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Encyclopedia > Tosca
Operas by Giacomo Puccini

Le Villi (1884)
Edgar (1889)
Manon Lescaut (1893)
La bohème (1896)
Tosca (1900)
Madama Butterfly (1904)
La fanciulla del West (1910)
La rondine (1917)
Il trittico: Il tabarro (1918)
Il trittico: Suor Angelica (1918)
Il trittico: Gianni Schicchi (1918)
Turandot (1926) Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Le villi (The Willis) is an opera composed by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Ferdinando Fontana, based on the short story Les Willis by Alphonse Karr. ... Edgar is an opera in three acts (originally four acts) by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Ferdinando Fontana, based on the play in verse La Coupe et les lèvres by Alfred de Musset. ... Manon Lescaut is an opera in four acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Domenico Oliva and Luigi Illica, based on L’histoire du chevalier des Grieux et de Manon Lescaut by Abbé Prévost. ... For other uses, see La bohème (disambiguation). ... Madama Butterfly (Madame Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two acts) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. ... La Fanciulla del West (The Girl of the Golden West) is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Guelfo Civinini and Carlo Zangarini, based on the play The Girl of the Golden West by David Belasco. ... A poster for the Italian premiere. ... Il trittico (The Triptych) is the title to a collection of three one-act operas, Il tabarro, Suor Angelica, and Gianni Schicchi, by Giacomo Puccini. ... Il tabarro (The Cloak) is an opera in one act by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Giuseppe Adami, based on Didier Golds La Houppelande. ... Il trittico (The Triptych) is the title to a collection of three one-act operas, Il tabarro, Suor Angelica, and Gianni Schicchi, by Giacomo Puccini. ... Suor Angelica (Sister Angelica) is an opera in one act by Giacomo Puccini to an original Italian libretto by Giovacchino Forzano. ... Il trittico (The Triptych) is the title to a collection of three one-act operas, Il tabarro, Suor Angelica, and Gianni Schicchi, by Giacomo Puccini. ... Gianni Schicchi is an opera in one act by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Giovacchino Forzano, based on a story that is referred to in Dantes The Divine Comedy. ... For the opera by Ferruccio Busoni, see Turandot (Busoni). ...

Tosca is an opera in three acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on Victorien Sardou's drama, La Tosca. Tosca may refer to: // Tosca, Opera by Giacomo Pucchini La Tosca, play by Victorien Sardou Tosca (band) Tosca Tango Orchestra Daewoo Tosca Tosca Chocolate bar Tosca - name of a cat in a childrens book series Tosca Kramer, violinist Tosca Teran, artist Carlos Tosca, sport manager Categories: | | ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Antonio Ghislanzoni, nineteenth century Italian librettist. ... Born: CastellArquato, near Piacenza, Italy, 9 May 1857 Died: Colombarone, Italy, 16 Dec. ... Giuseppe Giacosa Giuseppe Giacosa (21 October 1847 – 1 September 1906) was an Italian poet, playwright and librettist. ... Victorien Sardou (September 5, 1831 - November 8, 1908) was a French dramatist. ... La Tosca (or simply Tosca) is a three-act opera by Giacomo Puccini. ...


The work premiered at the Teatro Costanzi in Rome on January 14, 1900. The Teatro dellOpera di Roma (Rome Opera House) is an opera house in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


One of the most dramatic of operas and a staple of the standard operatic repertoire, Tosca appears on Opera America's list of the 20 most-performed operas in North America,[1] as number 8. Opera America, officially OPERA America, is a service organization in North America promoting the creation, presentation, and enjoyment of opera. ...

Contents

History

The original play by Victorien Sardou was produced in Paris in 1887 and seen by Puccini in Milan, in 1887, with Sarah Bernhardt as Tosca. Puccini immediately asked his editor Giulio Ricordi to buy Sardou's rights, but these were finally bought only in 1893 to be given to Alberto Franchetti, another composer. Illica wrote his libretto, and in October 1894, Franchetti, Ricordi, Illica and Giuseppe Verdi met Sardou to present him the libretto. Verdi was particularly fascinated by this tragedy, but he refused to compose music for it unless Sardou could come up with another ending. 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... Sarah Bernhardt (October 23, 1844 – March 26, 1923) was a French stage actress. ... Giulio Ricordi (Milan 1840-1912) was an Italian Editor, musician and composer. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alberto Franchetti (18 September 1860 – 4 August 1942) was an Italian opera composer. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ...


