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Encyclopedia > Torun

Toruń (pronounce: Image:Ltspkr.png [:tɔruɲ], Kashubian: Torń, German Thorn, see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. It has 208,386 inhabitants (2004). One of the capitals of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (since 1999), previously the capital of the Toruń Voivodship (1975-1998) and the Pomeranian Voivodship (1921-1939), the city is located near the Geographic Center of Europe. The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... Kashubian, Cassubian is one of the Lekhitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Most cities in Europe have different names in different languages. ... Vistula river basin Vistula ( Polish Wisła, German Weichsel) is the longest river in Poland. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kujavian-Pomeranian voivodship since 1999 The Kujavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo kujawsko-pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in central-northern Poland. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Torun Voivodship (Polish: województwo toruńskie) was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975-1998, superseded by Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodship. ... The Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in northern Poland within the historic region of Eastern Pomerania. ... Geographical Centre of Europe, monument in Lithuania There is an ongoing debate as to where the Geographical Centre of Europe really is. ...


The medieval town of Toruń is on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites. The city of Toruń creates a bipolar agglomeration Bydgoszcz-Toruń with the city of Bydgoszcz, located only 30 km away. The 2 cities are gradually integrating. In September 2004 the Medical Academy in Bydgoszcz joined Toruń University as Collegium Medicum UMK in Bydgoszcz. UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations system established in 1946. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Bydgoszcz-Toruń is the name of the bipolar aglomeration on the middle Vistula river, created by 2 cities: Bydgoszcz and Toruń, only 30 km away of each other. ... Bydgoszcz (in Polish pronounce: [:bidgɔʃʧ], Latin: Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 369,151 (2004). ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Uniwersytet im Mikołaja Kopernika (UMK) w Toruniu) is one of the most respected universities in Poland. ...

Toruń
(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
Motto: Gotyk na dotyk
(In touch with the Gothic)
Voivodship Kuyavian-Pomeranian
Municipal government Rada Miasta Toruń
Mayor Michał Zaleski
Area 115,75 km²
Population
 - city
 - urban
 - density

208 386 (2004) Ranked 17th
Bydgoszcz-Torun 577 500 (2004)
1774/km²
Founded
City rights
13th century
1233
Latitude
Longitude
53°02' N
18°37' E
Area code +48 56
Car plates CT
Twin towns Čadca, Philadelphia, Göttingen, Hameenlinna, Kaliningrad, Leiden, Swindon
Municipal Website (http://www.torun.pl/portal/main/index.php)
Contents

2.1 Famous people of Toruń
Flag of Toruń File links The following pages link to this file: Torun Categories: Polish government symbols ... CoA of Toruń File links The following pages link to this file: Torun Categories: Polish government symbols ... A motto is a phrase or collection of words intended to describe the motivation or intention of a sociological grouping or organization. ... Gothic architecture characterizes any of the styles of European architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, in use throughout Europe during the high and late medieval period, from the 12th century onwards. ... Toruń on a map of Poland File links The following pages link to this file: Torun Categories: GFDL images ... A Voivodship ( Romanian: Voievodat, Polish: Województwo, Serbian: Vojvodstvo or Vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod. ... Kujavian-Pomeranian voivodship since 1999 The Kujavian-Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo kujawsko-pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in central-northern Poland. ... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... This page includes a list of cities in Poland and a table of major Polish cities. ... Bydgoszcz-Toruń is the name of the bipolar aglomeration on the middle Vistula river, created by 2 cities: Bydgoszcz and Toruń, only 30 km away of each other. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Events Fortress of Kalan built. ... A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ... Polish car number plates since May 1, 2000 ... This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ... Philadelphia is a village located in Jefferson County, New York. ... Map of Germany showing Göttingen 1 External links Coat of Arms University of Göttingen Top: The old Auditorium Maximum (1862-65) Bottom: New library building Göttingen is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. ... Hämeenlinna (Tavastehus in Swedish) is a municipality and city of about 47,000 inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Häme in the south of Finland. ... Locator map on an international level map of Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad (Russian: Калининград), seaport city, capital and main city of the Kaliningrad Oblast, a small Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania with access to the Baltic Sea. ... Leiden (in English also, but now rarely, Leyden) is a city and municipality in South Holland, The Netherlands. ... Swindon is a large town of Wiltshire, England, located in the South West of the UK (between London and Bristol). ...

