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Encyclopedia > Tour de France
Tour de France
Local name Le Tour de France
Region France and nearby countries
Date July 7 to 29 (2007)
Type Stage Race (Grand Tour)
General Director Christian Prudhomme
History
First race 1903
Number of races 94 (2007)
First winner Flag of France Maurice Garin
Most wins Flag of the United States Lance Armstrong (7) 1999-2005
Latest winner Flag of Spain Alberto Contador 2007
Most career Yellow Jerseys Flag of Belgium Eddy Merckx (96) (111 overall incl. half stages)
Most career stage wins Flag of Belgium Eddy Merckx (34)

The Tour de France is the world's biggest cycling race. It is a 22-day, 20-stage road race that is usually run over more than 3000km. It is a circuit of most areas around France and, sometimes, neighbouring countries. The race is broken into stages from one town to another, each of which is an individual race. The time taken to complete each stage becomes a cumulative total to decide the outright winner at the end of the Tour. Tour de France is French for tour of France and is thus the name of several events of practices involving going around France. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stages in 2007 The 2007 Tour de France is the 94th Tour de France, taking place from July 7 to July 29, 2007. ... Christian Prudhomme (born in France) is the general director of the Tour de France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Maurice Garin (March 3, 1871 - February 19, 1957) was a road bicycle racer. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Alberto Contador Velasco (born 6 December 1982 in Madrid, Spain) is a professional road bicycle racer for UCI ProTeam Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team and winner of the 2007 Tour de France. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Baron Edouard Louis Joseph Merckx (IPA: ) (born June 17, 1945, Meensel-Kiezegem, Vlaams Brabant, Belgium) is a former Belgian professional cyclist. ... Since the first Tour de France in 1903, there have been exactly 1907 stages, some of which were divided into two or three substages, up to and including the 18th stage of the 2007 Tour de France. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Road bicycle racing is a popular bicycle racing sport held on roads (following the geography of the area), using racing bicycles. ...


Together with the Giro d'Italia (Tour of Italy) and Vuelta a España (Tour of Spain), the Tour de France is one of the three major stage races and the longest of the Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) calendar. While the other two European Grand Tours are well known in Europe, they are relatively unknown outside the continent, and even the UCI World Cycling Championship is familiar only to cycling enthusiasts. The Tour de France, in contrast, has long been a household sporting name around the globe, even to those not generally interested in cycling. The Giro dItalia, also simply known as the Giro, is a long distance road bicycle racing stage race for professional cyclists held over three weeks in May or early June in and around Italy. ... The Vuelta a España bicycle race is one of the three Grand Tours of Europe. ... Entrance of UCI headquarter at Aigle (Switzerland) Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) is a professional cycling union that oversees cycling events in the international community. ... In road bicycle racing, a Grand Tour refers to one of the three major European professional cycling stage races: Tour de France - Tour of France Giro dItalia - Tour of Italy Vuelta a España - Tour of Spain Collectively they are termed the Grand Tours, and all three are similar... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


As with most cycling races, competitors enter as part of a team. The race consists of 20 to 22 teams with nine riders each. Traditionally, entry is extended to invitation only, with invitations granted only to the best of the world's professional teams. The tour organizers recently have utilized UCI points (based upon team riders/results) to determine which teams would gain automatic entry into the tour and then typically reserve 2-4 team slots to at large teams or French continental teams who would not be able to race in the tour based upon their individual team results. Each team, known by the name of its sponsor, wears a distinctive jersey and riders assist one another and have access to a shared 'team car' (a mobile version of the pit crews in car racing). Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation, and a sport. ...

Contents

History

Further information: Category:Tour de France by year


The Tour was founded as a publicity event for the newspaper L'Auto (predecessor to the present l'Équipe) by its editor, Henri Desgrange, to surpass the Paris-Brest et retour race (also sponsored by L'Auto).[1] The idea for a round-France stage race came from Desgrange's chief cycling journalist, the 26-year-old Géo Lefèvre[2], with whom Desgrange had lunch at what is now the TGI Friday bar in Montmartre in Paris on November 20, 1902[2] . L'Auto announced the race on January 19, 1903. The plan was for a five-week tour from May 31 to July 5; however, this proved too daunting, with only 15 entrants, so Desgrange cut the length to 19 days, changed the date to run from July 1 to 19, and offered a daily allowance which attracted 60 entrants, including amateur characters, some unemployed, some simply adventurous. It was these characters that helped catch the public imagination[2]. The demanding nature of the race (with the average length of the 6 stages being 400km the riders were sometimes expected to ride into the night)[3], also proved popular. The race was such a success for the newspaper that the circulation, which was 25,000 before the 1903 Tour, increased to 65,000 after it[2]; by 1908 the race boosted circulation past a quarter of a million, and during the 1923 Tour it was selling 500,000 copies a day. The record circulation claimed by Desgrange was 854,000, achieved during the 1933 Tour.[4] Today, the Tour is organised by the Société du Tour de France, a subsidiary of Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO), which is part of the media group that owns l'Équipe. LEquipe logo LÉquipe (French for the team) is a French nationwide daily newspaper devoted to sports. ... Henri Desgrange (Paris, January 31, 1865 – August 16, 1940 in Beauvallon) was a French bicycle racer and sports journalist. ... Paris-Brest-Paris (PBP) was originally a 1200km long bicycle race from Paris to Brest and back to Paris. ... Géo Lefèvre (1887 – 1961) was a French sports journalist and the originator of the idea for the Tour de France. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... The Amaury Sport Organisation (ASO) is part of the French media group, EPA (Éditions Philippe Amaury), and is well-known as the organiser of various major sporting events, including the Tour de France and Paris-Nice professional cycle road races, and the Paris-Dakar Rally. ...


Description

The Tour is a "stage race" divided into a number of stages, each being a race held over one day. The time each rider takes to complete each stage is recorded and accumulated. Riders are often awarded time bonuses as well as their prize for finishing. Riders who finish in the same group are awarded the same time. Two riders are said to have finished in the same group if there is less than the length of a bike between them. A rider who crashes in the last three kilometres is given the time of the group in which he would have otherwise finished. The ranking of riders by accumulated time is known as the General Classification. The winner is the rider with the least accumulated time after the final day. It is possible to win the overall race without winning a daily stage (which Greg LeMond did in 1990). Winning a stage is considered a great achievement, more prestigious than winning most single day races. Although the number of stages has varied, the modern Tour has consisted of about 20 and a total length of 3,000 to 4,000 kilometres (1,800 to 2,500 mi). The shortest Tour was in 1904 at 2,420 km, while the longest was in 1926 at 5,745 km.[5] The 2007 Tour was 3,569.9 km long.[5] There are subsidiary competitions within the race (see below), some with distinctive jerseys for the best rider. A stage in road bicycle racing is a part of a multi-day event, such as the Tour de France or the Giro dItalia. ... A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer) (symbol: km) is a unit of length equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure). ... The General Classification (or GC) in bicycle racing is the category that tracks overall times for bicycle riders in multi-stage bicycle races. ... Gregory James Greg LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood, California) is a former professional road bicycle racer from the United States and a three time winner of the Tour de France. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


Today, the Tour is contested by teams backed by commercial sponsors and employing complicated tactics, but Desgrange originally insisted his competitors ride as individuals, even if they had sponsorship. He penalised slipstreaming and other tactics and he accepted their inevitability only from the 1920s. Even when commercial teams had become commonplace in other events, the Tour was contested by national teams from 1930 to 1961 and again in 1967 and 1968, in both cases because the organisers felt sponsors were detracting from sporting purity. dddeath ...


Most stages take place in France though it is common to have stages in nearby countries, such as Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Belgium, Luxembourg, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland, and Great Britain (visited in 1974 and 1994 and start of the 2007 tour). The three weeks usually includes two rest days, sometimes used to transport riders long distances between stages.