After a few months Franchetti finally admitted he was not able to compose music for the work, so Giulio Ricordi asked Puccini to do it. Puccini was still offended and only Verdi's intercession convinced him to accept. He started working on it in 1896, after the completion of La Bohème; Ricordi set Giuseppe Giacosa to work with Luigi Illica for the libretto, but Giacosa did not perform up to his own standards, and had several personal disputes with Sardou. Puccini too had disputes with Illica, Giacosa and Ricordi together. They had proposed a triumphal "Latin hymn" for Act III, but Puccini finally convinced them to reduce it to only the eighteen measures of Trionfal... di nuova speme. For other uses, see La bohème (disambiguation). ...


In October 1899, after three years of difficult cooperation, the opera was ready. Since it is a story about Rome, it was decided that the prima would be in the eternal city, at Teatro Costanzi. A notable curiosity had surrounded the work, whose preparation had been so long and troubled. Soprano Hariclea Darclee was Tosca, tenor Emilio De Marchi was Cavaradossi, baritone Eugenio Giraldoni was Scarpia. Leopoldo Mugnone served as Director. Queen Margherita, prime minister Pelloux and many composers, among them Pietro Mascagni, Francesco Cilea, Franchetti and Sgambati, were among the public. Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Teatro dellOpera di Roma (Rome Opera House) is an opera house in Rome, Italy. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... Opera singer Hariclea Darclée (b. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... ű For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). ... A theatre director is a principal in the theatre field who oversees and orchestrates the mounting of a play by unifying various endeavors and aspects of production. ... Margrethe of Savoy (Turin, November 20, 1851- Bordighera, 1926), was the Queen of Italy during the reign (1878-1900) of her husband, Humbert I. She was the daughter of Ferdinand, Duke of Genoa and granddaughter of Carlo Alberto. ... Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 – Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ... Francesco Cilea, (Palmi, near Reggio Calabria, July 26, 1866 - Varazze, near Savona, November 20, 1950) was an Italian opera composer, whose early success was not sustained, as taste in music changed. ...


The success was complete, even if the difference between Tosca's and Bohème's atmospheres was quite surprising. For other uses, see La bohème (disambiguation). ...


Analysis

Original poster
Original poster

Tosca begins on an imposing, quasi-tragic note, much darker than the opening pages of Puccini's earlier operas. However, the composer takes care to introduce the Sacristan, a basso buffo, for comic relief. Puccini was always very careful to include well-defined minor characters. The Sacristan's banter with Mario gradually leads to the aria Recondita armonia. This piece requires vocal intensity and extension, together with depth of interpretation from the tenor, and is enriched by the Sacristan's countermelody. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Giacomo Puccini Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) is regarded as one of the great operatic composers of the late 19th and early 20th century. ... Recondita Armonia is the first romanza in the opera Tosca, by Giacomo Puccini. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... A sacristy is a room for keeping vestments (such as the cassock and chasuble) and other church furnishings, sacred vessels and church treasures. ... In music, counter-melody (often one word, countermelody) is a sequence of notes, perceived as a melody, written to be played simultaneously with a more prominent melody. ...


Angelotti returns to the scene and the music darkens; but with Tosca's entrance and the duet Non la sospiri la nostra casetta, a lighter note returns, with orchestral timbres very near to elements of French impressionist music. In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... The impressionist movement in music is a movement in European classical music that had its beginnings in the late nineteenth century and continued into the middle of the twentieth century. ...


When Angelotti is seen again, Puccini brings back a tragic atmosphere, of similar depth as in the first scenes; Angelotti is clearly the musical key of the tragedy, much more than Scarpia.


A nearly comic interlude features the sacristan and the chorus. When Scarpia arrives, the orchestra again becomes deep and obscure, but with energy and power this time, personifying the character of Scarpia the tyrant, the investigator, the judge. Every accent and word of Scarpia is underscored by Puccini to depict a character with a depth of evil that finds comparison perhaps only in the character of Iago in Verdi's Otello. “Verdi” redirects here. ... For the Rossini opera, see Otello (Rossini) or for the eurobeat artist see Gianni Coraini. ...


The episode of Cavaradossi's interrogation is written in a "conversational" musical style; it ends with an example of diegetic music, as Tosca sings a cantata -- a recalling of the baroque tradition within the realist context of the opera. According to Gerald Prince in A Dictionary of Narratology, diegesis is (1) The (fictional) world in which the situations and events narrated occur; (2) Telling, recounting, as opposed to showing, enacting. ... A cantata (Italian, sung) is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment and generally containing more than one movement. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ...


