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Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Ramses II at the Battle of Kadesh (relief at Abu Simbel) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... from Swedish Wikipedia The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (819x768, 141 KB)A front view of an M1A1 Abrams, from www. ...

War
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Siege · Total war · Trench For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... Military history is composed of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... Prehistoric warfare is war conducted in the era before writing, and before the establishments of large social entities like states. ... Ancient warfare is war as conducted from the beginnings of recorded history to the end of the ancient period. ... Medieval warfare is the warfare of the Middle Ages. ... Gunpowder warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. ... Modern warfare involves the widespread use of highly advanced technology. ... Battlespace is the military theatre of operations, including air, ground, information, sea and space. ... Aerial warfare is the use of military aircraft and other flying machines in warfare, including military airlift of cargo to further the national interests as was demonstrated in the Berlin Airlift. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ... War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organisations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterised by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Space warfare is combat that takes place in outer space. ... For other uses, see Weapon (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Mechanized warfare be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... // Electronic warfare (EW) is the use of the electromagnetic spectrum to effectively deny the use of this phenomena by an adversary, while optimizing its use by friendly forces. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The U.S. Department of Defense defines psychological warfare (PSYWAR) as: The planned use of propaganda and other psychological actions having the primary purpose of influencing the opinions, emotions, attitudes, and behavior of hostile foreign groups in such a way as to support the achievement of national objectives. ... Military tactics (Greek: TaktikÄ“, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... This article is about the military strategy. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Maneuver warfare, is the term used by military theorist for a concept of warfare that advocates attempting to defeat an adversary by incapacitating their decision-making through shock and disruption brought about by movement. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defense. ...

Strategy

Economic · Grand · Operational This article is about real and historical warfare. ... Economic warfare is the term for economic policies followed as a part of military operations during wartime. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ... Operational warfare is, within warfare and military doctrine, the level of command which coordinates the minute details of tactics with the overarching goals of strategy. ...

Organization

Formations · Ranks · Units The armed forces of a state are its government-sponsored defense and fighting forces and organizations used to further the objectives of the state. ... A formation is a high-level military organization, such as a Brigade, Division, Corps, Army or Army group. ... This article is about the use of the term rank. ... A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ...

Logistics

Equipment · Materiel · Supply line Military logistics is the art and science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of military forces. ... This article lists military technology items, devices and methods. ... Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ... Military supply chain management is a cross-functional approach to procuring, producing and delivering products and services. ...

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Sieges · Theorists · Wars
War crimes · Weapons · Writers

Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nation's ability to engage in war. The practice of total war has been in use for centuries, but it was only in the middle to late 19th century that total war was identified by scholars as a separate class of warfare. This is a partial list of battles that have entries in Wikipedia. ... . ... This is a list of missions, operations, and projects. ... The 1453 Siege of Constantinople (painted 1499) A siege is a prolonged military assault and blockade on a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... See also list of military writers. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... This article lists and summarizes War Crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1907. ... There are a bewildering array of weapons, far more than would be useful in list form. ... This is a list of military writers, alphabetical by last name. ... In economics, factors of production are resources used in the production of goods and services, including land, labor, and capital. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Conceptual development

A US poster produced during World War II
A US poster produced during World War II

