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Encyclopedia > Toulon
Panorama of Toulon area.
Commune of Toulon
Location
Coordinates 43°7′33″N, 5°55′53″E
Administration
Country Flag of France France
Region Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
Department Var (préfecture)
Arrondissement Toulon
Canton Chief town of 9 cantons
Intercommunality Communauté
d'agglomération Toulon
Provence Méditerranée
Mayor Hubert Falco
(2001-2008)
Statistics
Altitude 0 m–589 m
(avg. 1 m)
Land area¹ 42.84 km²
Population²
(1999)
168.639
 - Density (1999) 3,750/km²
Miscellaneous
INSEE/Postal code 83137/ 83000
¹ French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.
² Population sans doubles comptes: single count of residents of multiple communes (e.g. students and military personnel).
France
Satellite view.
Satellite view.
View of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet.
View of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet.

Toulon (Provençal Occitan: Tolon in classical norm or Touloun in Mistralian norm) is a city in southern France and a large military harbour on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base. Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur région, Toulon is the préfecture (capital) of the Var département, in the former province of Provence. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (10444x1022, 1033 KB) Description: Panorama of japan, the bay, and the cities of Saint Mandrier sur mer, La Seyne, Six-Fours and Sanary Author: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (10444x1022, 1033 KB) Description: Panorama of japan, the bay, and the cities of Saint Mandrier sur mer, La Seyne, Six-Fours and Sanary Author: http://www. ... Toulon can refer to several places: Toulon, Var, France Toulon-sur-Arroux, Saône-et-Loire, France Toulon, Illinois, United States Category: ... Download high resolution version (1804x1689, 163 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Toulon Categories: GFDL images ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... This is an alphabetical list of countries of the world, including independent states (both those that are internationally recognised and generally unrecognised), inhabited dependent territories and areas of special sovereignty. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Location Administration Capital Marseille Regional President Michel Vauzelle (PS) (since 1998) Départements Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes Var Vaucluse Arrondissements 18 Cantons 237 Communes 963 Statistics Land area1 31,400 km² Population (Ranked 3rd)  - January 1, 2005 est. ... Departments (French: IPA: ) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... Var is a département of southern France. ... In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ... The 100 French departments are divided into 342 arrondissements, which may be translated into English as districts. ... Location of Toulon in Provence-Alpes-Côte dAzur. ... The cantons of France are administrative divisions subdividing arrondissements and départements. ... The commune is an administrative division of France. ... The Agglomeration community of Toulon Provence Mediterranean (French: Communauté dagglomération Toulon Provence Méditerranée), is the intercommunal structure gathering the commune of Toulon (France) and some of its suburbs. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... INSEE is the French abbreviation for the French National Institute for Statistics and Economic Studies (French: Institut National de la Statistique et des Études Économiques). ... Postal codes were introduced in France in 1972, when La Poste introduced automated sorting. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Rio de la Plata estuary Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Estuaries An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... This page lists English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations, such as and . ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (992x653, 915 KB) Toulon, France 5. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (992x653, 915 KB) Toulon, France 5. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2173x1342, 952 KB) Joseph Vernet: Première vue du port de Toulon, vue du Port-Neuf pris à langle du Parc dartillerie, 1755, huile sur toile, 1,65 x 2,63 m Muséee national de la Marine, n°5... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2173x1342, 952 KB) Joseph Vernet: Première vue du port de Toulon, vue du Port-Neuf pris à langle du Parc dartillerie, 1755, huile sur toile, 1,65 x 2,63 m Muséee national de la Marine, n°5... Claude Joseph Vernet (August 14, 1714 - December 3, 1789), French painter, was born at Avignon. ... Provençal (Provençau) is one of several dialects of Occitan spoken by a minority of people in southern France and other areas of France and Italy. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Capital Marseilles Area 31,400 km² Regional President Michel Vauzelle (PS) (since 1998) Population   - 2004 estimate   - 1999 census   - Density (Ranked 3rd) 4,666,000 4,506,151 149/km² (2004) Arrondissements 18 Cantons 237 Communes 963 Départements Alpes-de-Haute-Provence Alpes-Maritimes Bouches-du-Rhône Hautes-Alpes... France is divided into 26 régions: 21 of these are in the continental part of metropolitan France, one is Corse on the island of Corsica (although strictly speaking Corse is in fact a territorial collectivity, not a région, but is referred to as a région in common... In France, a préfecture is the capital city of a département. ... Var is a département of southern France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France and many former French colonies, roughly analogous to English counties. ... The Kingdom of France was organized into provinces until March 4, 1790, when the establishment of the département system superseded provinces. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ...