Another "conversational" passage is suddenly cut short with Cavaradossi's outburst of Vittoria, vittoria, which is eagerly anticipated by the loggionisti (connoisseurs in cheap seats) desirous of critiquing the tenor's high notes.


The following episode includes vehement, nervous music for the orchestra, ending in the famous aria Vissi d'arte, an aria which requires the singer to show most of her capabilities: here, the loggionisti will seek to critique the soprano's legato, her high notes, her consistency in the middle range of the voice, her energy and her fraseggio. Vissi darte is the famous soprano’s aria taken from act II Tosca by Giacomo Puccini. ... In musical notation legato indicates that musical notes are played smoothly. ...


Act III includes an orchestral introduction, descriptive of the Roman countryside, the famous aria E lucevan le stelle, and the opera's violent conclusion. E lucevan le stelle was the last romanza in the opera Tosca by Giacomo Puccini. ...


Roles

Role Voice type Premiere Cast, January 14, 1900
(Conductor: Leopoldo Mugnone)
Floria Tosca, a celebrated singer soprano Hariclea Darclée
Mario Cavaradossi, a painter tenor Emilio de Marchi
Baron Scarpia, chief of police baritone Eugenio Giraldoni
Cesare Angelotti, former Consul of the Roman Republic bass Ruggero Galli
A sacristan bass Ettore Borelli
Spoletta, a police agent tenor Enrico Giordano
Sciarrone, a gendarme bass Aristide Parassani
A gaoler bass
A shepherd-boy alto Angelo Righi
Soldiers, police agents, noblemen and women, townsfolk, artisans

This article is about the voice-type. ... Hariclea Darclée (born Hariclea Hartulary; June 10, 1860—1939) was a celebrated Romanian opera singer and soprano. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... ű For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). ... A bass (or basso in Italian) is a male singer who sings in the deepest vocal range of the human voice. ... This article is about the voice-type. ...

Synopsis

Scene: Rome. Time: June 1800.

// ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF...

Act I

The church of Sant'Andrea della Valle


Angelotti, an escaped political offender, seeks refuge in the church of Sant'Andrea della Valle where his family has a chapel. His sister, the Marchesa Attavanti, while praying for his release, has unwittingly served as a model to the painter, Mario Cavaradossi for his portrait of the Magdalen. Just a moment before a sacristan enters (followed shortly by Cavaradossi), Angelotti conceals himself in his family's chapel; the sacristan assists the painter washing his brushes. Cavaradossi stops his work for a moment, takes out a medallion in his pocket: this medallion contains a miniature of Tosca's photo. He makes a comparison between Tosca and the model he was portraying (Recondita armonia – "Concealed harmony"). For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... The Baroque facade of SantAndrea della Valle The church SantAndrea della Valle in Rome was designed and build by Pier Paolo Olivieri, Francesco Grimaldi, and Carlo Maderno between 1590 in 1650. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ... Magdalen College (pronounced maudlin) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... A sacristy is a room for keeping vestments (such as the cassock and chasuble) and other church furnishings, sacred vessels and church treasures. ... Recondita Armonia is the first romanza in the opera Tosca, by Giacomo Puccini. ...


The sacristan makes a controcanto (Scherza con i fanti e lascia stare i santi - which became a proverb: Joke with fools, but leave the saints in heaven), then leaves Cavaradossi alone to paint. When the sacristan leaves, Angelotti comes out of his chapel. Cavaradossi is his friend and political ally. Angelotti begins to tell of his escape from Castel Sant'Angelo (papal Roman prison) but the arrival of Tosca interrupted their conversation (Tosca : Mario! Mario! Mario!). Cavaradossi gives Angelotti some food and helps him return to hide in the chapel. For the town with the same name, see Castel SantAngelo (RI) Castel SantAngelo from the bridge. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


Floria Tosca is a singer, and she goes to the church to invite Mario Cavaradossi (her lover) to meet her after her performance in the evening. However, Tosca is unreasonably jealous, and her suspicions have been aroused, having heard Cavaradossi's speaking to someone upon her arrival. She imagines an intrigue with a woman, and her fears are apparently confirmed by the portrait of Mary Magdalene. She says that the blue-eyed model looks very familiar. Finally, Tosca realizes Mario has used Marchesa Attavanti as the model, but Mario assuages her suspicions. Tosca has brown eyes, whereas the woman in the portrait has blue. (Qual occhio al mondo – "What eyes in the world can be compared to your eyes").