In recent years, the Tour has been preceded by a short individual time trial (1 to 15km) called the prologue. Since 1975, the finish of the Tour has been on the Champs-Élysées in Paris , the only time the city's symbolic avenue is closed other than for the processions of Bastille Day, and for the Paris Marathon. Before 1975, the race finished at the Parc des Princes stadium in western Paris and at the Piste Municipale. An Individual Time Trial (ITT) is a road bicycle race in which cyclists race alone against the clock (in French: contre la montre - literally against the watch). There are also track-based time trials where riders compete in velodromes, and team time trials (TTT). ... The Champs-Élysées (pronounced  ) is the most prestigious and broadest avenue in Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... For the Battlestar Galactica episode, see Bastille Day (Battlestar Galactica). ... The Paris Marathon is an annual marathon foot-race which takes place from the Champs Elysées heading towards the Place de la Concorde and continuing through the city to finish at Foch Avenue. ... The Parc des Princes (translation: Princes Park) is a 48527 capacity stadium in the 16th arrondissement of Paris. ...


Stages of the Tour can be flat, undulating or mountainous. They are normally contested by all the riders starting together with the first over the line being the victor, but they can also be run against the clock for individuals or teams. The time-trials often have a significant effect because they separate riders by substantial margins, whereas in some conventional stages the participants finish packed together or in a few large groups. The overall winner is almost always a master of the mountains and time trials rather than the more straightforward flat stages.


The race alternates between clockwise and counter-clockwise circuits of France. For example, 2005 was clockwise — visiting the Alps first and then the Pyrenees — while 2006 went in the opposite direction. For the first half of its history, the Tour was a near-continuous loop, often running close to France's borders. Rules to restrict drug-taking have, since the 1960s, limited the overall distance, the daily distance and the number of days raced consecutively, and the modern Tour skips between one city or one region and another. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees For the mountains in Victoria, Australia, see Pyrenees (Victoria). ...


A feature almost from the start has been stages in the mountains. The roads are now good but at first they were tracks of hard-packed earth on which riders frequently had to push their bicycles. Even into the 1950s and 1960s, the road at the summit could be potholed and strewn with small rocks, and falls and serious injuries were common.


Mountain passes such as the Tourmalet in the Pyrenees have been made famous by the Tour de France and attract large numbers of amateur cyclists every day in summer, anxious to test their speed and fitness on roads used by the champions. The physical difficulty of climbs is established in a formula that rates a mountain by its steepness, its length and its position on the course. The easiest climbs are graded 4, most of the hardest as 1 and the exceptional (such as the Tourmalet) as unclassified, or "hors-catégorie".


Some recur almost annually. The most famous hors-catégorie peaks include the Col du Tourmalet, Mont Ventoux, Col du Galibier, the climb to the ski resort of Hautacam, and Alpe d'Huez. Col du Tourmalet is a mountain pass at 42° 55 N, 0° 09 E in the Central French Pyrenees. ... Mont Ventoux is a mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km north-east of Carpentras, Vaucluse. ... Col du Galibier Col du Galibier (el. ... Alpe dHuez is a famous ski resort 1850 metres / 3330 metres (6,069 ft / 10,924 ft) high. ...


The combination of endurance and strength needed to complete the Tour led the New York Times to say in 2006 that the "Tour de France is arguably the most physiologically demanding of athletic events." The effort was compared to "running a [[marathon several days a week for nearly three weeks", while the total elevation of the hill climbs was compared to "climbing three Everests."[6] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... The Everest entry redirects here. ...


Tour directors

Henri Desgrange (Paris, January 31, 1865 – August 16, 1940 in Beauvallon) was a French bicycle racer and sports journalist. ... Jacques Goddet (Paris, June 21, 1905 – December 15, 2000) was was a French sports journalist and director of the Tour de France from 1936 to 1986. ... Jacques Goddet (Paris, June 21, 1905 – December 15, 2000) was was a French sports journalist and director of the Tour de France from 1936 to 1986. ... Félix Lévitan (12 October 1911–18 February 2007) was the third organiser of the Tour de France, a role he shared for much of the time with Jacques Goddet. ... Jean-Marie Leblanc (born July 27, 1944, Nueil-sur-Argent, France) is a retired professional road bicycle racer and general director of the Tour de France since 1989. ... Christian Prudhomme (born in France) is the general director of the Tour de France. ...

Famous stages

Since 1975, the final stage finishes on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, which is cobbled, making it difficult to cycle, though not as hard as the Paris-Roubaix. The race takes multiple turns over the avenue, which is lined with enormous crowds. This stage is not usually competitive in terms of the overall lead since it is flat and the leader is likely to have a sufficient margin to be unchallengeable. There have been exceptions, however. In 1987, with the Irish rider Stephen Roche leading the Spaniard Pedro Delgado by only 40 seconds, Delgado broke away from the peloton on the Champs-Élysées, threatening to snatch victory at the last minute. In the end he was caught. He and Roche both finished in the peloton, and Roche thereby won the Tour. Tour de France has finished in Champs-Élysées every year since 1975. ... A cobblestone-covered street Cobblestones are stones used in the pavement of early streets. ... Begun in 1896, Paris-Roubaix, third of the ten UCI World Cup races, has become the most famous single-day bicycle road race. ... Stephen Roche (Irish: Stiofán de Róiste) was born November 28, 1959 in Dundrum near Dublin, Ireland and is a retired professional cyclist. ... Pedro Delgado Robledo (born 1960-04-15 in Segovia), also known as Perico, is a Spanish former professional road bicycle racer. ... The peloton (from French, literally meaning ball and related to the English word platoon), bunch or pack is the large main group in a road bicycle race. ...


In 1989 the organizers returned to holding a time trial as the final stage. In it, Greg LeMond of the United States overtook the Frenchman Laurent Fignon, who held a 50-second lead, to win by eight seconds, the closest margin in the Tour's history. Gregory James Greg LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood, California) is a former professional road bicycle racer from the United States and a three time winner of the Tour de France. ... Laurent Fignon (born August 12, 1960 in Paris) is a French cyclist, who won the Tour de France twice in 1983 and 1984, and missed winning it a third time, in 1989, by a very narrow margin. ...

Altitude profile of the Alpe d’Huez climb.
Altitude profile of the Alpe d’Huez climb.

The particularly tough climb of Alpe d'Huez is a favourite, providing a stage finish in most Tours. In 2004, in another experiment, the mountain time trial ended at Alpe d'Huez. This seems less likely to be repeated, following complaints from the riders of abusive spectator behavior.[7][8] Another famous mountain stage is the climb of Mont Ventoux, often claimed to be the hardest in the Tour due to the harsh conditions. The Tour usually features only one of these two climbs in a year. Image File history File links L'Alp-d'Huez. ... Image File history File links L'Alp-d'Huez. ... Alpe dHuez is a famous ski resort 1850 metres / 3330 metres (6,069 ft / 10,924 ft) high. ... Mont Ventoux is a mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km north-east of Carpentras, Vaucluse. ...


To host a stage start or finish brings prestige and business to a town. The prologue and first stage are particularly prestigious. Usually one town will host the prologue (which is too short to go between towns) and also the start of stage 1. In some years, like 2005, there is no prologue. In 2007 the Tour director Christian Prudhomme stated that "in general, for a period of five years we have the Tour start outside of France 3 times and within France 2 times." [9] In addition, the first few stages often go into a neighbouring country. Christian Prudhomme (born in France) is the general director of the Tour de France. ...


