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Encyclopedia > Torsten Wiesel

Torsten Nils Wiesel (b. June 3, 1924) was a Swedish co-recipient with David H. Hubel of the 1981 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, for their discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system; the prize was shared with Roger W. Sperry for his independent research on the cerebral hemispheres. June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... Year 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... David Hunter Hubel (b. ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... List of Nobel Prize laureates in Physiology or Medicine from 1901 to the present day. ... The visual system is the part of the nervous system which allows organisms to see. ... Roger Wolcott Sperry (August 20, 1913 - April 17, 1994) was a neurobiologist and Nobel laureate who, together with David Hunter Hubel and Torsten Nils Wiesel, won the 1981 Nobel Prize in Medicine for his work with split-brain research. ...

Contents

Research

The Hubel and Wiesel experiments greatly expanded the scientific knowledge of sensory processing. In one experiment, done in 1959, they inserted a microelectrode into the primary visual cortex of an anesthetized cat. They then projected patterns of light and dark on a screen in front of the cat. They found that some neurons fired rapidly when presented with lines at one angle, while others responded best to another angle. They called these neurons "simple cells." Still other neurons, which they termed "complex cells," responded best to lines of a certain angle moving in one direction. These studies showed how the visual system builds an image from simple stimuli into more complex representations (Goldstein, 2001). Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An electrode is a conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit (e. ... Brodmann area 17 (primary visual cortex) is shown in red in this image which also shows area 18 (orange) and 19 (yellow) The primary visual cortex (usually called V1) is the most well-studied visual area in the brain. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... A simple cell in the primary visual cortex is a cell that responds primarily to oriented edges and gratings (bars of particular orientations). ... Complex cells can be found both in the primary visual cortex (V1) and the secondary visual cortex (V2). ...


Hubel and Wiesel received the Nobel Prize for their work on ocular dominance columns in the 1960s and 1970s. By depriving baby kittens from using one eye, they showed that columns in the primary visual cortex receiving inputs from the other eye took over the areas that would normally receive input from the deprived eye. These kittens also did not develop areas receiving input from both eyes, a feature needed for binocular vision. Hubel and Wiesel's experiments showed that the ocular dominance develops irreversibly early in childhood development. These studies opened the door for the understanding and treatment of childhood cataracts and strabismus. They were also important in the study of cortical plasticity (Goldstein, 2001). Ocular dominance columns are regions of neurons in the striate cortex that synapse with axons carrying transduced signals from either the left or right eye. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... A cataract is an opacity that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope. ... For the protein Strabismus, see Strabismus (protein) Strabismus, also known as heterotropia, squint, crossed eye, cockeyed, wandering eye,weak eye or wall eyed, is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... Look up plasticity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Biography

Wiesel was born in Uppsala, Sweden. In 1954, he began his scientific career in Carl Gustaf Bernhard's laboratory at the Karolinska Institute. One year later, he moved to the United States to work at Johns Hopkins University under Stephen Kuffler. In 1958, he met Hubel, beginning a collaboration that lasted over twenty years. In 1959 they moved to Harvard University. Wiesel joined the faculty of Rockefeller University in 1983 and became president of the university in 1991. He stepped down to become president emeritus in 1998. Uppsala (older spelling Upsala) is a Swedish City in central Sweden, located about 70 km north of Stockholm. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Karolinska Institute or Karolinska institutet is a medical university in Stockholm, Sweden. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... Stephen William Kuffler (August 24, 1913 - October 11, 1980) is Hungarian-US neurophysiologist. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Harvard redirects here. ... Founders Hall Rockefeller University is a private university focusing primarily on graduate and postgraduate education research in the biomedical fields, located between 63rd and 68th Streets along York Avenue, on the Upper East Side of Manhattan island in New York City, New York. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


In 2001, Wiesel was nominated to a panel in the National Institutes of Health to advise on assisting research in developing countries. Wiesel was rejected by Secretary of Health and Human Services Tommy Thompson. This incident was cited by the Union of Concerned Scientists as part of a report detailing their allegations of President George W. Bush's abuse of science. 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for medical research. ... Tommy George Thompson (born November 19, 1941), a United States politician, was the 7th U.S. Secretary of Health and Human Services and the 42nd Governor of Wisconsin. ... The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is an advocacy organization based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


See also

David H. Hubel David Hunter Hubel (b. ...


Single Unit Recording Single unit recording refers to the use of an electrode to record the electrophysiological activity (action potentials) from a single neuron. ...


References

Goldstein, B. 2001. Sensation and Perception, 6th ed. London: Wadsworth.


External link

  • Nobel Prize Biography

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Rockefeller University - Awards & Honors (130 words)
Since the institution's founding in 1901, 23 Nobel Prize winners have been associated with the university.
Of these, two are Rockefeller graduates (Edelman and Baltimore) and seven laureates are current members of the Rockefeller faculty (Günter Blobel, Christian de Duve, Paul Greengard, Joshua Lederberg, Roderick MacKinnon, Paul Nurse and Torsten Wiesel).
All photos except those of Blobel, Greengard, MacKinnon, Nurse and Wiesel courtesy of Rockefeller Archive Center.
Torsten Wiesel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (450 words)
Hubel and Wiesel received the Nobel Prize for their work on ocular dominance columns in the 1960s and 1970s.
Wiesel joined the faculty of Rockefeller University in 1983 and became president of the university in 1991.
In 2001, Wiesel was nominated to a panel in the National Institutes of Health to advise on assisting research in developing countries.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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