The population of the city (commune) at the 2004 estimate was 168,639 inhabitants. The population of the whole metropolitan area (in French: aire urbaine) at the 2007 estimate was 608,189 inhabitants. The commune is the lowest level of administrative division in the French Republic. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In France an aire urbaine (literally: urban area) is roughly the equivalent of a US Metropolitan Statistical Area. ...


Toulon is an important centre for naval constructions, fishing, wine making, and the manufacture of aeronautical equipment, armaments, maps, paper, tobacco, printing, shoes and electronic equipment.

Contents

History

In ancient times the area of Toulon was colonized by the Ligures, and was called Telo Martius by the Romans after their colonization. They had a naval signal station on the gulf shores. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire it was frequently attacked by Saracen pirates. The Ligures (Ligurians) were an ancient people who gave their name to Liguria, which once stretched from Northern Italy into southern Gaul. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... In older Western historical literature, the Saracens were the people of the Saracen Empire, another name for the Arab Caliphate under the rule of the Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties. ...


At the time of King Charles VIII of France it became a site of naval constructions, starting also its traditional military role. Charles VIII the Affable (French: Charles VIII lAffable) (June 30, 1470 – April 7, 1498) was King of France from 1483 to his death. ...


Toulon was used as an Ottoman naval base under admiral Barbarossa during the winter of 1543-1544. To facilitate the Turkish crews, the Christian population had been evacuated. Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha (Turkish: Barbaros Hayreddin Paşa or Hızır Hayreddin Paşa; also Hızır Reis before being promoted to the rank of Pasha and becoming the Kaptan-ı Derya (Fleet Admiral) of the Ottoman Navy) (c. ... // Events February 21 - Battle of Wayna Daga - A combined army of Ethiopian and Portuguese troops defeat the armies of Adal led by Ahmed Gragn. ... Events April 11 - Battle of Ceresole - French forces under the Comte dEnghien defeat Imperial forces under the Marques Del Vasto near Turin. ...


The military harbour was later fortified by Cardinal Richelieu, Jean-Baptiste Colbert and Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban. It witnessed the naval Battle of Toulon (1707), part of the War of Spanish Succession, and the Battle of Toulon (1744). Cardinal Richelieu was the French chief minister from 1624 until his death. ... Jean-Baptiste Colbert Jean-Baptiste Colbert (August 29, 1619 – September 6, 1683) served as the French minister of finance from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV. He achieved a reputation for his work of improving the state of French manufacturing and bringing the economy back from... Vauban designed this pentagonal fortress to withstand sieges. ... Combatants Britain Austria United Provinces Savoy France Spain Commanders Victor Amadeus II of Savoy Prince Eugene of Savoy René de Froulay de Tessé Strength 35,000 15,000 Casualties 10,000 dead or wounded Unknown The Battle of Toulon took place in 1707 in the War of the Spanish Succession. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ... The naval Battle of Toulon or Battle of Cape Sicié took place on 22 and 23 February 1744 (New Style) between 1:30 pm and 5:00 pm in the Mediterranean Sea off the coast of Toulon, France. ...


Napoleon Bonaparte rose to fame after his decisive role at the Siege of Toulon in 1793. Bonaparte as general Napoleon Bonaparte ( 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a general of the French Revolution and was the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from November 11, 1799 to May 18, 1804, then as Emperor of the French (Empereur des... The Battle of Toulon took place in 1793. ...