The concept of total war is traced back to Robert Raines, but Clausewitz was actually concerned with the related philosophical concept of absolute war, a war free from any political constraints, which Clausewitz held was impossible, though some may argue that its vague concept traces back to Sun Tzu, the Chinese military strategist. The two terms, absolute war and total war, are often confused. Christopher Bassford, professor of strategy at the National War College, describes the difference: "Clausewitz's concept of absolute war is quite distinct from the later concept of 'total war.' Total war was a prescription for the actual waging of war typified by the ideas of General Erich Ludendorff, who actually assumed control of the German war effort during World War I. Total war in this sense involved the total subordination of politics to the war effort—an idea Clausewitz emphatically rejected—and the assumption that total victory or total defeat were the only options."[1] Download high resolution version (458x646, 55 KB)Food is a weapon : dont waste it! : buy wisely, cook carefully, eat it all. ... Download high resolution version (458x646, 55 KB)Food is a weapon : dont waste it! : buy wisely, cook carefully, eat it all. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The concept of absolute war (or real war) was developed by military theorist Karl von Clausewitz as a philosophical construct, the war in which every aspect of society was bent towards the conflict. ... Sun Tzu (孫子 also commonly written in pinyin: Sūn Zǐ) was the author of The Art of War, an influential ancient Chinese book on military strategy (for the most part not dealing directly with tactics). ... Christopher Bassford (b. ... The National War College (NWC) of the United States is a school in the National Defense University. ... Ludendorff in 1918 Erich Friedrich Wilhelm Ludendorff (sometimes given incorrectly as von Ludendorff) (April 9, 1865–December 20, 1937, Tutzing, Bavaria, Germany) was a German Army officer, Generalquartiermeister during World War I, victor of Liege, and, with Paul von Hindenburg, one of the victors of the battle of Tannenberg. ...


Indeed, it is General Erich Ludendorff during World War I (and in his 1935 book "Total War") who first reversed the formula of Clausewitz, calling for total war - the complete mobilization of all resources, including policy and social systems, to the winning of war. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


There are several reasons for changing concept and recognition of total war in the nineteenth century. The main reason is industrialization. As countries' natural and capital resources grew, it became clear that some forms of conflict demanded more resources than others. For example, if the United States were to subdue a Native American tribe in an extended campaign lasting years, it still took much fewer resources than waging a month of war during the American Civil War. Consequently, the greater cost of warfare became evident. An industrialized nation could distinguish and then choose the intensity of warfare that it wished to engage in. For other uses, see Conflict (disambiguation) In political terms, conflict refers to an ongoing state of hostility between two or more groups of people. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... http://www. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Additionally, this is the time when warfare was becoming more mechanized. A factory in a city would have more to do with warfare than it did before. The factory itself would become a target, because it contributed to the war effort. It follows as well that the factory's workers would also be targets. Mechanization is the use of machines to replace manual labour or animals and can also refer to the use of powered machinery to help a human operator in some task. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ...


There is no single definition of total war, but there is general agreement among historians that the First World War and Second World War were both examples. A large number of historians consider the American Civil War to be the earliest example,[2] although some consider the wars of German unification the first, and others pick other starting points. Since the concept emerged gradually, however, there is no truly definite answer. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Thus, definitions do vary, but most hold to the spirit offered by Roger Chickering's definition in Total War: The German and American Experiences, 1871-1914: "Total war is distinguished by its unprecedented intensity and extent. Theaters of operations span the globe; the scale of battle is practically limitless. Total war is fought heedless of the restraints of morality, custom, or international law, for the combatants are inspired by hatreds born of modern ideologies. Total war requires the mobilization not only of armed forces but also of whole populations. The most crucial determinant of total war is the widespread, indiscriminate, and deliberate inclusion of civilians as legitimate military targets."


Total war also resulted in the mobilization of the home front. Propaganda became a required component of total war in order to boost production and maintain morale. Rationing took place to provide more material for waging war. Rosie the Riveter represented civilian wartime mobilization in the United States during World War II. Home front is the informal term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of its military. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Gas ration stamps being printed as a result of the 1973 oil crisis Rationing is the controlled distribution of resources and scarce goods or services: it restricts how much people are allowed to buy or consume. ...


Early history

The first documented total war was the Peloponnesian War, as described by the historian Thucydides. This war was fought between Athens and Sparta between 431 and 404 BC. Previously, Greek warfare was a limited and ritualized form of conflict. Armies of hoplites would meet on the battlefield and decide the outcome in a single day. During the Peloponnesian War, however, the fighting lasted for years and consumed the economic resources of the participating city-states. Atrocities were committed on a scale never before seen, with entire populations being executed or sold into slavery, as in the case of the island of Melos. The aftermath of the war reshaped the Greek world, left much of the region in poverty, and reduced once influential Athens to a weakened state, from which it never completely recovered. “Athenian War” redirects here. ... Bust of Thucydides residing in the Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... The hoplite was a heavy infantryman that was the central focus of warfare in Ancient Greece. ... An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... Slave redirects here. ... Milos (formerly Melos, and before the Athenian genocide Malos) is a volcanic island in the Aegean Sea. ...