Prize money

Prize money has always been awarded, starting with the first Tour in 1903. From 20,000 francs the first year[10], the total prize money has increased each year. Prizes and bonuses are awarded according to the classification in each stage and the overall classifications at the end of the race. A smaller amount is paid to teams as a participation expense or a presence bonus. In 2006, a total of over €3,000,000 ($4,100,000) was awarded, the winner of the individual general classification receiving €450,000 ($600,000).[11] Notwithstanding these increasing amounts, the importance of the prize money has decreased through the years, as riders are well paid by their employers - the cycling teams - by contract. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Classification jerseys

Apart from winning the Tour, each race has three further classifications: the points, the mountains and the best young rider. The leaders of the four competitions wear a distinctive jersey next day. Jerseys are awarded in a ceremony after each stage, sometimes before trailing riders have finished. When a single rider is entitled to more than one jersey, he wears the most prestigious and the second-placed rider in the other classification wears the jersey. For example, in the first week it is common for the overall classification (yellow jersey) and points (sprint) competition (green jersey) to be led by the same rider. In this case the leading rider will wear the yellow jersey and the rider placed second in the points competition will wear the green jersey.


The Tour's jersey colours have been adopted by other cycling stage races, and have thus come to have meaning within cycling generally, rather than solely in the Tour. For example, the Tour of Britain has yellow, green, and polka-dot jerseys with the same meaning as in the Tour de France. The Giro d’Italia differs in awarding the overall leader a pink jersey, having been organized and sponsored by La Gazzetta dello Sport, an Italian sports daily newspaper with pink pages. The Tour of Britain is the name given to a cycle race, conducted over several stages, in which participants race from place to place across parts of Great Britain. ... La Gazzetta dello Sport is an Italian newspaper dedicated to coverage of various sports. ...


Overall leader

Main article: maillot jaune
Seven-time winner Lance Armstrong in the maillot jaune.
Seven-time winner Lance Armstrong in the maillot jaune.

The maillot jaune (yellow jersey), which is worn by the general classification (or overall time) leader, is the most prized. It is awarded by calculating the total combined race time up to that point for each rider. The rider with the lowest total time is the leader, and at the end of the event is declared the overall winner of the Tour. Desgrange added the yellow jersey in 1919 because he wanted the race leader to wear something distinctive and because the pages of his magazine, L'Auto, were yellow.[12] Additional time bonuses, in the form of a number of seconds to be deducted from the rider's overall time, are available to the first 3 riders to finish the stage or cross an intermediate sprint (see below). As of 2005, the first 3 places to finish are awarded bonuses of 20, 12, and 8 seconds respectively, while the first 3 places at intermediate sprints are awarded 6, 4, and 2 seconds. However, these bonuses are rarely significant enough to cause major upset in the classement géneral (General Classification). Commercial version of maillot jaune, 2004 Maillot jaune (French for yellow jersey, pronounced my-oh zhohn) is the jersey worn by the current overall leader of many bicycle races, originally and most notably the Tour de France. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 354 KB) Description: Germany Pforzheim Tour de France Lance Armstrong Date: 2005-07-09 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2112x2816, 354 KB) Description: Germany Pforzheim Tour de France Lance Armstrong Date: 2005-07-09 photographer: Heidas Wikipedia account All pictures please use this discussion page File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on... Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. ... Commercial version of maillot jaune, 2004 Maillot jaune (French for yellow jersey, pronounced my-oh zhohn) is the jersey worn by the current overall leader of many bicycle races, originally and most notably the Tour de France. ... The General Classification (or GC) in bicycle racing is the category that tracks overall times for bicycle riders in multi-stage bicycle races. ...


Sometimes a rider takes the overall lead during a stage and gets sufficiently far ahead of the yellow jersey wearer that his current lead is greater than his time deficit to the yellow jersey in the general classification; when this happens, this rider may be referred to as being "the yellow jersey on the road". Obviously, no jerseys can be exchanged in this situation, which is why in some other languages the leading rider is referred to as the "virtual yellow".


Points classification

Main article: maillot vert
See also: Points classification

The maillot vert (green jersey) is awarded for sprint points. At the end of each stage, points are earned by the riders who finish first, second, etc. Points are higher for flat stages, as sprints are more likely, and less for mountain stages, where climbers usually win. The maillot vert (French for green jersey) is the jersey worn by the leader of the Tour de Frances points classification. ... The Points Classification is an award category in road bicycle racing that recognizes the most consistent finisher in a stage race. ... The maillot vert (French for green jersey) is the jersey worn by the leader of the Tour de Frances points classification. ...


Flat stages: 35, 30, 26, 24, 22, 20, 19, 18, 17, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 points are awarded to the first 25 riders across the finish. The riders who when these stages are typically sprinters. Sprinters usually do not when the Tour.


Medium-mountain stages: 25, 22, 20, 18, 16, 15, 14, 13, 12, 11, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 points are awarded to the first 20 riders across the finish.


High-mountain stages: 20, 17, 15, 13, 12, 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 points are awarded to the first 15 riders across the finish.


Time-trials: 15, 12, 10, 8, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1 points are awarded to the top 10 finishers of the stage.


Intermediate sprints: 6, 4, and 2 points are awarded to the first three finishers.


In case of a tie, the number of stage wins determine the green jersey, then the number of intermediate sprint victories, and finally, the rider's standing in the overall classification.


King of the Mountains

Main article: Polka dot jersey
Michael Rasmussen wearing the polka dot jersey in 2005.
Michael Rasmussen wearing the polka dot jersey in 2005.

The "King of the Mountains" wears a white jersey with red dots (maillot à pois rouges), referred to as the "polka dot jersey" and inspired by a jersey that the former organiser, Félix Lévitan saw while at the Vélodrome d'Hiver track in Paris in his youth. The competition is calculated by points awarded to the first riders at the top of designated hills and mountains, the greatest number of points being awarded for the hardest ascents. The polka dot jersey (French: maillot à pois rouge) is awarded for the best climber during the mountain stages of the Tour de France cycle race. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x840, 155 KB) Danish cyclist Michael Rasmussen (Team Rabobank) during Stage 20 (Individual Time Trial, St Etienne) of the 2005 Tour de France. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x840, 155 KB) Danish cyclist Michael Rasmussen (Team Rabobank) during Stage 20 (Individual Time Trial, St Etienne) of the 2005 Tour de France. ... Michael Rasmussen (born June 1, 1974 in Tølløse) is a Danish professional road bicycle racer who rides for Dutch team Rabobank. ... The King of the Mountains is the title given to the best climber in a cycling road race. ...


Climbs rated "Hors Catégorie" (HC): 20, 18, 16, 14, 12, 10, 8, 7, 6 and 5 points for the first 10 riders to the summit.


Category 1 climbs: 15, 13, 11, 9, 8, 7, 6 and 5 points for the first 8 riders to the top.


Category 2 climbs: 10, 9, 8, 7, 6, and 5 for the first 6 riders to the top.


Category 3 climbs: 4, 3, 2 and 1 points for the first 4 riders to the top.


Category 4 climbs: 3, 2 and 1 points for the first 3 riders to the top.


NOTE: For the last climb of a stage, the points are doubled (for HC, Cat 1 and Cat 2 climbs only).


In case of a tie, the rider with the most HC wins takes the jersey, then the rider with the most Cat 1 wins, etc...


Although the best climber was first recognised in 1933, the jersey was not introduced until 1975.


Other classifications

There are three lesser classifications, though only one awards the leader with a jersey. The maillot blanc (white jersey) is for the best-placed rider less than 25 years old on January 1 of the year the Tour is ridden. The Maillot blanc (French for white jersey) is the jersey given to the best young rider in the Tour de France as determined by the best overall time. ...


The "prix de combativité" goes to the rider who has done most to animate the day's racing, usually by trying to break clear of the field. It is decided by the vote of a panel of experts. The most combative rider of a stage wears a number printed white-on-red instead of black-on-white in the next stage. At the end of the Tour, an award is given to the rider who was thought to be the most aggressive bike racer throughout the entire three-week tour.


