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Encyclopedia > Torsen

Torsen traction, an automotive part adding differential, was invented by American Vernon Gleasman and manufactured by the Gleason Corporation. Torsen is a contraction of TORque SENsitive. Car redirects here. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, for allowing each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... Torque applied via an adjustable end wrench Relationship between force, torque, and momentum vectors in a rotating system In physics, torque can informally be thought of as rotational force or angular force which causes a change in rotational motion. ...


There are currently three types of Torsen differentials. The original Type I Torsen uses crossed axis helical gears to increase internal friction. The Type II Torsen uses a parallel gear arrangement to achieve a similar effect. The Type I can be designed for higher torque bias ratios than the Type II, but typically has higher backlash and the potential for NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) issues, and requires a precise setup/installation. The Type III is a planetary type differential, in that the intended torque split is not 50/50. The Torsen III will be employed in all non-Haldex Quattro in the future, current applications: Audi S4 manual transmission, Audi RS4, Audi Q7. Also Toyota uses a Torsen III in the center differential of the Toyota 4Runner & Lexus GX470, with manual locking feature, and GM has a Torsen III center differential in the (non rear drive) Chevrolet TrailBlazer SS. Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment. ... Friction is the force that opposes the relative motion or tendency of such motion of two surfaces in contact. ... Spur gears found on a piece of farm equipment. ... Backlash has meaning in both socio-political and engineering contexts. ... Epicyclic gearing is used here to increase output speed. ... Haldex is a Limited Slip Coupling used in vehicles with automatic all wheel system to engage and disengage secondary axle when needed. ... The current Audi S4 is a high performance sport version of the popular Audi A4. ... A manual transmission (also known as a stick shift, straight drive, or standard transmission) is a type of transmission used in automotive applications. ... The Audi RS4 is the highest performance version of the companys A4, sitting above the S4 in the lineup. ... The Audi Q7 is a full-size luxury SUV produced by the German automaker Audi since 2006 (with the help of Noble engineers such as Laboyrie, Gregg and McHewgor), released at the same time as the competing Mercedes-Benz GL-Class. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The Toyota 4Runner is an SUV manufactured by Toyota, sold mainly in the United States, Canada and Mexico and built from 1984 to the present. ... Lexus (レクサス) is Japanese car maker Toyota Motor Corporations brand name for its luxury automobile division. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is the worlds largest automaker and has been since 1931. ... The Chevrolet TrailBlazer is a mid-size SUV from the Chevrolet division of General Motors. ...


The torsen differential works by supporting a torque imbalance, the maximum ratio of torque imbalance is defined by the TBR (Torque Bias Ratio). When a torsen has a 3:1 TBR, that means that one side can handle up to 75% while the other side would have to only handle 25% of applied torque. During acceleration under asymmetric traction conditions, so long as the higher traction side can handle the higher percentage of applied torque, no relative wheelspin will occur. When the traction difference exceeds the TBR, the slower wheel receives the tractive torque of the faster wheel multiplied by the TBR, any extra torque remaining from applied torque contributes to the angular acceleration of the faster wheel. Traction is applied mechanical force used to achieve motion. ... A wheelspin occurs when the driver of a motor vehicle spins the wheels of the vehicle on the road before moving off. ... лInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non-formatted text hereInsert non...


When attempting to turn with a torque sensitive differential, the outer wheel will need to move forward relative to the differential, and the inner wheel will move slower than the differential. Friction in the differential will oppose motion, and that will work to slow the faster side and 'speed up' the slower/inner side. This leads to asymmetric torque distributions in drive wheels, matching the TBR. Cornering in this manner will reduce the torque applied to the outer tire, leading to possibly greater cornering power, unless the inner wheel is overpowered (which is easier to do than with an open differential). When the inner tire (which has less traction due to weight transfer from lateral acceleration) is overpowered it angularly accelerates up to the outer wheel speed (small percent wheel spin) and the differential locks, and if the traction difference does not exceed the TBR, the outer wheel will then have a higher torque applied to it. If the traction difference exceeds the TBR, the outer tire gets the tractive torque of the inner wheel multiplied by the TBR, and the remaining applied torque to the differential contributes to wheel spin up.


This can lead to vastly changing cornering characteristics, and a torque sensitive differential requires expert driving skills to catch the change from enhanced outer rear traction to reduced outer rear traction to avoid rear oversteer. This has led to problems in center differential applications, ie. Audi Quattro 'Spider bite', in that when cornering more power goes to the rear, and with Audi Quattro's front wheel drive like weight distributions 60/40, the rear inner wheel loses traction allowing for a forward torque shift. This changes the cornering balance and sets up an understeer, oversteer, understeer oscillation. Audi actually eliminated this by adding a second torsen differential to the rear axle in the Audi V8. As a cost cutting move, the torsen was removed and this spider bite will be re-remedied by the Torsen III center differential on the Audi Q7. Oversteer is the phenomenon ocurred in an automobile when the rear-end of it doesn´t follow the trajectory of the front-end tending to overtake this one causing the car to spin. ... This article refers to the car named the Audi Quattro. ... Understeer is a term for a car handling condition during cornering in which the circular path of the vehicles motion is of a markedly greater diameter than the circle indicated by the direction its wheels are pointed. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... The Audi V8 was a large luxury sedan built by Audi AG of Germany from 1989 to 1994 as the companys range-topping model and was the first Audi to use its namesake engine configuration. ... The Audi Q7 is a full-size luxury SUV produced by the German automaker Audi since 2006 (with the help of Noble engineers such as Laboyrie, Gregg and McHewgor), released at the same time as the competing Mercedes-Benz GL-Class. ...