The Thirty Years War may also be considered a total war.[2] This conflict was fought between 1618 and 1648, primarily on the territory of modern Germany. Virtually all of the major European powers were involved, and the economy of each was based around fighting the war. Civilian populations were devastated. Estimates of civilian casualties are approximately 25-30%, with deaths due to a combination of armed conflict, famine, and disease.[3][4] The size and training of armies also grew dramatically during this period, as did the cost of keeping armies in the field. Plunder was commonly used to pay and feed armies. The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... This article is about large epidemics. ...


18th and 19th Centuries

French Revolution

The French Revolution has introduced some of the concepts of total war. The fledgling republic found itself threatened by a powerful coalition of European nations. The only solution, in the eyes of the Jacobin government, was to pour the nation's entire resources into an unprecedented war effort - this was the advent of the levée en masse. The following decree of the National Convention on August 23, 1793 clearly demonstrates the enormity of the French war effort: The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... It has been suggested that Jacobin/Sandbox be merged into this article or section. ... Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ... This article is about the legislative body and constitutional convention during the French Revolution. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


"From this moment until such time as its enemies shall have been driven from the soil of the Republic all Frenchmen are in permanent requisition for the services of the armies. The young men shall fight; the married men shall forge arms and transport provisions; the women shall make tents and clothes and shall serve in the hospitals; the children shall turn linen into lint; the old men shall betake themselves to the public squares in order to arouse the courage of the warriors and preach hatred of kings and the unity of the Republic." For other uses, see Hate (disambiguation). ...


Following the August 23 decree French front line forces grew to some 800,000 with a total of 1.5 million in all services - the first time an army in excess of a million had been mobilized in Western history. Over the coming two decades of almost constant warfare it is estimated that somewhere in the vicinity of five million died - probably about half of them civilians - and France alone counted nearly a million (by some sources in excess of a million) deaths - a considerably higher portion of its population than perished in either of the world wars. In the Russian campaign of 1812 Adam Zamoyski estimates almost a million died - this in under 6 months of fighting. In this campaign the Russians resorted to destroying infrastructure and agriculture in their retreat in order to hamper the French and strip them of adequate supplies. In the campaign of 1813 Allied forces in the German theater alone amounted to nearly one million whilst two years later in the Hundred Days a French decree called for the total mobilization of some 2.5 million men (though at most a fifth of this was managed by the time of French defeat at Waterloo). During the prolonged Peninsular War from 1808-1814 some 300,000 French troops were kept permanently occupied by, in addition to several hundred thousand Spanish, Portuguese and British regulars an enormous and sustained guerrilla insurgency - ultimately French deaths would amount to 300,000 in the Peninsular alone. {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants France Italy Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austria Prussia Russia Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jacques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Józef Poniatowski Alexander I of Russia Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Pyotr Bagration Mikhail Kutuzov Strength... Adam Zamoyski - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... For information about the legislative programs of Franklin D. Roosevelt, see New Deal. ... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ...


Taiping Rebellion

During the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864) that followed the secession of the Tàipíng Tiānguó (太平天國, Wade-Giles T'ai-p'ing t'ien-kuo) (Heavenly Kingdom of Perfect Peace) from the Qing empire the first instance of total war in modern China can be seen. Almost every citizen of the Tàipíng Tiānguó was given military training and conscripted into the army to fight against the imperial forces. Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ...


During this conflict both sides tried to deprive each other of the resources to continue the war and it became standard practice to destroy agricultural areas, butcher the population of cities and in general exact a brutal price from captured enemy lands in order to drastically weaken the opposition's war effort. This war truly was total in that civilians on both sides participated to a significant extent in the war effort and in that armies on both sides waged war on the civilian population as well as military forces. In total between 20 and 50 million died in the conflict making it bloodier than the First World War and possibly bloodier than the Second World War as well if the upper end figures are accurate. This article is about persons held as enemy combatants. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...