The team prize is assessed by adding the times of each team's best three riders each day. The competition does not have its own jersey but since 2006 the leading team has worn numbers printed black-on-yellow instead of black-on-white. The number of riders in a team has varied widely but is now normally nine. Until 1930, teams represented countries, groups of countries or French regions. From 1930, but with the exception of 1967 and 1968 when there was a return to geographical teams, riders have been entered by commercial teams.


As in all road races, national and world champions wear not their ordinary team colours but their world or national championship jerseys when competing in the appropriate race: the time-trial champion in the time-trial, the road race in massed stages. Bicycle racers at the 2005 Rund um den Henninger-Turm in Germany Road bicycle racing is a popular bicycle racing sport held on roads (following the geography of the area), using racing bicycles. ...


Historical jerseys

Previously, there was a red jersey for the standings in non-stage-finish sprints: points were awarded to the first three riders to pass two or three intermediate points during the stage. These sprints also scored points towards the green jersey and bonus seconds towards the overall classification, as well as cash prizes offered by the residents of the area where the sprint took place. The sprints remain, with all these additional effects, the most significant now being the points for the green jersey. The red jersey was abolished in 1989.[13] The red jersey was awarded to the leader of the intermediate sprints classification in the Tour de France. ...


There was also a combination jersey, scored on a points system based on standings for the yellow, green, red, and polka-dot jerseys. The design was a patchwork, with areas resembling each individual jersey design. This was abolished in the same year as the red jersey. The combination jersey is the jersey in the Tour de France that was worn by the leader of the combination classification. ...


Stages

See also: Stage (bicycle race)

A stage in road bicycle racing is a part of a multi-day event, such as the Tour de France or the Giro dItalia. ...

Mass-start stages

A collected peloton in the 2006 Tour.
A collected peloton in the 2006 Tour.

In an ordinary stage, all riders start simultaneously and share the road. The real start (départ réel) usually is some 2 to 5 kilometres (1 to 3 mi) away from the starting point, and is announced by the Tour director in the officials' car waving a white flag. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 680 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken during Le Tour de France. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 680 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture taken during Le Tour de France. ...


Riders are permitted to touch (but not push or nudge) and to shelter behind each other, in slipstream (see drafting). The rider who crosses the finish line first wins. In the first week of the Tour, this often leads to spectacular mass sprints. This article is about the racing technique. ...


While only finishers are awarded sprint points, all riders finishing in an identifiable group (with no significant gap to the rider in front, as determined by race officials) are deemed to have finished the stage in the same time as the lead rider of that group for overall classification purposes. This avoids what would otherwise be dangerous mass sprints. It is not unusual for the entire field to finish in a single group, taking some time to cross the line, but being credited with the same time as the stage winner.

Arrival of the 2005 Tour de France in Mulhouse.
Arrival of the 2005 Tour de France in Mulhouse.

Time bonuses are awarded at some intermediate sprints and stage finishes to the first three riders who reach the specified point. These bonuses generally are a maximum of 20 seconds, and can allow a good sprinter to qualify for the yellow jersey early in the Tour. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 384 KB) Description: Chegada da nona etapa do Tour de France em Mulhouse (10 de julho de 2005) Arrivée de la neuvième étape du tour de France em Mulhouse (10 Juillet 2005) Finish line of the 9th day... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 384 KB) Description: Chegada da nona etapa do Tour de France em Mulhouse (10 de julho de 2005) Arrivée de la neuvième étape du tour de France em Mulhouse (10 Juillet 2005) Finish line of the 9th day... Mulhouse (French: Mulhouse, pronounced ; Alsatian: Milhüsa; German: Mülhausen) is a town and commune in eastern France close to Swiss and German border. ...


Riders who crash within the last 3 kilometres of the stage are credited with the finishing time of the group that they were with when they crashed [14]. This prevents riders from being penalised for accidents that do not accurately reflect their performance on the stage as a whole given that crashes in the final kilometre can be huge pileups that are hard to avoid for a rider farther back in the peloton. A crashed sprinter inside the final kilometre will not win the sprint, but avoids being penalised in the overall classification. The final kilometre is indicated in the race course by a red triangular pennant - known as the flamme rouge - raised above the road.


Some ordinary stages take place in the mountains, almost always causing major shifts in the General Classification. On ordinary stages that do not have extended mountain climbs, most riders can manage to stay together in the peloton all the way to the finish; during mountain stages, however, it is not uncommon for some riders to lose 40 minutes to the winner of the stage. The so called mountain stages are often the deciding factor in determining the winner of the Tour de France. With the exception of the now traditional finish at the Champs-Elysées all famous stages, like Alpe d'Huez and Mont Ventoux, are mountain stages, and these often bring out the most spectators who line up the roads by the thousands to cheer and encourage the cyclists and support their favorites. Tour de France has finished in Champs-Élysées every year since 1975. ... Alpe dHuez is a famous ski resort 1850 metres / 3330 metres (6,069 ft / 10,924 ft) high. ...


Individual time trials

See also: Individual time trial and Time trialist
Lance Armstrong riding the prologue of the 2004 Tour.
Lance Armstrong riding the prologue of the 2004 Tour.

In an individual time trial each rider rides individually. The first stage of the tour is often a short time trial known as a prologue. The prologue is to decide who wears yellow on the opening day, and provide a spectacle for the organising city. An Individual Time Trial (ITT) is a road bicycle race in which cyclists race alone against the clock (in French: contre la montre - literally against the watch). There are also track-based time trials where riders compete in velodromes, and team time trials (TTT). ... A time trialist is a road bicycle racer who can maintain high speeds for long periods of time, to maximize performance during individual or team time trials. ... Image File history File links Lance Armstrong at the prologue of the 2004 Tour de France. ... Image File history File links Lance Armstrong at the prologue of the 2004 Tour de France. ...


There are usually three or four time trials during the Tour. One may be a team time trial (see below). Traditionally the final time trial has been the penultimate stage, and effectively determines the winner before the final ordinary stage which is not ridden competitively until the last hour. On a few occasions, the race organisers made the final stage into Paris a time trial. The most recent occasion on which this was done, in 1989, yielded the closest ever finish in Tour history, when Greg LeMond beat Laurent Fignon by eight seconds overall. Fignon wore the yellow jersey for the final stage, with a lead of 50 seconds, and was beaten by LeMond's superior time trial performance. LeMond's unusual handlebars which placed his forearms close together and reduce wind resistance, and his streamlined helmet, were considered a major factor in his victory. [15] A team time trial (TTT) is a road-based bicycle race in which teams of cyclists race against the clock (see individual time trial for a more detailed description of ITT events). ... Gregory James Greg LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood, California) is a former professional road bicycle racer from the United States and a three time winner of the Tour de France. ... Laurent Fignon (born August 12, 1960 in Paris) is a French cyclist, who won the Tour de France twice in 1983 and 1984, and missed winning it a third time, in 1989, by a very narrow margin. ...


Team time trial

See also: Team time trial
Team CSC in the 2004 TTT.
Team CSC in the 2004 TTT.
2005 time limits
2nd: 20" 12th: 2' 00"
3rd: 30" 13th: 2' 10"
4th: 40" 14th: 2' 20"
5th: 50" 15th: 2' 30"
6th: 1' 16th: 2' 35"
7th: 1' 10" 17th: 2' 40"
8th: 1' 20" 18th: 2' 45"
9th: 1' 30" 19th: 2' 50"
10th: 1' 40" 20th: 2' 55"
11th: 1' 50" 21st: 3' 00"

Often in the first week of the Tour there is a team time trial (TTT), in which each team rides together without interference from competing teams. The team time is determined by the fifth rider to cross the line; all riders ahead of the fifth rider, and those finishing within one bike length of each other, are awarded this same time. Riders who finish more than one bike-length behind their respective teams are awarded their own individual times. A team time trial (TTT) is a road-based bicycle race in which teams of cyclists race against the clock (see individual time trial for a more detailed description of ITT events). ... Image File history File links Description: The CSC Team in the team time trial of the Tour de france (07/07(July)/2004) Author : User:Dav 59 File links The following pages link to this file: Team CSC ... Image File history File links Description: The CSC Team in the team time trial of the Tour de france (07/07(July)/2004) Author : User:Dav 59 File links The following pages link to this file: Team CSC ... Riders from Team CSC in Danmark Rundt, August 2006. ... In many racing sports an athlete (or occasionally a team of athletes) will compete in a time trial against the clock to secure the fastest time. ...


