 heats, plus the 8 fastest losers from among the remaining runners. This article is about the national league in Australian rules football. ... A womens 400 metre hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ...


Group tournaments

A group tournament, league, division or conference involves all competitors playing a number of fixtures. Points are awarded for each fixture, with competitors ranked based either on total number of points or average points per fixture. Usually each competitor plays an equal number of fixtures, in which case rankings by total points and by average points are equivalent. A league system is a hierarchy of leagues in a sport that teams can be promoted or relegated between, depending on finishing positions or playoffs. ... A division in sport consists of a group of teams who compete against one another for a divisional title, or other honour. ...


In a round-robin tournament, each competitor plays all the others an equal number of times (typically once). This is often seen as producing the most reliable rankings. However, for large numbers of competitors it may require an unfeasibly large number of rounds. A Swiss system tournament attempts to determine a winner reliably, based on a smaller number of fixtures. Fixtures are scheduled one round at a time; a competitor will play another who has a similar record in previous rounds of the tournament. This allows the top (and bottom) competitors to be determined with fewer rounds than a round-robin, though the middle rankings are unreliable. A round-robin tournament or all-play-all tournament is a type of group tournament in which each participant plays every other participant an equal number of times. ... A Swiss system tournament is a commonly used type of tournament in chess and other games where players or teams need to be paired to face each other. ...


There may be other considerations besides reliability of rankings. In some professional team sports, weaker teams are given an easier slate of fixtures as a form of handicapping. This occurs in the National Football League in the USA. Sometimes schedules are weighted in favour of local derbies or other traditional rivalries. For example, NFL teams play two games against each of the other three teams in their division, one game against half of the other twelve teams in their conference, and one game against a quarter of the sixteen teams in the other conference. American sports are also unusual in providing fixtures between competitors who are, for ranking purposes, in different groups. Professional sports are sports in which the participants receive payment for playing, as opposed to amateur sports where they are not. ... Handicapping, in sport and games, is the practice of assigning advantage through scoring compensation or other advantage given to different contestants to equalize the chances of winning. ... For other uses of National Football League, see National Football League (disambiguation). ... In many countries the term local derby, or simply just derby (pronounced dar-bee after the English town) means a sporting fixture between two (generally local) rivals, particularly in Association Football. ... A sports rivalry is intense competition between two athletic teams. ...


In 2-competitor games where ties are rare or impossible, competitors are typically ranked by number of wins, with ties counting half; each competitors' listings are usually ordered Wins-Losses(-Ties). Where draws are more common, this may be 2 points for a win and 1 for a draw, which is mathematically equivalent but avoids having too many half-points in the listings. These are usually ordered Wins-Draws-Losses. If there are more than 2 competitors per fixture, points may be ordinal (for example, 3 for first, 2 for second, 1 for third). To tie or draw is to finish a competition with identical or inconclusive results. ...

See also: Group tournament ranking system

In a group tournament, unlike a knockout tournament, there is no decisive final match. ...

Multi-stage tournaments

Many tournaments are held in multiple stages, with the top teams in one stage progressing to the next. American professional team sports have a regular season (group tournament) acting as qualification for the post season or playoffs (single-elimination tournament). In the football World Cup, each continent has one or more qualifying tournaments, some of which are themselves multi-stage. The top teams in each qualify for the finals tournament. There, the 32 teams are divided into eight round-robin groups of four, with the top two in each progressing to the knockout phase, which involves four single-elimination rounds including the final. A playoff in sports (North American professional sports in particular) is a game or series of games played after the regular season is over with the goal of determining a league champion. ... The FIFA World Cup Trophy, which has been awarded to the world champions since 1974. ...


Sometimes, results from an earlier phase are carried over into a later phase. In the cricket World Cup, the semi-final group features three teams from each of two preliminary groups, who do not replay the teams they have already played, but instead reuse the original results in the new league table. Formerly in the Swiss Football League, teams played a double round-robin, at which point they were split into a top "championship" group and a bottom "relegation" group; each played a separate double round-robin, with results of all 32 matches counting for ranking each group. A similar system is also used in the Scottish Premier League since 2000. After 33 games, when every club has played every other club three times, the division is split into two halves. Clubs play a further 5 matches, against the teams in their half of the division. This can (and often does) result in the team placed 7th having a higher points total than the team placed 6th, because their final 5 games are considerably easier. The Australian cricket team after winning the Cricket World Cup. ... The Swiss Football League is organised in several leagues. ... The Scottish Premier League (SPL) is the top division within the current structure of football in Scotland. ...


Promotion and relegation

Where the number of competitors is larger than a tournament format permits, there may be multiple tournaments held in parallel, with competitors assigned to a particular tournament based on their ranking. In Scrabble, and many other individual games, many tournaments over one or more years contribute to a player's ranking. However, many team sports involve teams in only one major tournament per year. In European sport, including football, this constitutes the sole ranking for the following season; the top teams from each division of the league are promoted to a higher division, while the bottom teams from a higher division are relegated to a lower one. This promotion and relegation occurs mainly in league tournaments, but also features in Davis Cup tennis, where each group is a single-elimination tournament: while the team which wins each round is the champion, the one which loses each round will be relegated. The hierarchy of divisions may be linear, or tree-like, as with the English football league pyramid. Scrabble is a popular word game and board game in which 2-4 players score points by forming words from individual lettered tiles on a 15×15 game board. ... In most sports leagues around the world (with the North American professional leagues as the most important exception), relegation (or demotion) means the mandated transfer of the worst team(s) of a higher division into a lower division at the end of the season. ... The English football league system, otherwise known as the football pyramid, is a series of interconnected leagues for club football in England (although for historical reasons a small number of Welsh clubs also compete). ...