American Civil War

General Phillip Sheridan's stripping of the Shenandoah Valley starting from September 21, 1864 and continuing for two weeks was considered "total war" in that its purpose was to eliminate foodstuffs and supplies vital to the South's war plans. Sheridan took the opportunity when he realized opposing forces had become too weak to resist his army. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Philip Sheridan Philip Henry Sheridan (March 6, 1831 &#8211; August 5, 1888), a military man and one of the great generals in the American Civil War. ... Eastern Theater operations in 1864 The Valley Campaigns of 1864 were American Civil War operations and battles that took place in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia from May to October, 1864. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


US Army General William Tecumseh Sherman's 'March to the Sea' in November/December 1864 destroyed the resources required for the South to make war. Sherman is considered one of the first military commanders to deliberately and consciously use total war as a military strategy. General Ulysses S. Grant and President Abraham Lincoln initially opposed the plan until Sherman convinced them of its necessity.[5] “General Sherman” redirects here. ... This article is about the historical event. ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial) Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia (May 29, 1861–April 2, 1865) Danville, Virginia (from April 3, 1865) Language(s) English (de facto) Religion... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ...


20th Century

World War I

...There is another more obvious difference from 1914. The whole of the warring nations are engaged, not only soldiers, but the entire population, men, women and children. The fronts are everywhere. The trenches are dug in the towns and streets. Every village is fortified. Every road is barred. The front line runs through the factories. The workmen are soldiers with different weapons but the same courage.
Winston Churchill on the radio, June 18 ; and House of Commons 20 August 1940:[6]

Almost the whole of Europe mobilized to wage World War I. Young men were removed from production jobs, and were replaced by women. Rationing occurred on the home fronts. Churchill redirects here. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


One of the features of Total War in Britain was the use of propaganda posters to divert all attention to the War on the home front. Posters were used to influence people's decisions about what to eat and what occupations to take (Women were used as nurses and in munitions factories), and to change the attitude of support towards the war effort. For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Rosie the Riveter represented civilian wartime mobilization in the United States during World War II. Home front is the informal term commonly used to describe the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of its military. ...


After the failure of the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the large British offensive in March 1915, the British Commander-in-Chief Field Marshal Sir John French claimed that it failed because of a lack of shells. This led to the Shell Crisis of 1915 which brought down the Liberal British government under the Premiership of H. H. Asquith. He formed a new coalition government dominated by Liberals and appointed Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions. It was a recognition that the whole economy would have to be geared for war if the Allies were to prevail on the Western Front. The Battles of Neuve Chapelle and Artois was a battle in the First World War. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... John Denton Pinkstone French, 1st Earl of Ypres (September 28, 1852&#8211;May 22, 1925) was a British soldier and Field Marshal, the first commander of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) in World War I. Lord French of Ypres Born in Ripple Vale, Kent. ... The Poo Crisis of 1915 brought down the government of the United Kingdom (then engaged in World War I) because it was widely perceived that the production of artillery shells for use by the British Army was inadequate. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... The Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is, in practice, the political leader of the United Kingdom. ... Herbert Henry Asquith, 1st Earl of Oxford and Asquith, KG, PC (12 September 1852 – 15 February 1928) served as the Liberal Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1908 to 1916. ... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd George of Dwyfor, OM (January 17, 1863&#8211;March 26, 1945) was a British statesman and the last Liberal to be Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. ... The Minister of Munitions was a British government position created during the First World War to oversee and co-ordinate the production and distribution of munitions for the war effort. ...


As young men left the farms for the front, domestic food production in Britain and Germany fell. In Britain the response was to import more food, which was done despite the German introduction of unrestricted submarine warfare, and to introduce rationing. The Royal Navy's blockade of German ports prevented Germany from importing food, and the Germans failed to introduce food rationing. German capitulation was hastened in 1918 by the worsening food crises in Germany.


