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Encyclopedia > Total Quality Management

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. TQM has been widely used in manufacturing, education, government, and service industries, as well as NASA space and science programs.
Look up Management in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In biological psychology, awareness describes a human or animals perception and cognitive reaction to a condition or event. ... For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... Manufacturing, a branch of industry, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... The tertiary sector of industry, also called the service sector or the service industry, is one of the three main industrial categories of a developed economy, the others being the secondary industry (manufacturing and primary goods production such as agriculture), and primary industry (extraction such as mining and fishing). ... The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an agency of the United States federal government, responsible for the nations public space program. ...

Total Quality provides an umbrella under which everyone in the organization can strive and create customer satisfaction.
TQ is a people focused management system that aims at continual increase in customer satisfaction at continually lower real costs.



TQM is composed of three paradigms:

  • Total: Organization wide
  • Quality: With its usual Definitions, with all its complexities (External Definition)
  • Management: The system of managing with steps like Plan, Organize, Control, Lead, Staff, etc.

As defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO): For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ... Look up Management in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards bodies. ...

"TQM is a management approach for an organization, centered on quality, based on the participation of all its members and aiming at long-term success through customer satisfaction, and benefits to all members of the organization and to society."

In Japan, TQM comprises four process steps, namely:

  1. Kaizen – Focuses on Continuous Process Improvement, to make processes visible, repeatable and measurable.
  2. Atarimae Hinshitsu – The idea that things will work as they are supposed to (e.g. a pen will write.).
  3. Kansei – Examining the way the user applies the product leads to improvement in the product itself.
  4. Miryokuteki Hinshitsu – The idea that things should have an aesthetic quality (e.g. a pen will write in a way that is pleasing to the writer.)

TQM requires that the company maintain this quality standard in all aspects of its business. This requires ensuring that things are done right the first time and that defects and waste are eliminated from operations. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... The idea of Japanese Quality is derived from Total Quality Management. ... Kansei Engineering is a method for translating feelings and impressions into product parameters. ... The idea of Japanese Quality is derived from Total Quality Management. ... In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. ...

A Comprehensive Definition: TQM Total Quality Management is the management of total quality. We know that management consists of planning, organizing, directing, control, and assurance. Then, one has to define "total quality". Total quality is called total because it consists of 3 qualities : Quality of return to satisfy the needs of the shareholders, Quality of products and services to satisfy some specific needs of the consumer (end customer) and Quality of life - at work and outside work - to satisfy the needs of the people in the organization. This is achieved with the help of upstream and downstream partners of the enterprise. To this, we have to add the corporate citizenship, i.e. the social, technological, economical, political, and ecological (STEPE) responsibility of the enterprise concerning its internal (its people) and external (upstream and downstream) partners, and community. Therefore, Total quality management goes well beyond satisfying the customer, or merely offering quality products (goods and/or services). Note that we use the term consumer or end customer. The reason is that in a Supply Chain Management approach, we don't have to satisfy our customers' needs but the needs of our customers' customers' all the way to the end customer, the consumer of a product and/or service. By applying this definition an enterprise achieves Business Excellence, as suggested by the Malcolm Baldrige (American) and the EFQM (European) Performance Excellence Models. To do that, one has to go well beyond ISO 9000 Standards series as suggested by these standards (ISO 9001, then ISO 9004, then Total Quality).


"Total Quality Control" was the key concept of Armand Feigenbaum's 1951 book, Quality Control: Principles, Practice, and Administration, a book that was subsequently released in 1961 under the title, Total Quality Control (ISBN 0-07-020353-9). K. Edwards Deming, Joseph Juran, Philip B. Crosby, and Kaoru Ishikawa also contributed to the body of knowledge now known as TQM. Armand V. Feigenbaum is an American quality control expert who was born in 1922. ... Dr. Joseph Moses Juran, industrial engineer and philanthropist was born in 1904 in Braila, Romania and later lived in Gura Humorului. ... Philip B. Crosby, known as Phil Crosby, (June 18, 1926-August 18, 2001) was a businessman and author who contributed to management theory and quality management practices In 1979 after a career in ITT, Crosby started a management consulting company (Philip Crosby Association, Inc. ... Kaoru Ishikawa (石川 馨 Ishikawa Kaoru) is a Japanese consultant, father of the scientific analysis of causes of problems in an industrial process. ...