Tosca, her jealousy abated, leaves, but not before playfully insisting he make the Magdalene's eyes dark, like hers.


Angelotti reappears, and his escape is planned: Angelotti will don woman's attire (that his sister had hidden in the altar) and flee to Cavaradossi's villa; if necessary, Angelotti will hide in the well. Cavaradossi swears, even if it costs him his life, he will save Angelotti from the wicked Scarpia (La vita mi costasse, vi salverò – "Even if it costs me my life, I'll save you"). A cannon shot from the fortress (Castel Sant'Angelo) warns that his escape has been discovered and compels him to flee; the painter exits the church with him. The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site. ... For other uses, see Cannon (disambiguation). ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ...


The sacristan returns surrounded by a laughing crowd of choir boys and acolytes. (Sacristan, chorus: Tutta qui la cantoria! – “All here, into the choir loft”) They falsely believe that Napoleon has been defeated and are there to sing a thankful Te Deum, when Scarpia, chief of police, arrives with Spoletta and some of his men in search of the escaped prisoner. In the Attavantis' chapel Spoletta finds the fan of the Marchesa and the painter's basket emptied of food and wine. Scarpia threateningly asks the sacristan about this, but the latter maintains that Cavaradossi did not have the key to the chapel and had not expressed any interest in the food. Scarpia shrewdly concludes that Cavaradossi is connected with Angelotti's escape. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...


Tosca returns to explain to Cavaradossi that she must perform in the celebration of cantata and will not be able to meet him. Finding that Cavaradossi has left, she begins to feel suspicious. Meanwhile the church fills up and a Cardinal prepares for the Te Deum. Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ...


Scarpia arouses Tosca's jealousy by producing Attavanti's fan, and she departs in anger. Ordering his agent to follow her (Tre sbirri, una carrozza – "Three policeman, a carriage"), he passionately avows his love for the singer, then kneels devoutly in prayer. (Scarpia: Va' Tosca, nel tuo cuor s'annida Scarpia – "Go, Tosca, in your heart is nesting Scarpia"; Chorus: Adiutorium nostrum – "My help is in God's name"; Scarpia: A doppia mira tendo il voler – "At two goals I aim my desire").


Act II

Scarpia's room at Palazzo Farnese (now the embassy of France) A mid-18th century engraving of Palazzo Farnese by Giuseppe Vasi Palazzo Farnese, Rome (housing the French Embassy), is the most imposing Italian palace of the sixteenth century (Sir Banister Fletcher) (1). ... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ...


Scarpia is dining alone while celebrations are heard outside. He sends a servant to give a note to Tosca to invite her to join him when she finishes with her recital. Cynically he sings of pleasure (Ella verrà per amor del suo Mario – "She will come out of love for her Mario" and Ha più forte sapore la conquista violenta – "The violent conquest has a stronger flavor") presuming she will surrender to his power.


Spoletta, his agent, enters with Cavaradossi in custody but without Angelotti, who has eluded him. Scarpia closely questions the painter, but Cavaradossi reveals nothing. Tosca arrives and the painter whispers to her not to say anything about Angelotti. Scarpia sends Cavaradossi off to be tortured, then turns his attention to Tosca (Scarpia: Ed or fra noi parliam da buoni amici – “Now, let us talk like good friends”) Scarpia describes to her in detail her lover’s anguish under torture. She can hear his groans, but is powerless to help him. At last, utterly prostrated, she divulges Angelotti’s hiding-place. The painter is brought out, and Scarpia indicates he knows where Angelotti is hiding. In his pain and humiliation, Cavaradossi denounces Tosca for her betrayal of the secret.


Sciarrone enters to announce that earlier reports were mistaken, Bonaparte has defeated the royalist forces at the Battle of Marengo. Cavaradossi, exulting ( Vittoria! ), is dragged away to prison. Tosca tries to follow him, but Scarpia holds her back. She asks him what the price is to free Mario (Scarpia: Mi dicon venal – “They say I'm venal.”) He avows his passion for her and lasciviously demands her body, her virtue, and herself, as the price to save Mario’s freedom. Tosca attempts to flee but is restrained by Scarpia as he attempts to rape her. During the struggle drums are heard -- Scarpia indicates that they are the drums beating Cavaradossi to the scaffold. Tosca finally collapses and asks the Lord the reason for all this cruelty against her (Tosca: Vissi d'arte, vissi d'amore – “I lived on art, I lived on love”; Scarpia: Sei troppo bella, Tosca, e troppo amante – “You're too beautiful, Tosca, and too loving”). Spoletta enters to announce that Angelotti committed suicide just as Scarpia’s agents discovered him in the well at Cavaradossi’s villa. The Battle of Marengo was fought in Italy on June 14, 1800 as the decisive battle of the war of the Second Coalition. ... Vissi darte is the famous soprano’s aria taken from act II Tosca by Giacomo Puccini. ...