World War II

United Kingdom

Before the onset of the Second World War, the United Kingdom drew on its First World War experience to prepare legislation that would allow immediate mobilization of the economy for war, should future hostilities break out. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Rationing of most goods and services was introduced, not only for consumers but also for manufacturers. This meant that factories manufacturing products that were irrelevant to the war effort had more appropriate tasks imposed. All artificial light was subject to legal blackouts. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Not only were men conscripted into the armed forces from the beginning of the war (something which had not happened until the middle of World War I), but women were also conscripted as Land Girls to aid farmers and the Bevin Boys were conscripted to work down the coal mines. The Womens Land Army was an organisation created in World War II in the UK to work in agriculture. ... Bevin Boys were young British men conscripted to work in the coal mines of the United Kingdom, from December 1943 until the end of World War II. Chosen at random from among the conscripts, nearly 48,000 Bevin Boys performed vital but largely unrecognised service in the coal mines, many...


Huge casualties were expected in bombing raids, so children were evacuated from London and other cities en masse to the countryside for compulsory billeting in households. In the long term this was one of the most profound and longer lasting social consequences of the whole war for Britain. This is because it mixed up children with the adults of other classes. Not only did the middle and upper classes become familiar with the urban squalor suffered by working class children from the slums, but the children got a chance to see animals and the countryside, often for the first time, and experience rural life.[citation needed] A billet is the place to which a person, generally a soldier, is assigned to sleep. ...


The use of statistical analysis, by a branch of science which has become known as Operational Research to influence military tactics was a departure from anything previously attempted. It was a very powerful tool but it further dehumanised war particularly when it suggested strategies which were counter intuitive. Examples where statistical analysis directly influenced tactics include the work done by Patrick Blackett's team on the optimum size and speed of convoys and the introduction of bomber streams by the Royal Air Force to counter the night fighter defences of the Kammhuber Line. Operations research, operational research, or simply OR, is the use of mathematical models, statistics and algorithms to aid in decision-making. ... Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett, Baron Blackett, OM , CH , FRS (November 18, 1897–July 13, 1974) was a British experimental physicist known for his work on cloud chambers, cosmic rays, and paleomagnetism. ... A map of part of the Kammhuber Line showing the belt and nightfighter boxes through which the bomber stream flew The bomber stream was a tactic developed by the Royal Air Force (RAF) Bomber Command to overwhelm the German aerial defences of the Kammhuber Line during World War II. The... RAF redirects here. ... The Kammhuber Line was the name given to the German night air defense system established in July 1940 by Colonel Josef Kammhuber. ...


Germany

In contrast, Germany started the war under the concept of Blitzkrieg. It did not accept that it was in a total war until Joseph Goebbels' Sportpalast speech of 18 February 1943. For example, women were not conscripted into the armed forces or allowed to work in factories. The Nazi party adhered to the policy that a woman's place was in the home, and did not change this even as its opponents began moving women into important roles in production. This article is about the military term. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Joseph Goebbels The Sportpalast or total war speech (German: Sportpalastrede) was a speech delivered by Propagandaminister (Propaganda Minister) Joseph Goebbels at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully-selected audience on 18 February 1943, as the tide of World War II was turning against Nazi Germany. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

I ask you: Do you want total war? If necessary, do you want a war more total and radical than anything that we can even imagine today?
National Socialist propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels 18 February 1943 in his Sportpalast speech

The commitment to the doctrine of the short war was a continuing handicap for the Germans; neither plans nor state of mind were adjusted to the idea of a long war until it was too late to help win the war. Germany's armament minister Albert Speer, who assumed office in early 1942, nationalized German war production and eliminated the worst inefficiencies. Under his direction a threefold increase in armament production occurred and did not reach its peak until late 1944. To do this during the damage caused by the growing strategic Allied bomber offensive, is an indication of the degree of industrial under-mobilization in the earlier years. It was because the German economy through most of the war was substantially under-mobilized that it was resilient under air attack. Civilian consumption was high during the early years of the war and inventories both in industry and in consumers' possession were high. These helped cushion the economy from the effects of bombing. Plant and machinery were plentiful and incompletely used, thus it was comparatively easy to substitute unused or partly used machinery for that which was destroyed. Foreign labour, both slave labour and labour from neighbouring countries who joined the Anti-Comintern Pact with Germany, was used to augment German industrial labour which was under pressure by conscription into the Wehrmacht (Armed Forces). The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Goebbels The Sportpalast or total war speech (German: Sportpalastrede) was a speech delivered by Propagandaminister (Propaganda Minister) Joseph Goebbels at the Berlin Sportpalast to a large but carefully-selected audience on 18 February 1943, as the tide of World War II was turning against Nazi Germany. ... For the son of Albert Speer, also an architect, see Albert Speer (the younger). ... The Anti-Comintern Pact was concluded between Nazi Germany and Japan on November 25, 1936. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...