The TTT has been criticized for strongly favoring strong teams and handicapping strong riders in weaker teams. To address this criticism, the 2004 and 2005 editions of the Tour limited the maximum team time difference relative to the fastest team, according to the team rankings on the stage. The following table indicates the maximum time penalty added to the winning team's time that a team will receive, according to its team time placing. However, this does not apply to riders finishing behind their own teams, and does not protect riders in case of crashing in the last kilometre, unlike during normal stages.


For example, a team that finishes in 14th place, six minutes behind the winning team, would lose only two minutes and 20 seconds in the General Classification relative to the winners of the TTT. If the team time had been 2:13 behind the winning team, then the team time will be 2:13 assuming that this were still the 14th place.


The most recent TTT was held in 2005. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Culture

Spectator camps in 2005 at stage 14 to the Ax 3 Domaines ski station.
Spectator camps in 2005 at stage 14 to the Ax 3 Domaines ski station.

The Tour is popular and important for the cycling fans in France and in Europe. Millions[citation needed] of spectators line the route every year, some having camped a week in advance to get the best views. A recognizable part of the crowd each day is Didi Senft who, dressed in a red devil costume, has been known as the Tour de France devil or El Diablo since 1993. The inspiration for the costume is attributed to the final kilometre of each Tour stage, indicated by a red triangle suspended over the road. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 363 KB) en: 14th stage tour de france 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 363 KB) en: 14th stage tour de france 2005. ... Known as the Tour de France devil, German Didi Senft was born in 1952. ...

A vehicle in the 2005 commercial caravan.
A vehicle in the 2005 commercial caravan.

In the hours before the riders pass, a carnival atmosphere prevails. Any amateur cyclist is free to attempt the course on his bicycle in the morning, after which begins a garish cavalcade of advertising vehicles blaring music and tossing hats, souvenirs, sweets and free samples . As word passes that the riders are approaching, the fans sometimes encroach on the road until they are an arm’s length from the riders. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1313 KB) Tour de France 2005 de: ein Wagen der Werbekarawane en: a truck of the advertisement caravane with permission from http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 1313 KB) Tour de France 2005 de: ein Wagen der Werbekarawane en: a truck of the advertisement caravane with permission from http://www. ...


Customs

The riders temper their competitiveness and enthusiasm with an elaborate but unwritten code of conduct. When possible, a rider is allowed to lead the race through his home village or on his birthday. It is considered unsporting to attack a leading rider delayed by a mechanical breakdown or other misfortune, one who is eating in the feed zone or one who is satisfying un besoin naturel (roughly translated to "a natural need", referring to urinating). Not sticking to these customs can lead to animosity. Unless the final stage is a time trial, or the gap between the top two is extremely close, riders generally do not attack on the final stage, leaving the leader to bask in the glory of winning. The following terminology is used in the general sport of cycling, as well as the more specific road bicycle racing and mountain bicycle racing. ... Manneken Pis of Brussels. ...


The rider ranked last in the general classification, who may wind up in Paris with an overall time five or more hours slower than that of the winner, is called the lanterne rouge. Such was the sympathy shown to the last rider in the past that he could command higher fees in other races than riders who finished better. This custom has died along with the round-the-houses races once run off all over France in the weeks after the Tour. Le Tour de France (Tour of France), often referred to as La Grande Boucle, Le Tour or The Tour, is the most famous and prestigious road bicycle race in the world. ...


Terminology

Further information: Bicycling terminology

Much of the terminology used to describe the Tour de France is used in bicycle racing across the world. Terms specific to the Tour de France include: The following terminology is used in the general sport of cycling, as well as the more specific road bicycle racing and mountain bicycle racing. ...

Flamme rouge ("red kite") 
The red pennant hanging as close as possible to a kilometre from the finish.
Lanterne rouge 
Meaning "red lantern" (as found at the end of a rail train), the name for the overall last-place rider.
Voiture balai 
The "broom wagon" follows the race to collect riders who cannot continue. Some riders prefer to be picked up by their team's car instead. Riders are generally expected to finish the race within 10–12 percent of the winner’s time or risk being dropped from the tour.

Le Tour de France (Tour of France), often referred to as La Grande Boucle, Le Tour or The Tour, is the most famous and prestigious road bicycle race in the world. ...

Films

A casual fan, Scott Coady attended the 2000 Tour de France with the aim to follow the entire Tour de France with a handheld video camera. By chance, he got a press accreditation and went on to make The Tour Baby! which has gained cult status among cyclists. He made the film to benefit the Lance Armstrong Foundation raising more than $160,000 for the foundation.[16] Lance Armstrong at LAF Community Program Conference The Lance Armstrong Foundation (LAF) is a United States charitable organization that provides support for people with cancer. ...


In 2005, two films chronicled the efforts of a single team competing in the Tour de France. The German film Höllentour, translated as "Hell on Wheels" in English, records the Tour in 2003, the centenary year, from the perspective of Team Telekom. The film was directed by Pepe Danquart who won an Academy Award for Live Action Short Film in 1993 for Black Rider (Schwarzfahrer).[17] Also released was Danish film Overcoming by Tómas Gislason, which records the 2004 Tour de France from the perspective of Team CSC. Höllentour (literally meaning Hell Route, with the US release titled Hell on Wheels) is a film released in 2005. ... Presentation of the 2006 team in Mallorca. ... // This name for the Academy Award for Live Action Short Film was introduced in 1974. ... Riders from Team CSC in Danmark Rundt, August 2006. ...


One of the most famous films about the Tour is Vive Le Tour by Louis Malle. This 18 minute short takes a humorous look at the 1962 edition. The 1965 Tour was filmed by Claude Lelouch in Pour un Maillot Jaune. This 30 minute documentary contains no narration and relies on the sights and sounds of the Tour itself. Louis Malle (October 30, 1932 – November 23, 1995) was an Academy Award nominated French film director, working in both French and English. ... Claude Lelouch (born October 30, 1937) is a French film director, writer and producer. ...


A movie based on Lance Armstrong's career is currently in a pre-production stage.

In fiction, the plot of the 2003 animated feature "Les Triplettes de Belleville" (The Triplets of Belleville) ties into the Tour De France. The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ... Les Triplettes de Belleville (aka Belleville Rendez-vous; The Triplets of Belleville in English) is a 2003 French-Canadian animated feature film directed and written by Sylvain Chomet. ...

The Internet Movie Database (IMDb) is an online database of information about movies, actors, television shows, production crew personnel, and video games. ...

Music

In 1983, the German music group Kraftwerk released the single Tour de France which was described as a minimalistic "melding of man and machine".[18] The single was later included on a Kraftwerk record dedicated to the race, the Tour de France Soundtracks album from 2003. Kraftwerk (pronounced [], German for power station) is a German musical group from Düsseldorf that has made immense contributions to the development of improvisational rock and electronic music, most notably within the latter categorys sub-genres which later became known as synthpop, electro, techno, house and IDM. Early musical... Tour de France is a song by Kraftwerk. ... Tour de France Soundtracks is a 2003 album by Kraftwerk. ...