Feeling as if she has no alternative, Tosca finally agrees to yield. Scarpia then orders Spoletta to organize for a mock execution of Cavaradossi, and Tosca demands a safe-conduct for herself and the painter to leave the country. While she is waiting for Scarpia to write it, she notices a knife on the table, and makes the decision to kill Scarpia rather than allow him to rape her. As he advances to embrace her, she stabs him. (Questo è il bacio di Tosca– "This is Tosca's kiss"). Having piously composed the body for burial, she departs to the sound of drums in the distance (E avanti a lui tremava tutta Roma – "And before him trembled all of Rome").


Act III

Top floor of Castel Sant' Angelo where Cavaradossi is due to be shot Castel SantAngelo The Castel SantAngelo is a building in Rome, one with a long and chequered past. ...


Church bells announce the beginning of the day while a shepherd sings a stornello in romanesco, the Roman dialect. Cavaradossi, in prison, awaits his execution. For the price of a ring (his last possession), Cavaradossi convinces a jailer to deliver a note to Tosca, then starts writing a farewell letter ( E lucevan le stelle – “And the stars were shining.”). With the last line (E non ho amato mai tanto la vita – "And never have I loved life so much"), he bursts into tears. Romanesco is a group of Romance dialects spoken in Rome and most of the surrounding regions of Lazio, Umbria, central Marche and extreme southern Tuscany in central Italy. ... E lucevan le stelle was the last romanza in the opera Tosca by Giacomo Puccini. ...


Tosca enters with Spoletta and a sergeant, bringing the safe-conduct and explains to him how she killed Scarpia in order to save them both. (Tosca: Il tuo sangue o il mio amor volea – “He wanted your blood or my love”) She then explains the mock execution which she believes to be arranged for him, and with triumphant and high emotion, they begin to dream of their future together. (Duet: Senti, l'ora è vicina – “Listen, the hour is near.”)(Cavaradossi: Amaro sol per te m'era il morire – "Dying was bitter only because of you"; Tosca: Amore che seppe a te vita serbare – "My love, which was able to save your life"; final duet: Trionfal... di nova speme – "Triumphant, with new hope.")


The soldiers fire; Mario falls. Tosca playfully compliments Mario on his marvellous acting (Ecco un artista – "There's an artist"). When the executioners leave, Tosca runs to Mario and tells him to get up. When he does not respond, Tosca realizes the truth: Scarpia had never intended to spare Cavaradossi, but had given Spoletta orders to execute him. Cavaradossi lies dead. As Tosca comes to this realization, Spoletta, who has discovered Scarpia's death, enters with soldiers, denouncing her as a murderer. He comes forward to take Tosca prisoner, but she pushes him away. She then jumps from the ramparts of the castle and falls to her death ("O Scarpia, avanti a Dio!" - "O Scarpia, we shall meet before God!").


Anecdotes

Puccini had a devotion for precision that could not be fought. For the Te Deum procession, he arranged for one of Ricordi's workers to be sent to Rome, where he stayed several months to find whatever material available on that subject in shops, libraries, museums, etc.; finally, he received from an old friar the precise drawing of the role of each participant, and a set of 18 handpainted tablets describing it. Te Deum is an early Christian hymn of praise. ... A procession (via Middle English processioun, French procession, derived from Latin, processio, itself from procedere, to go forth, advance, proceed) is, in general, an organized body of people advancing in a formal or ceremonial manner. ...


For the opening of Act III, Puccini asked a priest to decipher the precise tone of the bells of Castel Sant'Angelo, and notably the tone of the large bell of St. Peter's basilica (it is a natural mi (E)) so he was able to perform at the Teatro Costanzi a sound that was precise as only a recording would have been.