The American Society for Quality says that the term Total Quality Management was first used by the U.S. Naval Air Systems Command "to describe its Japanese-style management approach to quality improvement."[1] This is consistent with the story that the United States Navy Personnel Research and Development Center began researching the use of statistical process control (SPC); the work of Juran, Crosby, and Ishikawa; and the philosophy of W. Edwards Deming to make performance improvements in 1984. This approach was first tested at the North Island Naval Aviation Depot. American Society for Quality (ASQ), formerly known as American Society for Quality Control (ASQC), is a non-profit professional society comprised of almost 100,000 members who work in various aspects of the quality field (e. ... Seal The United States Department of the Navy was established by an Act of Congress on April 30, 1798, to provide administrative and technical support, and civilian leadership to the United States Navy. ... Statistical process control (SPC) is a method for achieving quality control in manufacturing processes. ... William Edwards Deming was an American statistician, college professor, author, lecturer, and consultant. ...

In his paper, "The Making of TQM: History and Margins of the Hi(gh)-Story" from 1994, Xu claims that "Total Quality Control" is translated incorrectly from Japanese since there is no difference between the words "control" and "management" in Japanese. William Golimski refers to Koji Kobayashi, former CEO of NEC, being the first to use TQM, which he did during a speech when he got the Deming Prize in 1974. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ... NEC Corporation (Jp. ... The Deming prize was originally designed to reward Japanese companies for major advances in quality improvement. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ...

TQM has nothing to do with Feigenbaum's Total Quality Control or TQC. Total Quality Control means the total control of quality and not the control of total quality. At one point, the Japanese reluctantly used the acronym TQC only because their CWQC (Company-wide Quality Control i.e. Management) was too long and sounded somewhat akward... CWQC is the ancestor of TQM...

TQM in manufacturing

Quality assurance through statistical methods is a key component in a manufacturing organization, where TQM generally starts by sampling a random selection of the product. The sample can then be tested for things that matter most to the end users. The causes of any failures are isolated, secondary measures of the production process are designed, and then the causes of the failure are corrected. The statistical distributions of important measurements are tracked. When parts' measures drift into a defined "error band", the process is fixed. The error band is usually a tighter distribution than the "failure band", so that the production process is fixed before failing parts can be produced. The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... An example of statistics used in educational assessment. ... Sampling is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of individual observations intended to yield some knowledge about a population of concern, especially for the purposes of statistical inference. ... Look up failure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In mathematics, a probability distribution assigns to every interval of the real numbers a probability, so that the probability axioms are satisfied. ... The word error has different meanings in different domains. ...

It is important to record not just the measurement ranges, but what failures caused them to be chosen. In that way, cheaper fixes can be substituted later (say, when the product is redesigned) with no loss of quality. After TQM has been in use, it's very common for parts to be redesigned so that critical measurements either cease to exist, or become much wider.

It took people a while to develop tests to find emergent problems. One popular test is a "life test" in which the sample product is operated until a part fails. Another popular test is called "shake and bake", in which the product is mounted on a vibrator in an environmental oven, and operated at progressively more extreme vibration and temperatures until something fails. The failure is then isolated and engineers design an improvement. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Oven depicted in a painting by Millet An oven is an enclosed compartment for heating, baking or drying. ...

A commonly-discovered failure is for the product to disintegrate. If fasteners fail, the improvements might be to use measured-tension nutdrivers to ensure that screws don't come off, or improved adhesives to ensure that parts remain glued.

If a gearbox wears out first, a typical engineering design improvement might be to substitute a brushless stepper motor for a DC motor with a gearbox. The improvement is that a stepper motor has no brushes or gears to wear out, so it lasts ten or more times as long. The stepper motor is more expensive than a DC motor, but cheaper than a DC motor combined with a gearbox. The electronics are radically different, but equally expensive. One disadvantage might be that a stepper motor can hum or whine, and usually needs noise-isolating mounts. A gearbox is an assembly of gears allowing the rotational speed of an input shaft to be changed to a different speed. ... The top electromagnet (1) is charged, attracting the topmost four teeth of a sprocket. ... Electric motors of various sizes. ...

Often, a "TQMed" product is cheaper to produce because of efficiency/performance improvements and because there's no need to repair dead-on-arrival products, which represents an immensely more desirable product.

TQM and contingency-based research

TQM has not been independent of its environment. In the context of management accounting systems (MCSs), Sim and Killough (1998) show that incentive pay enhanced the positive effects of TQM on customer and quality performance. Ittner and Larcker (1995) demonstrated that product focused TQM was linked to timely problem solving information and flexible revisions to reward systems. Chendall (2003) summarizes the findings from contingency-based research concerning management control systems and TQM by noting that “TQM is associated with broadly based MCSs including timely, flexible, externally focused information; close interactions between advanced technologies and strategy; and non-financial performance measurement.” (p.143)

TQM, just another Management fad?