Soviet Union

The Soviet Union (USSR) was a command economy which already had an economic and legal system allowing the economy and society to be redirected into fighting a total war. The transportation of factories and whole labour forces east of the Urals as the Germans advanced across the USSR in 1941 was an impressive feat of planning. Only those factories which were useful for war production were moved because of the total war commitment of the Soviet government. This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... The Ural Mountains, (Russian: &#1059;&#1088;&#1072;&#769;&#1083;&#1100;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1077; &#1075;&#1086;&#769;&#1088;&#1099; = &#1059;&#1088;&#1072;&#769;&#1083;) also known simply as the Urals, are a mountain range that run roughly north and south through western Russia. ...


The Eastern Front of the European Theatre of World War II encompassed the conflict in central and eastern Europe from June 22, 1941 to May 9, 1945. It was the largest theatre of war in history in terms of numbers of soldiers, equipment and casualties and was notorious for its unprecedented ferocity, destruction, and immense loss of life. The fighting involved millions of German and Soviet troops along a broad front hundreds of kilometres long. It was by far the deadliest single theatre of World War II. Scholars now believe that as many as 27 million Soviet citizens died during the war, including some 8.7 million soldiers who fell in battle against Hitler's armies or died in POW camps. Millions of civilians died from starvation, exposure, atrocities, and massacres.[7] Animation of the WWII European Theatre. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 &#8211; April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article is about extreme malnutrition. ... An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... Below is a list of incidents that are commonly labeled as massacres by reliable sources. ...


During the battle of Leningrad, newly-built T-34 tanks were driven - unpainted because of a paint shortage - from the factory floor straight to the front. This came to symbolise the USSR's commitment to the Great Patriotic War and demonstrated the government's total war policy. Siege of Leningrad Conflict World War II Date September 8, 1941 - January 18, 1944 Place Leningrad, USSR Result Soviet victory The Siege of Leningrad (today Saint Petersburg), during World War II, lasted from September 8, 1941, to January 18, 1944. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ...


To encourage the Russian people to work harder, the communist government encouraged the people's love of the Motherland and even allowed the reopening of Russian Orthodox Churches as it was thought this would help the war effort. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Motherland is a term that may refer to a mother country, i. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ...


The ruthless population transfer of national groupings like the Volga German and later the Crimean Tatars, Chechens and Kalmyks (who Stalin thought might be sympathetic to the Germans) was a development of the conventional scorched earth policy. This was a more extreme form of internment, implemented by both the UK government (for Axis aliens and British Nazi sympathisers), as well as the US and Canadian governments (for Japanese-Americans). Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Volga German pioneer family commemorative statue in Victoria, Kansas, USA. The Volga Germans (German: or Russlanddeutsche) were ethnic Germans living near the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia around Saratov and to the south, maintaining German culture, language, traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutheranism, Reformed and Roman Catholicism... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... This article covers the Chechen people as an ethnic group, not Chechen meaning citizens of Chechnya. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... For the computer game, see Scorched Earth (computer game). ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Jerome Relocation Camp The Japanese American internment refers to the exclusion and subsequent removal of approximately 112,000 to 120,000 Japanese and Japanese Americans, officially described as persons of Japanese ancestry, 62% of whom were United States citizens, from the west coast of the United States during World War...