The tale of the bouncing Tosca: This supposedly occurred at the Lyric Opera of Chicago and involved a British soprano. As Tosca, she was supposed to leap to her death from the walls of Castel Sant'Angelo. Usually, the actress lands on a mattress. But the stage workers had thoughtfully improved her safety by replacing the mattress with a trampoline: the result was that Tosca appeared two or three times from behind the wall. (Another version describes this as an act of revenge for troublesome behavior by the soprano.) Eva Turner has admitted to being that Tosca, in a TV special hosted by Robert Merrill in which he interviewed some of the greatest Toscas of the century, including Eva Turner, Grace Bumbry, Renata Tebaldi, Zinka Milanov, Ljuba Welitsch and Birgit Nilsson, among others. Exterior of the Civic Opera House Lyric Opera of Chicago is one of the leading opera companies in the United States. ... Dame Eva Turner (Born in Werneth, Oldham, England, on 10 March 1892 - died on 16 June 1990) was a British soprano. ... Robert Merrill (June 4, 1917 – October 23, 2004) was an American opera baritone. ... Grace Bumbry The American opera singer Grace Bumbry (born 4 January 1937) was one of the leading mezzo-sopranos of her generation -- although often a controversial singer. ... Renata Tebaldi (Pesaro, February 1, 1922 – San Marino, December 19, 2004) was an Italian lyric soprano, popular in the post-war period. ... Zinka Milanov (née Kunc) Zinka Milanov née Zinka Kunc (May 17, 1906 - May 30, 1989) was a Croatian-born operatic soprano. ... Ljuba Welitsch (1913 - 1996) was a celebrated Austrian soprano, born in Bulgaria, who sang in opera. ... Birgit Nilsson Birgit Nilsson (May 17, 1918 – December 25, 2005) was a Swedish dramatic soprano who specialized in operatic and symphonic works. ...


The collective suicide after shooting the wrong principal: Another delightful, but probably apocryphal, anecdote is the one which allegedly happened at the War Memorial Opera House in San Francisco - to the same "Bouncing Tosca" from Chicago. Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


The firing squad were played by supernumeraries who received last minute instruction to shoot the person they found onstage, and then to exit with the principals. However, When they got onstage, they discovered there were two people there instead of one. Not knowing which one to shoot, they wavered back and forth a bit as both principals said not to shoot them. They finally settled on Tosca, shot her, and looked bewildered when Mario keeled over dead. They also did not leave, since they were told to exit with the principals - and neither of the principals were exiting. Tosca made some gestures to shoo them away, but they remained onstage until Spoletta came in with the soldiers. When Tosca jumped from the parapet, they saw their chance to finally exit with at least one of the principals, and jumped down after her, giving a Shakespearean greatness to the final tragedy. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Extra (actor). ...


Soprano Renata Tebaldi, considered by many to be one of the best Toscas ever, was famous for her melodramatic cries in the final scenes. Once, in Tokyo, she decided not to jump for the final suicide, but chose instead to exit by the quinte, walking among the astonished policemen as only a diva could. This article is about the voice-type. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Famous baritone Tito Gobbi, a very original Scarpia, recalled a prima, or premiere, with Maria Callas (considered the greatest Tosca) in which he had to improvise to save the diva in Act II. While he was on the floor, having just been killed, he realised that Callas was walking around the stage unable to find her way out. She had severe myopia and, while she could wear glasses during rehearsal, her eyes would not tolerate contact lenses. Gobbi tried to discreetly point out the exit, but started laughing so intensely that both his laughing and his pointing were seen by the audience. The morning after, the newspapers raved about his memorable portrayal of Scarpia's death throes. In other performances, he was able to whisper directions to her so that she could make a satisfactory exit. Tito Gobbi (October 24, 1913 – March 5, 1984) was an Italian baritone. ... Prima can mean a few things: PRIMA: an acronymn representing Place of the Relevant Intermediary Approach, a legal doctrine applied in cross-border security transactions. ... Maria Callas in a casual moment, 1960s Maria Callas (Greek: Μαρία Κάλλας) (December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was an American born, Greek dramatic coloratura soprano and perhaps the best-known opera singer of the post-World War II period. ... Normal vision. ...


In 1964, at London's Royal Opera House, Tito Gobbi was again with Callas. As he recounts in his autobiography[2], during a dress rehearsal of the duet in Act II, Callas moved close to the table, not realising that she was getting too close to the candles. Soon smoke could be seen coming from her wig. Gobbi pretended to attempt to embrace her, as he did so closing his hands over the fire in her hair. Not at first understanding what he was doing, Callas stared at him with a perplexed expression, so Gobbi extended his burnt hand very near to her face and then pointed to the candles. Callas interpolated her own “grazie, Tito.” This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ...