When a torsen differential is employed, the slower-moving wheel always receives more torque than the faster-moving wheel. The Torsen IIR-racemaster is the only Torsen to have a preload clutch. So even if a wheel is airborne torque is applied to the other side. If one wheel were raised in the air, the regular Torsens would act like an open differential and no torque would be transferred to the other wheel. This is where the parking brake 'trick' can help out. If the parking brake is applied, assuming that the parking brake applies even resistance to each side, the drag to the airborne side is 'multiplied' through the differential and TBR times the drag torque is applied to the other side. So the ground side would see (TBR X drag torque) minus drag torque, and hopefully that can help restore progress either forward/backwards. In Hummer/HMMWV applications, there are both front and rear torsen differentials, so use of the main brakes will operate this 'trick' on both axles simultaneously. Torque applied via an adjustable end wrench Relationship between force, torque, and momentum vectors in a rotating system In physics, torque can informally be thought of as rotational force or angular force which causes a change in rotational motion. ... Rear side of a Ford V6 engine, looking at the clutch housing on the flywheel Single, dry, clutch friction disc. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, for allowing each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ... This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ...


One of the most famous uses of the Torsen differential is in many of the various Audi quattro models, notably excluding the A3 and TT. It is also used, for example, in the Toyota Supra and Toyota Soarer (or Lexus SC430), the B5 platform revision of the Volkswagen Passat 4motion (based upon the Audi A4), and some versions of the Mazda MX-5/Miata Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and is an almost wholly owned (99. ... This article is about the Audi all wheel drive system, for information on the Audi coupe of the same name, see Audi Quattro. ... The Audi A3 is a compact luxury automobile built by Audi since 1996. ... The Audi TT is a sports car produced by Audi since 1998 in Győr, Hungary. ... The Toyota Celica Supra is a sports car/grand tourer produced by Toyota Motor Company starting in 1979. ... 2nd Generation Toyota Soarer 3rd Generation Toyota Soarer The Toyota Soarer is a luxury sports car sold by Toyota in Japan, which débuted in 1981 with the Z1 series. ... The Lexus SC series is a personal luxury coupé sold by Lexus, the luxury division of Toyota. ... The Volkswagen Passat is a family car built by Volkswagen AG, produced in various forms since 1973. ... Quattro is a permanent all wheel drive system used on Audi brand automobiles. ... The Audi A4 is a Compact executive car produced by the German automaker Audi since 1995. ... The Mazda MX-5 is a popular sports car built by Mazda in Hiroshima, Japan. ...


The HMMWV uses two Torsens, front and rear, with a normal manually lockable center differential (NVG242HD AMG transfer case) in the center. This article refers to the Military HMMWV, not the civilian Hummer sold by General Motors General Characteristics (Humvee) Manufacturer: AM General Length: 4. ...


Torsen applications in USA

  • Audi A4,A6,A8,S4,S6,S8 (center)
  • Ford FX4 (rear)
  • Chevrolet Trailblazer SS (center)
  • Lexus GX470 (center)
  • Toyota 4runner (center)
  • Toyota FJ cruiser (center) (only manual models)

See also

In automotive applications, a limited slip differential (LSD) is a modified or derived type of differential gear arrangement that allows for some difference in rotational velocity of the output shafts, but does not allow the difference in speed to increase beyond a preset amount. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Torsen General Frequently Asked Questions page (944 words)
The Torsen differential is simply a torque multiplier that works through the use of friction generated by thrust forces from the internal gearing.
In response to this, we developed the Torsen T-2R with pre-load to combat those wheel in the air situations.
Torsen differentials are warranted against manufacturing defects based upon a stock vehicle under normal driving conditions.
Torsen differential white paper (4236 words)
With the Torsen differential, Gleason is meeting this challenge of improving traction management in both front and rear wheel drive vehicles, all-wheel drive vehicles, and in a variety of applications of the various drives for use in cars, trucks, military vehicles, construction and utility vehicles, and racing cars.
This feature enables the Torsen differential to support a torque imbalance between drive axles which contributes to the total amount of torque which can he transferred from the engine to the drive axles when the amount of torque which can be supported in one of the drive axles is limited by available traction.
The Torsen differential resists transfers of torque between drive wheels in proportion to the torque applied to the differential housing, and this results in a larger proportion of the applied torque being delivered to the slower rotating drive wheel.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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