Abrahamson (1996) argued that fashionable management discourse such as Quality Circles tends to follow a lifecycle in the form of a bell curve. Ponzi and Koenig (2002) showed that the same can be said about TQM, which peaked between 1992 and 1996, while rapidly losing popularity in terms of citations after these years. Dubois (2002) argued that the use of the term TQM in management discourse created a positive utility regardless of what managers meant by it (which showed a large variation), while in the late 1990s the usage of the term TQM in implementation of reforms lost the positive utility attached to the mere fact of using the term and sometimes associations with TQM became even negative.(Wilkinson et al 1998) Nevertheless, management concepts such as TQM leave their traces, as their core ideas can be very valuable.(Hill and Wilkinson 1995) For example, Dubois (2002) showed that the core ideas behind the two management fads Reengineering and TQM, without explicit usage of their names, can even work in a synergistic way. A management fad is a derisive term use to characterize a change in philosophy or operations that sweeps through businesses and institutions, and then disappears when enthusiasm for it wanes. ... A quality circle is a volunteer group composed of workers who meet together to discuss workplace improvement, and make presentations to management with their ideas. ... Life cycle refers to: Biological life cycle New product development Honeybee life cycle This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The graph of the probability density function of the normal distribution is sometimes called the bell curve or the bell-shaped curve; see normal distribution. ... In music, variation is a formal technique where material is altered during repetition; reiteration with changes. ... reengineering (or re-engineering) is the radical redesign of an organizations processes, especially its business processes. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


  • Abrahamson, E. (1996). "Management fashion." Academy of Management Review. 21(1):254-285.
  • Bergman, Bo & Klefsjö,Bengt, Kvalitet - från behov till användning, ISBN 91-44-01917-3, Studentlitteratur: Sweden, Lund,2001.
  • Chenhall, RH (2003) Management control systems design within its organizational context: findings from contingency-based research and directions for the future, Accounting, Organizations and Society 28, pp. 127-168.
  • Cerza, Oliver (2004). Quality management in the medical appliances sector. WiKu Editions Paris EURL. ISBN 2-84976-002-1.
  • Dubois, HFW (2002). "Harmonization of the European vaccination policy and the role TQM and reengineering could play". Quality Management in Health Care 10 (2): 47-57. PMID 11799830.  "PDF"
  • Hill ,S and A.Wilkinson (1995)In search of TQM .Employee Relations Vol 17 no 3 pp8-26.
  • Horine, Julie and Carl Edwin Lindgren. (April 1995). Educational improvement using Deming's profound knowledge. New Era in Education (London), Volume 76, Number 1:6-10.
  • Horine, Julie, Paul Yvarra, Carl Edwin Lindgren. (Winter/1994). A historical and educational view of the theory contained in Deming's profound knowledge. Education, Volume 115, Number 2: 288-291 & 194.
  • Horine, Julie and Carl Edwin Lindgren. (1994). Quality management in 21st century education, Educational Review, Volume 100, Number 7:101-105.
  • Ittner, CD and Larcker, DF (1995) Total quality management and the choice of information and reward systems, Journal of Accounting Research 33(suppl.), pp. 1-34.
  • Ponzi, L and Koenig, M (2002) "Knowledge management: another management fad?" Information Research, 8(1)
  • Sim, KL and Killough, LN (1998) The performance effects of complementarities between manufacturing practices and management accounting systems, Journal of Management Accounting Research 10, pp.325-346.
  • Wilkinson A et al (1998)Managing through TQM . London .Macmillan
  • ASTM STP1209 Quality and Statistics: Total Quality Management
  • ASTM MNL22 Total Quality Management: Guiding Principles for Application
  • J.N.Kelada, 1996, "Integrating Reengineering with Total Quality", Quality Press, Wisconsin.

See also

The Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award is given by the United States National Institute of Standards and Technology. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... The term business model describes a broad range of informal and formal models that are used by enterprises to represent various aspects of business, such as operational processes, organizational structures, and financial forecasts. ... Process Improvement Process Improvement is a series of actions taken to identify, analyze and improve existing processes within an organization to meet new goals and objectives. ... QFD House of Quality for Enterprise Product Development Processes Quality function deployment or QFD is a flexible and comprehensive group decision making technique used in product or service development, brand marketing, and product management. ... Quality management is a method for ensuring that all the activities necessary to design, develop and implement a product or service are effective and efficient with respect to the system and its performance. ... A quality management system (QMS) is a system that outlines the policies and procedures necessary to improve and control the various processes that will ultimately lead to improved business performance. ... reengineering (or re-engineering) is the radical redesign of an organizations processes, especially its business processes. ... The often-used six sigma symbol. ... Statistical process control (SPC) is a method for achieving quality control in manufacturing processes. ... Liquid Logistics is a special category of logistics that relates to liquid products, and is utilized extensively in the Supply Chain for Liquids discipline. ... The Hawthorne effect refers to a phenomenon of observing workers behavior or their performance and changing it temporarily. ... Sign on a wholesaler at the Tsukiji fish market indicates ISO 9001 certification. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Toyota Production System. ...

External links

  • American Society for Quality, [2]

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