Doping

Allegations of doping have plagued the Tour almost since its beginning in 1903. Early Tour riders were said to have consumed alcohol and used ether, among other substances, as a means of dulling the pain of competing in endurance cycling. As time went by, riders began using substances as a means of increasing performance rather than dulling the senses, and organizing bodies such as the Tour and the International Cycling Union (UCI), as well as government bodies, enacted policies to combat the practice. There have been allegations of doping in the Tour de France since 1903 . ... In sports, doping refers to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly those that are forbidden by the organizations that regulate competitions. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Entrance of UCI headquarter at Aigle (Switzerland) Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) is a professional cycling union that oversees cycling events in the international community. ... Entrance of UCI headquarter at Aigle (Switzerland) Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) is a professional cycling union that oversees cycling events in the international community. ...


On July 13, 1967, British cyclist Tom Simpson died climbing Mont Ventoux following use of amphetamines, complicated by the now defunct practice of drinking as little as possible. His now-supposed last words, "put me back on my bike", were invented by Sid Saltmarsh of the British magazine "Cycling" and the daily paper "The Sun".[19] is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... For other persons named Tom Simpson, see Tom Simpson (disambiguation). ... Mont Ventoux is a mountain in the Provence region of southern France, located some 20 km north-east of Carpentras, Vaucluse. ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... This article is about a British tabloid. ...


At the 1998 Tour de France, dubbed the "Tour of Shame", a doping scandal erupted when Willy Voet, one of the soigneurs for the Festina cycling team, was arrested for possession of erythropoietin (EPO), growth hormones, testosterone and amphetamines. French police raided several teams in their hotels and found doping products in the possession of the TVM team. The riders staged a sit-down strike on stage 17. After mediation by Jean-Marie Leblanc, the Director of the Tour, police agreed to limit the most heavy-handed tactics and the riders agreed to continue. Some riders and teams had already abandoned and only 96 riders finished the race. In a 2000 criminal trial, it became clear that the management and health officials of the Festina team had organised the doping. The 1998 Tour de France was marred by doping scandals throughout, starting with the arrest of Willy Voet a soigneur in the French Festina team. ... Willy Voet is a Belgian sports physiotherapist. ... Festina is a Spanish watch manufacturer. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Growth hormone (GH) or somatotropin (STH) is a protein hormone which stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... TVM was a Dutch road bicycle racing team. ... Jean-Marie Leblanc (born July 27, 1944, Nueil-sur-Argent, France) is a retired professional road bicycle racer and general director of the Tour de France since 1989. ...


In the years following the Festina scandal, further anti-doping measures were introduced by race organizers and the UCI, including more frequent testing of riders and new tests for blood doping (transfusions and EPO use). A new, independent organization, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA), was also created. Evidence of doping has however persisted. In 2002, the wife of Raimondas Rumšas, third in the 2002 Tour de France, was arrested by French police after EPO and anabolic steroids were found in her car. Rumšas, who had not failed a doping test, was not penalised. In 2004, Philippe Gaumont, a rider with the Cofidis team, told investigators and the press that doping with various substances was endemic to the team. Fellow Cofidis rider David Millar confessed to EPO use. In the same year, Jesus Manzano, a rider with the Kelme team, described in detail how he had allegedly been forced by his team to use banned substances.[20] Entrance of UCI headquarter at Aigle (Switzerland) Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) is a professional cycling union that oversees cycling events in the international community. ... Blood doping is the practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the circulation in order to enhance athletic performance. ... Blood transfusion is the process of transferring blood or blood-based products from one person into the circulatory system of another. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an independent foundation created through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Raimondas RumÅ¡as (born 14 January 1972 in Å ilutÄ—, Lithuania), a professional road bicycle racer since 1996, who came out of nowhere to rank third in the standings of the 2002 Tour de France. ... The Tour de France of 2002 started in Luxembourg on July 6, 2002, and ended in Paris on July 28. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ... Anabolic steroids are a class of natural and synthetic steroid hormones that promote cell growth and division, resulting in growth of muscle tissue and sometimes bone size and strength. ... Philippe Gaumont (born February 22, 1973 in Amiens) is a former French professional road cyclist. ... David Millar (born January 4, 1977 in Malta) is a Scottish road racing cyclist, currently racing for UCI ProTeam Saunier Duval-Prodir as a time-trial specialist. ... Erythropoietin (IPA pronunciation: , alternative pronunciations: ) or EPO is a glycoprotein hormone that is a cytokine for erythrocyte (red blood cell) precursors in the bone marrow. ...

L'Equipe cover accusing Armstrong of doping. The title roughly translates to "The Armstrong lie".
L'Equipe cover accusing Armstrong of doping. The title roughly translates to "The Armstrong lie".

Doping controversy has surrounded seven-time Tour champion Lance Armstrong for some time, although there has never been evidence sufficient for him to be penalised by any sports authority. In late August 2005, one month after Armstrong's seventh consecutive victory, the French sports newspaper l'Équipe claimed to have uncovered evidence that Armstrong had used EPO in the 1999 Tour de France.[21] Armstrong denied using EPO and the UCI did not penalise him. In response to the L'Equipe allegations, an investigation was begun by the UCI in October 2005. The investigation reported that Armstrong did not engage in doping and that the actions of the World Anti-Doping Agency were "completely inconsistent" with testing rules.[22] At the same 1999 Tour, Armstrong's urine showed traces of a glucocorticosteroid hormone, although the amount detected was well below the “positive” threshold. Armstrong explained that he had used the skin cream Cemalyt containing triamcinolone to treat saddle sores.[23] Armstrong had previously received permission from the UCI to use this skin cream for his saddle sores.[24] Image File history File links Armstrong_dope. ... Image File history File links Armstrong_dope. ... Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. ... The 1999 Tour de France was the 86th Tour de France, taking place from July 3 to July 25, 2005. ... Triamcinolone (trade names Kenalog, Aristocort, Nasacort, Tri-Nasal, Triderm, Azmacort, Trilone, Volon A, Tristoject, Fougera;) is a synthetic corticosteroid given orally, by injection, inhalation, or as a topical ointment or cream. ... A saddle sore is a skin ailment in the nether region due to, or exacerbated by, riding on a bicycle saddle. ...


The 2006 Tour had been plagued by the Operación Puerto doping case before its beginning, when many of the riders considered to be favorites, such as Jan Ullrich and Ivan Basso were banned from competing by their respective teams one day prior to the Prologue due to doping allegations. Seventeen riders were implicated. Then, one of the most serious doping charges in Tour history emerged just four days after the end of the 2006 Tour de France: it was announced that American rider Floyd Landis had a positive test result for a testosterone imbalance in his 'A' or initial test sample, after he won stage 17; this was confirmed in his 'B' sample result, published on August 5, 2006. The decision to strip Landis of the victory rests with the International Cycling Union, but Tour de France director Christian Prudhomme said, "It goes without saying that for us Floyd Landis is no longer the winner of the 2006 Tour de France". Landis has stated that he will fight to clear his name.[25] The Operación Puerto doping case (meaning Operation Mountain Pass)[1] is a Spanish doping case against doctor Eufemiano Fuentes and a number of accomplices, started in May 2006. ... Jan Ullrich (born December 2, 1973 in Rostock, East Germany, now Germany) is a retired German professional road bicycle racer. ... Ivan Basso (born November 26, 1977) is an Italian professional road bicycle racer, most recently with Discovery Channel Pro Cycling Team. ... Floyd Landis (born October 14, 1975) is an American cyclist. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Union Cycliste Internationale (UCI) is a professional cycling union that oversees cycling events in the international community. ...