Unconditional surrender

Actually Dresden was a mass of munitions works, an intact government centre, and a key transportation point to the East. It is now none of these things.
Air Chief Marshal Arthur Harris, in a memo to the Air Ministry on 29 March 1945:[8]

After the United States entered World War II, Franklin D. Roosevelt declared at Casablanca conference to the other Allies and the press that unconditional surrender was the objective of the war against the Axis Powers of Germany, Italy, and Japan. Prior to this declaration, the individual regimes of the Axis Powers could have negotiated an armistice similar to that at the end of World War I and then a conditional surrender when they perceived that the war was lost. The bombing of Dresden, led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians agree... Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet (April 13, 1892 - April 5, 1984), commonly known as Bomber Harris, and often, in the RAF, as Butcher Harris, was commander of RAF Bomber Command and later a Marshal of the Royal Air Force during the latter half of World War II. In 1942... The Air Ministry was formerly a department of the United Kingdom Government, established in 1918 with the responsibility of managing the affairs of the (then newly formed) Royal Air Force. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... FDR redirects here. ... American president Franklin D. Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill Free French leaders Henri Giraud and Charles de Gaulle in front of Roosevelt and Churchill at the Casablanca Conference, January 14, 1943 The Casablanca Conference (codenamed SYMBOL) was held at the Anfa Hotel in Casablanca, Morocco, then a French... Unconditional surrender refers to a surrender without conditions, except for those provided by international law. ...


The unconditional surrender of the major Axis powers caused a legal problem at the post-war Nuremberg Trials, because the trials appeared to be in conflict with Articles 63 and 64 of the Geneva Convention of 1929. Usually if such trials are held, they would be held under the auspices of the defeated power's own legal system as happened with some of the minor Axis powers, for example in the post World War II Romanian People's Tribunals. To circumvent this, the Allies argued that the major war criminals were captured after the end of the war, so they were not prisoners of war and the Geneva Conventions did not cover them. Further the collapse of the Axis regimes created a legal condition of total defeat (debellatio) so the provisions of the 1907 Hague Conventions over military occupation were not applicable.[9] The Nuremberg Trials is the general name for two sets of trials of Nazis involved in World War II and the Holocaust. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Geneva Convention (1929) The Geneva Convention (1929) was signed at Geneva, July 27, 1929. ... The two Romanian Peoples Tribunals, the Bucharest Peoples Tribunal and the Northern Transylvania Peoples Tribunal (which sat in Cluj) were set up by postwar Romanian Government, overseen by the Allied Control Commission to try suspected war criminals, in line with Article 14 of the Armistice Agreement with... Debellatio (also debellation) (lat. ... The Hague Conventions were international treaties negotiated at the First and Second Peace Conferences at The Hague, Netherlands in 1899 and 1907, respectively, and were, along with the Geneva Conventions, among the first formal statements of the laws of war and war crimes in the nascent body of secular international...


Cold War Era

Since the end of World War II, no industrial nations have fought such a large, decisive war, due to the availability of weapons that are so destructive that their use would offset the advantages of victory. The fighting of a total war where nuclear weapons are used is something that instead of taking years and the full mobilisation of a country's resources such as in World War II, would instead take hours and are developed and maintained with relatively modest peace time defence budgets.


By the end of the 1950s, the ideological stand-off of the Cold War between the Western World and the Soviet Union involved thousands of nuclear weapons being aimed at each side by the other. Strategically, the equal balance of destructive power possessed by each side situation came to be known as Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), the idea that a nuclear attack by one superpower would result in nuclear counter-strike by the other. This would result in hundreds of millions of deaths in a world where, in words widely attributed to Nikita Khrushchev, "The living will envy the dead".[10] The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ... Mutually assured destruction (MAD) is the doctrine of military strategy in which a full scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov[1]; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[2]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ...


During the Cold War, the Superpowers sought to avoid open conflict between their respective forces, as both sides recognized that such a clash could very easily escalate, and quickly involve nuclear weapons. Instead, the superpowers fought each other through their involvement in proxy wars, military buildups, and diplomatic standoffs. This article is about powerful states. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ...


In the case of proxy wars, each superpower supported their respective allies in conflicts with forces aligned with the other superpower, such as in the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ...