City name

Early documents record the city name as Thorn, Thorun (1226, 1466), Turon, Turun, Toron, Thoron, and after 15th century the Polish name: Toruń. Points of view diverge on the origin of Thorn/Toruń's name. There are several possible etymologies:

  • Founded by the Teutonic Knights nearby an old Polish village named "old Toruń", Thorn may be derived from the city of Toron, that was located in the Kingdom of Jerusalem during the Crusades.
  • It may come from a Polish word tor which means track (of the Vistula river). If this is true Toruń means town on the track
  • It may come from the personal name Toron and mean Toron's town
  • It may have been originally Tarnów (there are many such cities in Poland, tarnina = a kind of river plant), which was later Germanized into Thorn, and re-Polonized into Toruń.
  • It may come from the Gothic god Thor

However, others claim that neither name Toruń nor Thorn has any etymological meaning. (reference: Professor Jan Miodek) Besides its original meaning, of or relating to the Goths, a Germanic tribe and thus the Gothic language and the Gothic alphabet, and aside from its Early Modern connotations of rough, barbarous, the word Gothic has been used since the 18th century to refer to distinctly different things. ... Thors battle against the giants, by Marten Eskil Winge, 1872 Thor, Þórr (ON), Þunor (OE), Donar or Donner (German) is the red-haired and bearded god of thunder and lightning in Germanic and Norse Mythology, the son of Odin and Jord. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... Jan Miodek (born 1946 in Tarnowskie Góry, Poland), Professor of Wroclaw University, is a linguist in the normative tradition. ...


The Teutonic Knights usually spelled the city's name as Thorun, and later when the city was a royal city subject to Polish Kings, the Latin documents and coins usually spelled Thorun, Thorunium, civitas Thorunensis or civitas Torunensis. Later it was spelled Thorn, and after the second world war the official name was changed to Toruń when the city became part of Poland. Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ...


History

Toruń was a small settlement in Chelmno Land (Ziemia Chelminska), a western part of Mazovia. in 1266 it was awarded by the duke Conrad of Mazovia as a fief to the Teutonic Knights to be a safeguard against the heathen Prussians. Chelmno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia Chełmińska, German: Kulmerland, Kulmer Land, Culmerland or Culmer Land) is the traditional name for a district around the city of Chełmno, in north-western Poland. ... Events February 26 - French defeat Germans and Sicilians at Battle of Benevento. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Dukes of Masovia | Polish monarchs | Dukes of Sieradz-Leczyca | Prussian history ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, were Indo-European Balts inhabiting the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (i. ...


The Teutonic Knights built a castle there (1230-31), and the settlement acquired town rights in 1233, relocating from its original site to what is called today "Old Town" in 1236. The city soon became an important medieval trade center, and a member of the Hanseatic League. In 1263, Franciscan monks settled in Toruń, and they were followed in 1239 by Dominicans. In 1264 the neighboring Toruń New Town was founded. It was a separate town until 1454, when the old and new cities were amalgamated. Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... Events Kingdom of Leon unites with the Kingdom of Castile. ... Events Ardengus becomes bishop of Florence. ... Events Fortress of Kalan built. ... Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... Events Births June 17 Edward I of England known as Edward Longshanks or Hammer of the Scots Deaths Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon... Events May 12 - The Battle of Lewes begins (ends May 14). ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ...


During the 14th century, Toruń joined the Hanseatic League. (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the...