At a press conference on May 24, 2007, Erik Zabel admitted to using EPO during the first week of the 1996 Tour de France,[26] when he won the overall maillot vert (green jersey). Following a plea from Zabel for former cyclists to admit to using drugs, former Tour de France winner and manager of Team CSC, Bjarne Riis admitted at a press conference in Copenhagen on May 25, 2007 that he used EPO regularly from 1993 to 1998, including during his 1996 Tour de France win.[27] His admission means the top three finishers in the 1996 Tour have all been linked to doping, with two admitting to cheating. Riis is the second Tour de France winner to confess the use of doping, following the example of Bernard Thevenet (winner in 1975 and 1977). is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Riders from Team CSC in Danmark Rundt, August 2006. ... Bjarne Lykkegård Riis (born April 3, 1964), nicknamed the Eagle from Herning (Danish: Ørnen fra Herning), is a Danish former professional road bicycle racer who won the 1996 Tour de France, and is now the team owner and manager of Danish UCI ProTour outfit Team CSC. Other career highlights... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Bernard Thevenet (born January 10, 1948, Saint_Julien_de_Civry) is best known as the cyclist who finally toppled the reign of Eddy Merckx in the Tour de France, winning the 1975 race with Merckx finishing second less than three minutes behind. ...

For current sports news on this topic, see
Doping at the 2007 Tour de France

On July 24th, 2007 Tour de France rider Alexander Vinokourov tested positive for a banned blood transfusion (Blood doping) after winning a time trial, prompting his Astana team to pull out of the race and police to raid the hotel of the team.[28] Image File history File links Soccerball_current_event. ... The 2007 Tour de France has been affected by a series of scandals and speculations related to doping. ... Alexander Nikolaevich Vinokourov, also written Alexandre Vinokourov, (born 16 September 1973 in Petropavlovsk, Soviet Union, now Petropavl, Kazakhstan) is a Kazakhstani professional road bicycle racer. ... Blood doping is the practice of illicitly boosting the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the circulation in order to enhance athletic performance. ...


On July 25th 2007 it was announced that rider Cristian Moreni tested positive for testosterone. His Cofidis team have pulled out of the tour as a result. [29] Cristian Moreni (born November 21, 1972 in Asola) is a Italian cyclist who rides for Cofidis, le Crédit par Téléphone in the UCI ProTour. ... Testosterone is a steroid hormone from the androgen group. ...


On July 25th 2007 it was announced that then Tour leader Michael Rasmussen of Denmark had been removed from the race for "violating internal team rules" by missing random drug tests on May 9 and June 28. At first, he was punished with three administrative warnings, after Rasmussen had claimed to have been in Mexico visiting his wife's family without notifying his team about his whereabouts. On June 25th, Italian journalist Davide Cassani told on Danish television that he had sighted Rasmussen training in Italy when Rasmussen had claimed to be in Mexico. The alleged lying about his training venue prompted his immediate firing by the Rabobank team manager, Theo de Rooij. [30] Michael Rasmussen (born June 1, 1974 in Tølløse) is a Danish professional road bicycle racer who rides for Dutch team Rabobank. ...


On September 20th 2007, 2006 TdF winner Floyd Landis was found guilty of doping by an arbitrator's ruling. He was stripped of his 2006 title, and received a two-year ban from cycling.[31] Floyd Landis (born October 14, 1975) is an American cyclist. ...


Deaths

See also: List of professional cyclists who died during a race
  • 1910: French racer Adolphe Helière drowned at the French Riviera during a rest day.
  • 1935: Spanish racer Francisco Cepeda died after plunging down a ravine on the Col du Galibier.
  • 1967: July 13, Stage 13: English rider Tom Simpson died of heart failure during the ascent of Mont Ventoux. Amphetamines and alcohol were found on Simpson's jersey and in his bloodstream. His death prompted tour officials to begin a program of drug testing.
  • 1995: July 18, stage 15: Italian racer Fabio Casartelli crashed at approximately 88 km/h (55 mph) descending the Col de Portet d'Aspet. Casartelli received a massive head trauma when he collided with a concrete block and died on the scene. He did not have a helmet, although it is unlikely wearing one would have saved him as it would not have protected the part of his head that hit the concrete block. [32]

Apart from the deaths of riders, another four fatal accidents have also occurred. It has been suggested that List of people killed in bicycle-related accidents be merged into this article or section. ... The Quai des États-Unis in Nice on the French Riviera at night. ... Col du Galibier Col du Galibier (el. ... is the 194th day of the year (195th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Tom Simpson, see Tom Simpson (disambiguation). ... Amphetamine or Amfetamine(Alpha-Methyl-PHenEThylAMINE), also known as beta-phenyl-isopropylamine and benzedrine, is a prescription stimulant commonly used to treat Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults and children. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage (also known as booze in slang term) is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Fabio Casartelli (August 16, 1970 – July 18, 1995) was an Italian cyclist and an Olympic gold medalist, who died in a crash on the descent of the Col de Portet dAspet, France, during the 15th stage of the 1995 Tour de France. ... Kilometre per hour (American spelling: kilometer per hour) is a unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector). ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... The Col de Portet dAspet is a mountain pass in the central Pyrenees in the department of Haute-Garonne in France. ... Bicycle helmet A bicycle helmet is a helmet intended to be worn while riding a bicycle. ...

  • 1957: July 14, motorcycle rider Rene Wagter and his passenger Alex Virot, a journalist for Radio-Luxembourg, slipped on gravel and went off a road without barriers in the mountains near Aix-les-Thermes.
  • 1958: An official, Constant Wouters, died after an accident with sprinter André Darrigade during the final stage of the tour at Parc des Princes.[33]
  • 2000: A 12-year-old boy from Ginasservis known as Phillippe was hit by a car in the Tour de France publicity caravan.[34]
  • 2002: A seven year old boy, Melvin Pompele, died near Retjons after running in front of the caravan.[34]

is the 195th day of the year (196th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... André Darrigade (born Naroose, 24 April 1929) is a former French professional road bicycle racer who raced between 1951 and 1966. ... Look up caravan and Caravan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Statistics

One rider has won the Tour a record seven times:

  • Lance Armstrong (USA) in 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, and 2005 (seven consecutive years).

Four other riders have won the Tour five times: Lance Armstrong (born Lance Edward Gunderson on September 18, 1971) is a retired American professional road racing cyclist. ...

  • Jacques Anquetil (France) in 1957, 1961, 1962, 1963 and 1964;
  • Eddy Merckx (Belgium) in 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972 and 1974;
  • Bernard Hinault (France) in 1978, 1979, 1981, 1982 and 1985;
  • Miguel Indurain (Spain) in 1991, 1992, 1993, 1994 and 1995 (the first to do so in five consecutive years).

Three other riders have won the Tour three times: Jacques Anquetil (January 8, 1934 - November 18, 1987), was a French cyclist and the first cyclist to win the Tour de France five times, in 1957 and from 1961 to 1964. ... Baron Edouard Louis Joseph Merckx (IPA: ) (born June 17, 1945, Meensel-Kiezegem, Vlaams Brabant, Belgium) is a former Belgian professional cyclist. ... Bernard Hinault (born 14 November 1954) is a French cyclist best known for his five victories in the Tour de France. ... Miguel Ángel Indurain Larraya (born July 16, 1964, Villava, Navarre) is a retired Spanish road bicycle racer. ...

The youngest winner was Henri Cornet aged 19 in 1904. Next youngest was Romain Maes aged 21 in 1935. Philippe Thys Philippe Thys (October 8, 1890 - January 16, 1971) was a Belgian cyclist and three-time winner of the Tour de France. ... Louison Bobet (March 12, 1925 - March 13, 1983) was a French professional road cyclist. ... Gregory James Greg LeMond (born June 26, 1961 in Lakewood, California) is a former professional road bicycle racer from the United States and a three time winner of the Tour de France. ... Henri Cornet, born August 4, 1884 - died March 18, 1941, was a French cyclist who won the 1904 Tour de France. ... The Tour de France 1904 was the second edition of the Tour de France, and was held from July 2 to July 24, 1904. ... Romain Maes was a Belgian cyclist who won the 1935 Tour de France. ... The 1935 Tour de France was the 29th Tour de France, taking place July 4 to July 28, 1935. ...