Gobbi also paid tribute to the ferocity of Callas’ acting in this role, noting that he was often afraid during their performances that she really would kill him in Act II. She very nearly did so, when the knife she was using failed to retract. Gobbi was cut, but not severely hurt, and with a cry of "My God!" went right on with his death scene.[2]


Selected recordings

Year Cast
(Tosca, Cavaradossi, Scarpia)
Conductor,
Opera House and Orchestra
Label
1953 Maria Callas,
Giuseppe di Stefano,
Tito Gobbi
Victor de Sabata,
La Scala orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: EMI Classics
Cat: 7243 5 62890 2 4
1957 Zinka Milanov,
Jussi Björling,
Leonard Warren
Erich Leinsdorf,
Rome Opera orchestra and chorus
Audio CD: BMG Classics
Cat: 09026-63305-2
1962 Leontyne Price,
Giuseppe di Stefano,
Giuseppe Taddei
Herbert von Karajan,
Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra and Vienna State Opera Chorus
Audio CD: Decca
Cat: 028946638422
1976 Montserrat Caballé,
José Carreras,
Ingvar Wixell
Sir Colin Davis,
Royal Opera House, Covent Garden Orchestra and Chorus
Audio CD: Philips
Cat: 028943835923
Mirella Freni,
Plácido Domingo,
Samuel Ramey
Giuseppe Sinopoli,
Philharmonia Orchestra, Royal Opera House,
Covent Garden Chorus and Children's Chorus
Audio CD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 028943177528
Raina Kabaivanska,
Plácido Domingo,
Sherrill Milnes
Bruno Bartoletti,
New Philharmonia Orchestra and Ambrosian Singers (Film)
DVD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 00440 073 4038
1980 Renata Scotto,
Plácido Domingo,
Renato Bruson
James Levine,
Philharmonia Orchestra and Ambrosian Singers
Audio CD: EMI Classics
Cat: 66504
1985 Hildegard Behrens,
Plácido Domingo,
Cornell MacNeil
Giuseppe Sinopoli,
The Metropolitan Opera orchestra and chorus
DVD: Deutsche Grammophon
Cat: 00440 073 4100
1992 Catherine Malfitano,
Plácido Domingo,
Ruggero Raimondi
Zubin Mehta,
RAI Orchestra Sinfonica and Coro di Roma (Film)
VHS: Teldec Video
Cat: 6302779715
2001 Angela Gheorghiu,
Roberto Alagna,
Ruggero Raimondi
Antonio Pappano,
Royal Opera House, Covent Garden Orchestra and Chorus
DVD: EMI Classics (Film)
Cat: 7243 5 57173 2 0