For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Motto: none Voivodship Warmia-Masuria Municipal government Rada Miejska w Elblągu Mayor Henryk Słonina Area 83,32 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 130. ... The title given to this article lacks diacritics because of certain technical limitations. ... In March 1440 a Prussian Confederation (German Preussischer Bund, Polish: Związek Pruski) was organisation of cities, gentry and clergy of Prussia formed under the leadership of the Hanseatic cities Gdansk (Danzig), Elblag (Elbing), and Torun (Thorn). ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... The Thirteen Years War (also called the War of the Cities) started out as an uprising by Prussian cities and the local nobility with the goal of gaining independence from the Teutonic Knights. ... The Second Treaty of Thorn (Polish: Toruń) was a peace treaty concluded in the Prussian city of Thorn (Toruń) on October 19, 1466 between the Polish king, the Prussian cities, and duke of Pomerania on one side, and the Teutonic Order on the other. ... In mid-17th century a rebellion of Cossacks led by Bohdan Chmielnicki ushered in the turbulent time known as The Deluge (potop). ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... 1807 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 158,000 km² Population about 3 million Existed 1807 - 1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae, French: Duche de Varsovie) was a Polish state established... 1814 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1871 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The term German Empire (Deutsches Reich) commonly refers to Germany, from its consolidation as a unified nation-state on January 18, 1871, until the abdication of Kaiser (Emperor) Wilhelm II on November 9, 1918. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Woodrow Wilson with the American Peace Commissioners The Treaty of Versailles of 1919 is the peace treaty created as a result of six months of negotiations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, which put an official end to World War I between the Allies and Central Powers. ... The Pomeranian Voivodship (in Polish województwo pomorskie) is an administrative region or voivodship in northern Poland within the historic region of Eastern Pomerania. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Polish Defensive War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign or Defensive War of 1939 (Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku) was the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany, the Soviet... Flag of Nazi Germany—the swastika symbol is dominant Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Reichsgau Danzig-West Prussia (Danzig-Westpreussen) was a German administrative unit created in 1939 from Freie Stadt Danzig and Polish Pomerania. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Stalag XX-A was a German World War II PoW Camp located in Thorn/Torun, Poland. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Potsdam Agreement was an agreement on policy for the occupation and reconstruction of Germany and other nations after fighting in the European Theatre of World War II had ended with the German surrender of May 8, 1945. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ...

Famous people of Toruń

Nicolaus Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus (in Latin; Polish Mikołaj Kopernik, German Nikolaus Kopernikus); February 19, 1473 – May 24, 1543) was a Polish astronomer, mathematician and economist who developed the heliocentric (Sun-centered) theory of the solar system in a form detailed enough to make it scientifically useful. ... Sylwester Kaliski (b. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ...

Education

Nikolaus Copernicus University in Toruń (Uniwersytet im Mikołaja Kopernika (UMK) w Toruniu) is one of the most respected universities in Poland. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Vilnius University (Lithuanian Vilniaus Universitetas, Polish Uniwersytet Wileński, formerly Stefan Batory University) is the oldest and biggest university in Lithuania. ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Economy

Major corporations

  • Krajowa Spółka Cukrowa SA
  • Torfarm SA
  • Zakład Energetyczny Toruń SA
  • Elana SA
  • ThyssenKrupp Energostal SA
  • CPP-Toruń-Pacific sp. z o.o.
  • Toruńskie Zakłady Materiałów Opatrunkowych SA

Politics

Toruń constituency

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from Toruń constituency This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ...

  • Ryszard Chodynicki, SLD-UP
  • Bogdan Derwich, SLD-UP
  • Lech Kuropatwiński, Samoobrona
  • Bogdan Lewandowski, SLD-UP
  • Krystian Łuczak, SLD-UP
  • Antoni Mężydło, PiS
  • Marek Olewiński, SLD-UP
  • Sławomir Rybicki, PO
  • Anna Sobecka, LPR
  • Zbigniew Sosnowski, PSL
  • Leszek Sułek, Samoobrona
  • Elżbieta Szparaga, SLD-UP
  • Jerzy Wenderlich, SLD-UP

Architecture

Baroque facade of Dambski Palace (18th c.)
Part of medieval city walls
Gothic building from 15th c. with Guard Keep (13 c.), both rebuild in 19th c.
Partial view of Teutonic Knights' castle

From Wp-PL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From Wp-PL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From Wp-PL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From Wp-PL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From Wp-PL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From Wp-PL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From Wp-PL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... From Wp-PL File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

External links:


Radical transparency is a management method where nearly all decision making is carried out publicly. ...

 
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Pictures of Torun, Poland (238 words)
Torun is, together with Krakow in the south, one of the two cities which were not destroyed in World War II.
Torun is actually two cities: the 'old' city and the 'new' city, which is only 25 years or so younger.
In Torun there was a frog plague, and a fiddler.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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