Bridge tournaments

Main article: duplicate bridge

In contract bridge a "tournament" is a tournament in the first sense above, composed of multiple "events", which are tournaments in the second sense. Some events may be single-elimination, double-elimination, or Swiss style. However, "Pair events" are the most widespread. In these events, an identical deal (or board) is played in multiple rubbers. The North-South (NS) pair in one such rubber is measured not against the East-West (EW) pair in that same rubber, but rather against all the other NS pairs playing the same board in other rubbers. Thus pairs are rewarded for playing the same cards better than others have played them. Several systems provide a predetermined schedule of fixtures based on the number of pairs and boards to be played, to ensure a good mix of opponents, and that no pair plays the same board twice. Duplicate bridge tournament playing area Duplicate bridge is the most widely used form of bridge used in tournament settings, and is also played in many bridge clubs. ... Contract bridge, usually known simply as bridge, is a trick-taking card game of skill and chance (the relative proportions depend on the variant played). ... Duplicate bridge tournament playing area Duplicate bridge is the most widely used form of bridge used in tournament settings, and is also played in many bridge clubs. ... A duplicate bridge board is a device used to pass a pre-dealt bridge hand from table to table, keeping the cards belonging to each of the four players separate. ...


Poker tournaments

In poker tournaments, sometimes "shoot-out" (i.e. single-elimination knockout) is used. Otherwise, as players are eliminated, the number of tables is gradually reduced, with the remaining players redistributed among the remaining tables. Thus, unlike most other tournaments, a competitor may join a fixture which is already in progress. A poker tournament is a tournament at which the winners are decided by playing poker, usually a particular style of poker. ...


Alternatives to tournament systems

While tournament structures attempt to provide an objective format for determining the best competitor in a game or sport, other methods exist.

Challenge
in this format, champions retain their title until they are defeated by an opponent, known as the challenger. This system is used in professional boxing. Prior to 1993, it was also used in the World Chess Championship. The right to become a contender may be awarded through a tournament, as in chess, or through a ranking system: the ranking systems used by boxing's governing bodies are controversial and opaque. If the champion retires or dies, then the current top challenger may be declared champion, or the title may be vacant until a match between two challengers is held. Prior to 1920, the reigning Wimbledon champion received a bye to the final; the official name of the FA Challenge Cup reflects a similar arrangement which applied only in that tournament's every early years. The America's Cup is decided between the winners of separate champion and challenger tournaments, respectively for yachts from the country of the reigning champion, and of all other countries.
Ladder
an extension of the challenge system. All competitors are ranked on a "ladder". New contestants join the bottom of the ladder. Any contestant can challenge a competitor ranked slightly higher; if the challenger wins the match (or the challenge is refused) they swap places on the ladder. Ladders are common in internal club competitions in individual sports, like squash and pool. Another ladder system, is to give competitors a certain number of ranking points at the start. If two competitors play each other, then the winner will gain a percentage of the losers ranking points. In this way competitors that join later, will generally start in the middle, since top competitors already have won ranking points and bottom competitors lost them.
Selection
A champion may be selected by an authorised or self-appointed group, often after a vote. While common in non-competitive activities, ranging from science fairs to cinema's Oscars, this is rarely significant in sports and games. Though unofficial, the polls run Associated Press and others were prestigious titles in American college fooball prior to the creation in 2001 of an official national championship. The polls remain as factors included in determining the two teams qualifying for the championship game.

Boxing, also called prizefighting (when referring to professional boxing), the sweet science (a common nickname among fans) or the gentlemans sport (used mainly in England), is a sport and martial art in which two participants of similar weight classification fight each other with their fists in a series of one... Current World Champion, Vladimir Kramnik. ... Note: for the full results of all FA Cup finals, see FA Cup Final The FA Cup - this is the fourth trophy, in use since 1992, and identical in design to the third trophy introduced in 1911. ... The Americas Cup trophy The Americas Cup is the most famous and most prestigious regatta in the sport of sailing, and the oldest active trophy in international sport, predating the FA Cup by two decades and the Modern Olympics by 45 years. ... Squash racquet and ball Players in a glass-backed squash court International Squash Singles Court, as specified by the World Squash Federation // Squash is an indoor racquet sport which was formerly called Squash rackets, a reference to the squashable soft ball used in the game (compared with the harder ball... This article is about the various cue sports. ... Voting is a method of decision making wherein a group such as a meeting or an electorate attempts to gauge its opinion—usually as a final step following discussions or debates. ... A science fair is generally a competition where contestants create projects related to science and/or technology. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... A college football game between Colorado State University and the Air Force Academy. ... UTs Bevo with the BCS Division I-A National Championship trophy in an ESPN College GameDay broadcast. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tournament - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1618 words)
After each game, each participant is either dropped from the tournament, or advances to play a new opponent in the next "round." Usually, all the rounds of the tournament lead up to the "finals", in which the only remaining participants play, and the winner of the finals is the winner of the entire tournament.
A common variant of the Swiss-style tournament is known as the round-robin tournament.
In tournaments open to the general public, it is unlikely that this exact number of players will enroll, and in any case players may decide to voluntarily drop from the tournament at any point, so "byes" are used to fill holes in the bracket.
Poker tournament - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1375 words)
A poker tournament is a tournament at which the winners are decided by playing poker, usually a particular style of poker.
In most tournaments, the number of players at each table is kept even by moving players, either by switching one player or (as the field shrinks) taking an entire table out of play and distributing its players amongst the remaining tables.
For example, for a seven-card stud tournament with the stakes at 10/20, raises would be $10 in the first three rounds of betting, and $20 in the latter rounds.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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