Note: "Cat:" is short for catalogue number by the label company; "ASIN" is amazon.com product reference number. Maria Callas in a casual moment, 1960s Maria Callas (Greek: Μαρία Κάλλας) (December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was an American born, Greek dramatic coloratura soprano and perhaps the best-known opera singer of the post-World War II period. ... The Italian tenor Giuseppe Di Stefano (born 24 July 1921) is a famous opera singer whose career spanned from the late 1940s to the early 1970s. ... Tito Gobbi (October 24, 1913 – March 5, 1984) was an Italian baritone. ... Vittorio (Victor) De Sabata (April 10, 1892 – December 11, 1967) was an Italian conductor and composer. ... The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, by night. ... EMI Classics is a record label of EMI. It was formed in 1990 in order to reduce the need to create country-specific packaging and catalogs for internationally distributed classical music releases. ... Zinka Milanov (née Kunc) Zinka Milanov née Zinka Kunc (May 17, 1906 - May 30, 1989) was a Croatian-born operatic soprano. ... Johan Jonatan   (5 February 1911 – 9 September 1960) was a Swedish tenor and one of the most highly regarded opera singers of the 20th century. ... The American opera singer Leonard Warren (April 21, 1911 - March 4, 1960) was a famous baritone who was associated for many years with the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... Erich Leinsdorf (February 4, 1912 - September 11, 1993) was a conductor. ... BMG (Bertelsmann Music Group) is one of the six divisions of Bertelsmann. ... Mary Violet Leontyne Price (born February 10, 1927) is an American opera singer (soprano). ... The Italian tenor Giuseppe Di Stefano (born 24 July 1921) is a famous opera singer whose career spanned from the late 1940s to the early 1970s. ... Giuseppe Taddei (born June 26, 1916) was an Italian baritone known for his work in Italian opera, particularly the works of Giuseppe Verdi, as well as for his work in Wolfgang Amadeus Mozarts and Richard Wagners operas. ... Herbert von Karajan (April 5, 1908 – July 16, 1989) was an Austrian conductor. ... The Vienna Philharmonic (in German: Wiener Philharmoniker) is an orchestra in Austria, regularly considered as one of the finest in the world. ... It has been suggested that Decca Music Group be merged into this article or section. ... Montserrat Caballé Maria de Montserrat Viviana Concepción Caballé i Folc, better known as Montserrat Caballé (born April 12, 1933), is a Catalan Spanish operatic soprano renowned for her bel canto technique and her interpretations of the roles of Rossini, Bellini, and Donizetti. ... José Carreras Coll (Catalan: Josep Carreras i Coll) (born December 5, 1946) is a Spanish operatic tenor. ... Ingvar Wixell born May 7, 1931 in LuleÃ¥ is a Swedish baritone opera singer. ... Sir Colin Rex Davis (born September 25, 1927) is a noted British conductor. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world, founded and headquartered in the Netherlands. ... Mirella Freni Mirella Freni (born 27 February 1935) is a famous Italian opera soprano much admired for the youthful quality of her voice and her acting skills. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ... The American opera singer Samuel Edward Ramey (March 28, 1942) is considered by many the finest bass-baritone singer of his generation. ... Giuseppe Sinopoli (November 2, 1946 - April 20, 2001) was a conductor and composer. ... The Philharmonia is an orchestra based in London. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... Logo Deutsche Grammophon is a German record label. ... Raina Kabaivanska Raina Kabaivanska is a Bulgarian opera singer, one of the most renowned sopranos in the second half of the 20th century. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Philharmonia is an orchestra based in London. ... Logo Deutsche Grammophon is a German record label. ... The Italian opera singer Renata Scotto (born February 24, 1934) is a soprano widely admired for both her musical and dramatic gifts. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ... Renato Bruson (born January 13, 1936) is an Italian operatic baritone. ... James Levine (born June 23, 1943 in Cincinnati, Ohio) is an American orchestral pianist and conductor and most well known as the music director of the Metropolitan Opera in New York. ... The Philharmonia is an orchestra based in London. ... The Ambrosian Singers is one of the best-known London choral groups, particularly appreciated for its great variety of recorded repertory. ... EMI Classics is a record label of EMI. It was formed in 1990 in order to reduce the need to create country-specific packaging and catalogs for internationally distributed classical music releases. ... Hildegard Behrens (1941 - ) is a German soprano known for her wide repertory including Wagner, Weber, Mozart and Richard Strauss roles. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ... Cornell MacNeil (born 24 September 1922 in Minneapolis, Minnesota) is an operatic baritone known for his voice and his career with the Metropolitan Opera often singing Verdi. ... Giuseppe Sinopoli (November 2, 1946 - April 20, 2001) was a conductor and composer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Logo Deutsche Grammophon is a German record label. ... Catherine Malfitano (born 18 April 1948) is an American operatic soprano. ... Plácido Domingo José Plácido Domingo Embil KBE (born January 21, 1941)[1] better known as Plácido Domingo, is a world-renowned operatic tenor. ... Ruggero Raimondi, born October 3, 1941, is an Italian Bass-baritone opera singer and sometime screen actor. ... Zubin Mehta (b. ... Opera singer Angela Gheorghiu (born September 7, 1965) is one of the most famous contemporary sopranos. ... Roberto Alagna (born June 7, 1963) is French operatic tenor. ... Ruggero Raimondi, born October 3, 1941, is an Italian Bass-baritone opera singer and sometime screen actor. ... Antonio Pappano (born 30 December 1959 in London, England) is a British conductor. ... The Floral Hall of the Royal Opera House The Royal Opera House is a performing arts venue in London. ... EMI Classics is a record label of EMI. It was formed in 1990 in order to reduce the need to create country-specific packaging and catalogs for internationally distributed classical music releases. ...


Bibliography

  • Vandiver, Susan, Tosca's Rome: The Play and the Opera in Historical Perspective, Nicassio, The University of Chicago Press, 1999. ISBN 0-226-57971-9

References

  1. ^ OPERA America's "The Top 20" list of most-performed operas
  2. ^ a b Gobbi, Tito (October 1980). My Life. Doubleday. ISBN 978-0385156271. 
  • Plot taken from Melitz, Leo [1908] (1921). "La Tosca", The Opera Goer's Complete Guide, Translated by Richard Salinger, revised by Louise Wallace Hackney, Garden City, New York: Garden City Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2007-07-19. 
  • Notes from Casa Ricordi - freely translated and adapted.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Casa Ricordi was a wordwide publisher of operas and classical music, founded by Giovanni Ricordi in Milan in 1808. ...

External links


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