The oldest winner was Firmin Lambot aged 36 in 1922. Next oldest were Henri Pelissier (1923) and Gino Bartali (1948) both aged 34. Firmin Lambot was a Belgian cyclist who won the 1919 and 1922 Tour de France. ... The 1922 Tour de France was the 16th Tour de France, taking place June 25 to July 23, 1922. ... Henri Pélissier (22 January 1889 – 1 May 1935) was a French cyclist and champion of the 1923 Tour de France. ... The 1923 Tour de France was the 17th Tour de France, taking place June 24 to July 22, 1923. ... Gino Bartali (July 18, 1914 - May 5, 2000) was an Italian professional racing cyclist. ... The 1948 Tour de France was the 35th Tour de France, taking place June 30 to July 25, 1948. ...


Gino Bartali holds the record of longest time span between titles, having earned his first and last Tour victories 10 years apart (in 1938 and 1948). Gino Bartali (July 18, 1914 - May 5, 2000) was an Italian professional racing cyclist. ...


Riders from France have won most Tours (36), followed by Belgium (18), United States (10), Spain (10), Italy (9), Luxembourg (4), Switzerland and the Netherlands (2 each) and Ireland, Denmark and Germany (1 each).


One rider has won the points competition a record six times:

  • Erik Zabel (Germany) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 and 2001 (six consecutive years)

One rider has won the "King of the Mountains" a record seven times: Erik Zabel (born July 7, 1970 in Berlin) is a German professional road bicycle racer for UCI ProTour Team Milram. ...

Two riders have won the "King of the Mountains" six times: Richard Virenque (born November 19, 1969 in Casablanca, Morocco) is a retired French professional cyclist. ...

One rider has won the "King of the Mountains", the points competition, and the Tour in the same year: Federico Martin Bahamontes was a professional cyclist born on 9 July 1928 in Santo Domingo, Spain. ... Lucien Van Impe (born 20 October 1946 in Mere, Belgium) was a Flemish cyclist from 1969 to 1987. ...

  • Eddy Merckx (Belgium) in 1969. Merckx would also have won the award for best young rider had it been conducted in that year; that competition was not initiated until 1975.

The most tour appearances have been by Joop Zoetemelk with 16 appearances and no abandonments. Three riders (Lucien Van Impe, Guy Nulens and Viatcheslav Ekimov) have made 15 appearances; Van Impe and Ekimov finished all 15 appearances, whereas Nulens abandoned twice. Baron Edouard Louis Joseph Merckx (IPA: ) (born June 17, 1945, Meensel-Kiezegem, Vlaams Brabant, Belgium) is a former Belgian professional cyclist. ... The Maillot blanc (French for white jersey) is the jersey given to the best young rider in the Tour de France as determined by the best overall time. ... The 1975 Tour de France was the 62nd Tour de France, taking place June 26 to July 20, 1975. ... Gerardus Joseph (Joop) Zoetemelk is a Dutch cyclist. ... Lucien Van Impe (born 20 October 1946 in Mere, Belgium) was a Flemish cyclist from 1969 to 1987. ... Viatcheslav Vladimirovich Ekimov (Russian Вячеслав Владимирович Екимов; born February 4, 1966 in Vyborg near St Petersburg, Russia), nicknamed Eki, was a heralded professional bicycle racer. ...


See also

  • Vuelta a España
  • Giro d'Italia
  • List of Tour de France winners
  • La Grande Boucle Féminine Internationale
  • List of teams and cyclists in the 2007 Tour de France
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References

  1. ^ Wheatcroft, Geoffrey (2003). Le Tour: a history of the Tour de France, 19003-2003. London: Pocket Books, 13. ISBN 0-7434-4992-4. 
  2. ^ a b c d Woodland, Les (2003). {{{title}}}, Forward. 
  3. ^ BBC History of the Tour de France: 1903-1914: Pioneers and 'assassins' (HTML). BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  4. ^ Torelli's History of the Tour de France: the 1930s or, All They Wanted To Do Was to Sell a Few More Newspapers (HTML). BikeRaceInfo.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  5. ^ a b "Tour Honour Roll", Ride Media 2007 Official Tour de France Guide, Australian Edition: 172, 200-201, 2007, <http://www.ridemedia.com.au>
  6. ^ Coyle, Daniel (2006-07-16), "What He’s Been Pedaling", New York Times Magazine, <http://www.nytimes.com/2006/07/16/magazine/16landis.html>
  7. ^ "Tour de France Letters Special - July 23, 2004", CyclingNews, 2004-07-23. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  8. ^ Maloney, Tim. "Stage 16 - July 21: Bourg d'Oisans - Alpe d'Huez ITT, 15.5 km; Sign of the times: Armstrong dominates on l'Alpe d'Huez", CyclingNews, 2004-07-21. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  9. ^ http://provenceblog.typepad.com/provence_blog_by_provence/2007/06/tour-de-france-.html
  10. ^ Woodland, Les (2003). The Yellow Jersey Companion to the Tour de France. London: Yellow Jersey Press, 300-304. 
  11. ^ Règlement de l'épreuve et Liste des prixPDF (243 KiB) pp. 21-25
  12. ^ The Tour since 1903: 1919 - 13th Tour de France, from 29 juin to 27 juillet 1919 (HTML). letour.fr. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  13. ^ The Tour de France (website). BBC H2G2. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  14. ^ 2006 Regulations of the Race and Prize Money. Tour de France regulations. Amaury Sport Organisation. Retrieved on 2007-07-09.
  15. ^ Woodland, Les (2003). The Yellow Jersey Companion to the Tour de France. London: Yellow Jersey Press, 229. 
  16. ^ Melvin, Ian (2004-10-08). The Tour Baby! (HTML). RoadCycling.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  17. ^ Blood, sweat and gears (HTML). Sydney Morning Herald (2005-05-27). Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  18. ^ Chris Jones, Kraftwerk, Tour De France Soundtracks, BBC, August 4, 2003
  19. ^ Woodland, Les (2003). The Yellow Jersey Companion to the Tour de France. London: Yellow Jersey Press, 323-325. 
  20. ^ "Ex-Kelme rider promises doping revelations", VeloNews, 2004-03-20. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  21. ^ "L'Equipe alleges Armstrong samples show EPO use in 99 Tour", VeloNews, 2005-08-23. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  22. ^ Macur, Juliet; Abt, Samuel. "Investigator and Anti-Doping Group Clash on Armstrong Tests", New York Times, 2006-05-31. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  23. ^ Armstrong's journey : Tour leader rides from Texas plains to Champs-Elysees (HTML). CNN Sports Illustrated (2000-07-22). Retrieved on 2007-05-27.
  24. ^ Armstrong, Lance; Jenkins, Sally (2000). It's not about the bike: My journey back to life.. New York: Penguin Putnam. 
  25. ^ "Landis blames testing procedure", BBC Sport, 2006-08-08. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  26. ^ Westemeyer, Susan. "Zabel and Aldag confess EPO usage", CyclingNews, 2007-05-24. Retrieved on 2007-05-27. 
  27. ^ Riis, Tour de France Champ, Says He Took Banned Drugs. Bloomberg.com (2007-05-25). Retrieved on 2007-05-26.
  28. ^ ABCnews.go.com - Astana team pulls out of Tour de France
  29. ^ BBC.co.uk - Tour hit by second doping result
  30. ^ [1] - Rasmussen, Tour de France Leader, Is Expelled by Team
  31. ^ [2] - Landis stripped of Tour title for doping, unsure on appeal
  32. ^ Matt Majendie. Tour tragedy 10 years on (HTML). BBC Sport. Retrieved on 2007-07-11.
  33. ^ Woodland, Les (2003). The Yellow Jersey Companion to the Tour de France. London: Yellow Jersey Press, 105. 
  34. ^ a b Woodland, Les (2003). The Yellow Jersey Companion to the Tour de France. London: Yellow Jersey Press, 80. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...


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