After the Allied landings in North Africa (Operation Torch) the German Army occupied southern France (Case Anton), leading to the scuttling of the French Fleet at Toulon 27 November 1942. In general, allies are people or groups that have joined an alliance and are working together to achieve some common purpose. ... North Africa is the Mediterranean, northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Free French Forces Vichy France Commanders Dwight Eisenhower Andrew Cunningham François Darlan Strength 73,500 60,000 Casualties 479+ dead 720 wounded 1,346+ dead 1,997 wounded Operation Torch (initially called Operation Gymnast) was the British-American invasion of French North Africa in... Case (or operation) Anton was the code-name for the Nazi-German occupation of Vichy France during World War II. Anton was invoked at Hitlers order after the allied landings in French Morocco (Operation Torch) in November 1942. ... Combatants Vichy France Germany Commanders Jean de Laborde André Marquis Johannes Blaskowitz Casualties whole fleet scuttled ; 12 killed ; 26 wounded. ...


Today, Toulon is the major naval centre on France's Mediterranean coast home of the French Navy airplane carrier Charles De Gaulle and her battle group. The French Mediterranean Fleet is based in Toulon. The multinational Combined Task Force One Five Zero (CTF-150) The British Grand Fleet, the supreme naval force of World War I A rare occurrence of a 5-country multinational fleet, during Operation Enduring Freedom in the Oman Sea. ... Charles de Gaulle (R91) is the only serving French aircraft carrier and is the flagship of the French Navy (Marine Nationale). ... The French Mediterranean Fleet is one of the two major forces of the French Navy. ...

Coat of Arms of Toulon.
Coat of Arms of Toulon.

This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ...

Ecclesiastical history

The legend which states that a certain Cleon, who accompanied St. Lazarus to Gaul, was the founder of the Church of Toulon, is based on an apocryphal document composed in the fourteenth century and ascribed to a sixth-century bishop named Didier. Lazarus raised from the grave by Jesus, painting by the Swedish artist Karl Isakson (c. ... In Judeo-Christian theologies, apocrypha refers to religious Sacred text that have questionable authenticity or are otherwise disputed. ...


Honoratus and Gratianus, according to the "Gallia Christiana", were the first bishops of Toulon whose names are known to history, but Duchesne gives Augustalis as the first historical bishop. He assisted at councils in 441 and 442 and signed in 449 and 450 the letters addressed to Pope Leo I from the province of Arles. Saint Honoratus (c. ... For the 12th century canon lawyer, see Gratian (jurist). ... Pope Leo I was a Roman aristocrat who was Pope from 440 to 461. ...


A Saint Cyprian, disciple and biographer of St. Cæsarius of Arles, is also mentioned as a Bishop of Toulon. His episcopate, begun in 524, had not come to an end in 541; he converted to Catholicism two Visigothic chiefs, Mandrier and Flavian, who became anchorites and martyrs on the peninsula of Mandrier. Saint Cyprian of Toulon (Cyprianus Tolonensis) (476 - October 3, 546) was bishop of Toulon during the 6th century. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Events Childebert I annexes Orléans and Chartres after the death of Chlodomer. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Anchorite (male)/anchoress (female), from the Greek anachōreō, signifying to withdraw, to depart into the country outside the circumvallated city, denotes someone – prominently in earlier Christian and medieval times – who for religious reasons withdraws from the secular society and leads an intensely prayer-oriented and, circumstances permitting, Mass-focused...


Main sights

Much of the historical town was destroyed during World War II. Site remainings include: Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

  • The Cathedral of Sainte-Marie-de-la-Seds, founded in 1906[citation needed].
  • The rebuilt church of Sain-Louis.
  • The Opéra de Toulon, the largest of the province.
  • The Tour royale.
  • The Watch Tower.
  • National Museum of the Navy.
  • Museums of Art and Asian Arts.

The Cathédrale Notre-Dame-de-la-Sède de Toulon, also called Cathédrale Sainte-Marie-Majeure, is an Catholic cathedral dedicated to Mary, mother of Jesus, in Toulon. ...

Culture

Toulon is home to the largest High School of France (Lycée Dumont D'Urville) and the largest opera house after Paris.


Literary

Toulon figures prominently in Victor Hugo's Les Misérables. It is the location of the infamous prison in which the protagonist Jean Valjean spends 19 years in hard labour. Toulon is also the birthplace of the novel's antagonist, Javert, and the place where Valjean and Javert first meet. Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced in French) (26 February 1802 — 22 May 1885) was a French poet, novelist, playwright, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Les Misérables (translated variously from French as The Miserable Ones, The Wretched, The Poor Ones, The Wretched Poor, The Victims) (1862) is a novel by French author Victor Hugo, and among the best-known novels of the 19th century. ...