Post Cold War

In the Post Cold War security environment, the militaries of industrialized nations have been scaled back from their Cold War heights, especially in terms of personnel numbers. The militaries of industrialized nations have also been 'professionalized', and rely on highly trained, standing armies of citizen volunteers, as opposed to mass conscript forces. Of note, Russia, having long relied on conscripts to make up the bulk of her forces, is now moving towards an all volunteer force. This article is about people called professionals. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ...


Politically, these changes reflect further moves in the Industrialized world away from preparations for total war with similar nations. Industrialized nations do not expect to fight total wars against each other in today's world, although they still consider the possibility. The globalized nature of the World economy means that nations are interconnected economically. World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... The International Monetary Fund defines Globalization (or globalisation) as “the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross-border transactions in goods and services, free international capital flows, and more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology”. Meanwhile, The International Forum on Globalization defines it as... This article is about the human activity. ... The term link can refer to: Look up Link in Wiktionary, the free dictionary One element of a chain. ...


As economies are no longer self-contained, and rely on each other, to fight would risk the economies of the nations involved. The growth of global trade has emerged as decisive factor in global stability. Even rival industrialized nations trade with each other, and risk much more than they would gain in any conflict with a trading partner. For example, China and the United States are power rivals in the Asia Pacific. But they are also economically dependent upon each other, and both nations benefit from the continued economic success of their rival. International trade is the exchange of goods and services across international boundaries or territories. ...


See also

Levée en masse (literally Mass uprising) is a French term for mass conscription. ... Small wars are operations undertaken under executive authority, wherein military force is combined with diplomatic pressure in the internal or external affairs of another state whose government is unstable, inadequate, or unsatisfactory for the preservation of life and of such interests as are determined by the foreign policy of our...

References

  1. ^ Christopher Bassford Clausewitz and his works (No page cited)
  2. ^ Digital History Civil War Guide[1]
  3. ^ Germany - The Thirty Years' War - The Peace of Westphalia
  4. ^ The Thirty Years' War
  5. ^ Sherman's March to the Sea
  6. ^ Winston Churchill The Few The Churchill Centre
  7. ^ Leaders mourn Soviet wartime dead
  8. ^ Longmate, Norman; The Bombers, Hutchins & Co, (1983), ISBN 0-09-151580-7 Page 346
  9. ^ Ruth Wedgwood Judicial Overreach(PDF) Wall Street Journal November 16, 2004
  10. ^ Attributed to Nikita Khrushchev, speaking of nuclear war www.bartleby.com

The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • David A. Bell. The First Total War: Napoleon's Europe and the Birth of Warfare as We Know It, (2007)
  • Eric Markusen and David Kopf; The Holocaust and Strategic Bombing: Genocide and Total War in the Twentieth Century, (1995) online edition
  • Mark E. Neely Jr.; "Was the Civil War a Total War?" Civil War History, Vol. 50, 2004 online edition
  • Daniel E. Sutherland and Grady McWhiney; The Emergence of Total War, (1998) US Civil War online edition

  Results from FactBites:
 
Total war - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3902 words)
Total war is a 20th century term to describe a war in which countries or nations use all of their resources to destroy another organized country or nation's ability to engage in war.
Total war is fought heedless of the restraints of morality, custom, or international law, for the combatants are inspired by hatreds born of modern ideologies.
Total war was widely practiced by the Greeks, as related in the Iliad, by the Romans, as in the destruction of Carthage, and by the Mongols.
Strategies of Annihilation: Total War in US History (4920 words)
In a nutshell, total warriors make war on an enemy’s entire society – what the anthropologists might call its material culture – that is, on the enemy’s resources, food and other economic production, and on anything which might sustain the enemy’s ability to keep military forces in the field.
Such war is not exclusively modern, but looks backward towards ancient warfare, which often entailed the slaughter of all enemy males, enslavement of enemy women and children, and eradication of the enemy’s whole existence as an independent political society.
Wars were "bad for business," and the growing importance of bourgeois enterprise in Europe gave added weight to arguments against large-scale war.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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