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Encyclopedia > Toron

Toron, now Tibnin in southern Lebanon, was a major Crusader castle, built in the mountains on the road from Tyre to Damascus. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The main gatehouse of Harlech Castle, Wales. ... For a wheel tyre, see the article under the US English spelling of the word, tire. ... Damascus by night, pictured from Jabal Qasioun; the green spots are minarets Damascus (Arabic: ‎ translit: Also commonly: الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. ...


It was the centre of the Lordship of Toron, a seigneury within the Kingdom of Jerusalem, actually a rear-vassalage of the Principality of Galilee. The castle was built by Hugh of Falkenberg, second prince of Galilee, in 1105 to help capture Tyre. After Hugh's death it was made an independent seigneury, given to Humphrey I before 1109. Official language Latin, French, Italian, and other western languages; Greek and Arabic also widely spoken Capital Jerusalem, later Acre Constitution Various laws, so-called Assizes of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 by the First Crusade. ... A vavasour, (also vavasor, Old French vavassor, vavassour, French vavasseur, LL. vavassor, probably from vassus vassorum vassal of the vassals) is a term in Feudal law. ... The Principality of Galilee was one of the four major seigneuries of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Humphrey I of Toron (Onfroy de Toron), a Norman, appears initially in 1115 as a vassal of Josselin de Courtenay, prince of Tiberias; the castle at Toron having been built in the years after 1105, he most likely was its lord from that date, having taken part in the First... Events Battle of Naklo Battle of Hundsfeld Fulk of Jerusalem becomes count of Anjou Alfonso I of Aragon marries Urraca of Castile Crusaders capture Tripoli Anselm of Laon becomes chancellor of Laon Births July 25 - Afonso, first king of Portugal Deaths Alfonso VI of Castile Anselm of Canterbury, philosopher and...


After Humphrey I of Toron, the castle and lordship of Toron successively passed to his descendents Humphrey II and Humphrey IV. Banias, which had been given to Baldwin II by the Assassins in 1128, was inherited by Toron around 1148 when Humphrey II married the daughter of Renier Brus, lord of Banias and Assebebe. Humphrey II sold parts of Banias and Chastel Neuf to the Knights Hospitaller in 1157. Banias was merged with Toron until it fell to Nur ad-Din in 1164, and when it was recovered it became part of the Seigneury of Joscelin III of Edessa (see below). Humphrey I of Toron (Onfroy de Toron), a Norman, appears initially in 1115 as a vassal of Josselin de Courtenay, prince of Tiberias; the castle at Toron having been built in the years after 1105, he most likely was its lord from that date, having taken part in the First... Humphrey II of Toron (1117-1179) was lord of Toron and constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Humphrey IV of Toron (c. ... The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries. ... Baldwin of Bourcq (died August 21, 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. ... The Hashshashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) had a militant basis as a religious sect (often referred to as a cult) of Ismaili Muslims from the Nizari sub-sect. ... Events Pope Honorius II recognizes and confirms the Order of the Knights Templar. ... Events Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona conquered Tortosa in posetion of the moors. ... Humphrey II of Toron (1117-1179) was lord of Toron and constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as Knights of Rhodes, Knights of Malta, Cavaliers of Malta, and the Order of St John of Jerusalem) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine hospitaller Order founded in Jerusalem, following the First Crusade, ca. ... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... // Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ...


Humphrey IV was also prince of Oultrejourdain. Toron remained in Crusader possession until 1187 when it fell to the forces of Saladin after the Battle of Hattin when Saladin all but destroyed the Crusader states. Ten years later, in November, 1197, Toron was besieged by the German contingent of the Third Crusade and would have fallen; but the Muslim garrison held out until relief arrived from Egypt. // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Saladin Saladin or Salah al-Din (1137 or 1138–1193; Kurdish: Selahedîn Ayûbî; Arabic: صلاح الدين يوسف بن ايوب; al-Malik al-Nāṣir Ṣalāḥ al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb - Ayyoub; Salah ad-Din being an honorific that means The Righteousness of the Faith in Arabic) was a 12th century... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ... The Crusader states, c. ... Events Amalric II succeeds Henry II of Champagne as king of Jerusalem. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192) was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ...


In 1219 Sultan al-Mu'azzam secretly had the defenses of Toron as well as those of Jerusalem and the castles of Safed and Banyas dismantled. This was done because the Sultan foresaw the necessity of exchanging them for the more crucial defenses at Damietta on the Nile Delta, which had been captured by the forces of the Fifth Crusade who were now threatening Cairo. Additionally, al-Mu'azzam was not prepared to give strong defendable cities to the Crusaders if he could avoid it. Although the exchange proved unnecessary, the geographical position of the sites remained important for the Crusaders who were interested in recovering Jerusalem from Muslim control. // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... Jerusalem (; Hebrew: Yerushalayim; Arabic: al-Quds; Greek Ιεροσόλυμα) is an ancient Middle Eastern city on the watershed between the Mediterranean Sea and the Dead Sea at an elevation of 650-840 meters. ... Safed (Standard Hebrew צְפַת , commonly spelled Tzfat; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Baniyas is a city of northwestern Syria that is located 55 km to the south of Latakia. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... NASA satellite photograph of the Nile Delta The Nile Delta is the delta formed in Northern Egypt where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Fifth Crusade (1217–1221) was an attempt to take back Jerusalem and the rest of Holy Land by first conquering the powerful Muslim state in Egypt. ... Modern Cairo Cairo (Arabic: ‎ translit: ) is the capital city of Egypt (and previously the United Arab Republic) and has a metropolitan area population of approximately 15. ...