Gastronomy

  • Mediterranean cuisine and from Provence
  • The cade toulonnaise, spéciality composed of à chickpea flour
  • The Chichi Frégi, kind of donut from Provence

Sport

The region is famous for being the host of the finals of the annual Toulon Tournament - a football tournament of under 20 national players from around the whole world. The city's top football club is Sporting Toulon Var, currently playing in the third level of French Football (Championnat National). Famous players such as David Ginola, Delio Onis, Jean Tigana, Christian Dalger or more recently Sebastien Squillacci formerly played for Sporting. Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sporting Toulon Var is a soccer club from Toulon, France, who currently play in the French third division (the Championnat National). ... The Championnat de France National (also called Division 3) is the third highest division in French football , one division below Ligue 2, one above the Championnat de France Amateurs. ...


The region is home to rugby union club RC Toulon, currently playing in Rugby Pro D2 at the Stade Mayol and Hyères-Toulon Var Basket, playing at the top of the Pro A. RC Toulonnais is a French rugby union team that currently take part in Rugby Pro D2, the second level of the countrys professional league system. ... Rugby Pro D2, also known as Pro D2 is the second level of domestic club rugby union in France, below the first division, Top 14. ...


Events

culturals

Sports

  • National Football French Championship
  • Basketball French Championship Pro A
  • Women Handball French Championship
  • Hockey French Championship
  • Rugby French Championship Pro D2
  • Toulon tournament in football

Famous people

Toulon was the birthplace of:

Jean Joseph Marie Amiot (1718 - 1793), a French Jesuit missionary, was born at Toulon in February 1718. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... Capucine (6 January 1931 – 17 March 1990) was a French actress. ... Actors in period costume sharing a joke whilst waiting between takes during location filming. ... Félix Mayol (November 18, 1872 - November 1, 1941) was a French singer and entertainer. ... Raimu was the stage name for the French actor Jules Auguste Muraire (December 17, 1883 - September 20, 1946). ... Gilbert Bécaud Gilbert Bécaud (October 24, 1927 – December 18, 2001) was a French singer, composer and actor, known as Monsieur 100,000 Volts for his energetic performances. ... Mireille Darc is a French model and actress born in Toulon, France in 1938. ...

Twin cities

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Toulon

Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... La Spezia (Spèsa in the local dialect of Ligurian) is a city in the Liguria region of northern Italy, at the head of La Spezia Gulf, and capital city of the province of La Spezia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Mannheim is a city in Germany. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: Crescas (Latin for, Thou shalt grow. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: ), or Kronshtadt, Cronstadt, is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at , . It lies thirty kilometers west of Saint Petersburg, of which it is the chief port. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Morocco. ... Khemisset is a city in Morocco, population 105,088 (2004 census). ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

External links

  • Official website
  • unofficial website

Toulon photos

  • Yaquoi, Toulon's cultural webzine.
  • Toulonnais.com : the monuments, the history, the plans of the city of Toulon. Many photographes inside.
  • Toulon information
  • Cuverville, Toulon's satirical paper

  Results from FactBites:
 
Toulon Town Village visit - by Provence Beyond (873 words)
We've passed through Toulon many times over the years, cursing the traffic as the autoroute on one side dumps you into the city center, to wend your way through to find join the autoroute on the other side of town.
The seafront along the port is a walking area lined with terrace cafés, souvenir shops, fising boats, tour boats for excursions of the Rade de Toulon and the islands, yacht harbor and a backdrop of warships of the naval base.
Toulon is on the main railway line [ RailMap ].
Toulon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (226 words)
Toulon (Tolon in Provençal) is a city in southern France and a large military harbor on the Mediterranean coast, with a major French naval base.
Located in the Provence-Alpes-Côte-d'Azur région, Toulon is the préfecture (capital) of the Var département, in the former province of Provence.
Population of the city (commune) at the 1999 census was 160,639 inhabitants (168,200 inhabitants as of February 2004 estimates).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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