In materials science and metallurgy, toughness is the resistance to fracture of a material when stressed. It is defined as the amount of energy that a material can absorb before rupturing, and can be found by finding the area (i.e., by taking the integral) underneath the stress-strain curve. The Materials Science Tetrahedron, which often also includes Characterization at the center Materials science is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. ... Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their intermetallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... For fractures in geologic formations, see Rock fracture. ... Stress is the internal distribution of force per unit area that balances and reacts to external loads applied to a body. ... A stress-strain curve is a graph derived from measuring load (stress - Ï) versus extension (strain - Îµ) for a sample of a material. ...
Toughness is measured in units of joules per cubic meter (J/m3) in the SI system and pound-force per square inch (sometimes expressed as in-lbf/in3) in US customary units. The joule (IPA pronunciation: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... The cubic metre (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Look up si, Si, SI in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/inÂ²) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ... The U.S. customary units (more commonly known in the US as English units or standard units) are the non-metric units of measurement that are presently used in the United States, in some cases alongside the metric system of units. ...
To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Tensile strength , or measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ...
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This test method evaluates the flexural performance of toughness parameters derived from fiber-reinforced concrete in terms of areas under the load-deflection curve obtained by testing a simply supported beam under third-point loading.
Note 1-Toughness determined in terms of areas under the load-deflection curve is an indication of the energy absorption capability of the particular test specimen, and, consequently, its magnitude depends directly on the geometrical characteristics of the test specimen and the loading system.
Values of toughness indices and residual strength factors are independent of the system of units used to measure load and deflection.
According to available information on the fracturetoughness of high-strength alloys at low temperatures, the effect of low temperatures on toughness is generally dependent on the alloy base.
For many aluminum alloys, the fracturetoughness tends to increase or remain generally constant as the testing temperature is decreased.
Available fracturetoughness data at low temperature for other alloysteels: AISI 4340, 300M, HP9-4-20, HP9-4-25, and 18 Ni (200) maraging steel usually have the trend of decreasing toughness as the testing temperature is decreased.
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