Indeed, despite their destruction, Toron, Safed and Banyas were recovered through treaty in 1229, just two years after al-Mu'azzam's death on November 11, 1227, by Frederick II from Sultan al-Kamil. As Toron was sold in 1220 to the Teutonic Knights together with the territories called the Seigneury de Joscelin, it came to a dispute between them and Alice of Armenia, the niece of Humphrey IV and heiress of the lordship of Toron. Alice successfully claimed her rights before the High Court and Frederick II assigned the lordship to her. In 1239, when the treaty ended, Toron fell back to the Ayyubids. Two years later, in 1241, it was restored to the Crusaders due to a treaty between Richard of Cornwall and Sultan as-Salih from Egypt. Events March 18 - Sixth Crusade of Emperor Frederick II ends in truce with Sultan al-Kamil and coronation of Frederick as King of Jerusalem. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... Events Henry III of England declares himself of age and assumes power Births September 30 - Pope Nicholas IV Deaths March 18 - Pope Honorius III (b. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death in 1250. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ...


In 1244, the castles held out against the Khwarezmian army and accomplished their objective of disrupting the Muslim attack on Jerusalem. Nonetheless, Jerusalem eventually fell to the overwhelming number of the Khwarezmian and the primary mission of the castles became obsolete. However, Toron tenuously remained in Crusader hands and was periodically under siege by the Mamluks until the jihad of Baibars further isolated it. Following a brief siege, Baibars in a rare display of mercy allowed the small crusader contigent to evacuate in exchange for surrender which they accepted. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ...


The lords of Toron tended to be very influential in the kingdom; Humphrey II was constable of Jerusalem. Humphrey IV was married to Isabella, King Amalric I's daughter (Toron passed into the royal domain during their marriage but its title was returned to Humphrey IV after their divorce). It was also one of the few to have a straight hereditary succession in the male line, at least for a few generations. The lords of Toron were also connected to the Lordship of Oultrejourdain by the marriage of Humphrey III and the maternal inheritance of Humphrey IV. Toron was later merged with the royal domain of Tyre, which went to a branch of Antioch, then their heirs from Montfort. Isabella of Jerusalem (c. ... Amalric I (also Amaury or Aimery) (1136 – July 11, 1174) was King of Jerusalem 1162–1174, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. ...


Lords of Toron

  • Hugh of Falkenberg (11051107)
  • Humphrey I of Toron (before 1109–after 1136)
  • Humphrey II of Toron (before 1137–1179)
    • (Humphrey III predeceased his father)
  • Humphrey IV of Toron (11791183)
  • Royal domain (11831187)
  • Humphrey IV (restored) (1190 – c. 1192)
    • occupied by Muslims until 1229 and the title not used
  • Alice of Armenia (1229– after 1236), granddaughter of Humphrey III
  • Maria of Antioch-Armenia (after 12361239), daughter of Alice and great-granddaughter of Isabella, daughter of Humphrey III.
    • occupied by Muslims from 1239 until 1241
  • (Philip of Montfort) (1241– before 1257)
  • John of Montfort (before 12571283), Lord of Tyre. It was lost again in 1266
  • Humphrey of Montfort (12831284), Lord of Beirut, Lord of Tyre
  • Roupen of Montfort (12841313), Lord of Beirut
  • Humphrey of Montfort (d. 1326), constable of Cyprus, titular lord of Beirut
  • Eschiva of Montfort (d. bef 1350), wife of Peter I of Cyprus titular lord of Beirut

Toron had two vassals of its own, the Lordship of Chastel Neuf and the Lordship of Maron. Chastel Neuf was built by Hugh of Falkenberg around 1105 but was later given to the Hospitallers, until it fell to Nur ad-Din in 1167. Maron was given in 1229 to the Teutonic Knights in exchange for their claims on Toron. Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Events William Warelwast becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... Humphrey I of Toron (Onfroy de Toron), a Norman, appears initially in 1115 as a vassal of Josselin de Courtenay, prince of Tiberias; the castle at Toron having been built in the years after 1105, he most likely was its lord from that date, having taken part in the First... Humphrey II of Toron (1117-1179) was lord of Toron and constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... Humphrey IV of Toron (c. ... Events Third Council of the Lateran condemned Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first ghettos for Jews Afonso I is recognized as the true King of Portugal by Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Castillian monarchy Philip II is... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Events March 16 - Massacre and mass-suicide of the Jews of York, England prompted by Crusaders and Richard Malebys kill 150-500 Jews in Cliffords Tower June 10 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowned in the Saleph River while leading an army to Jerusalem. ... // Events The Third Crusade ends in disaster. ... Events March 18 - Sixth Crusade of Emperor Frederick II ends in truce with Sultan al-Kamil and coronation of Frederick as King of Jerusalem. ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... // Events May 6 - Roger of Wendover, Benedictine monk and chronicler of St Albanss Abbey dies. ... // Events Births June 17 - King Edward I of England (died 1307) December 17 - Kujo Yoritsugu, Japanese shogun (died 1256) Peter III of Aragon (died 1285) John II, Duke of Brittany (died 1305) Ippen, Japanese monk (died 1289) Deaths March 3 - Vladimir III Rurikovich, Grand Prince of Kiev (born 1187) March... Philip of Montfort, (d. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Events Siege of Rostock ends Foundation year of the Order of the Rose Cross (Rosicrucian Order), according to the Rosicrucian Fellowship. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Osman I (1299-1326) to Orhan I (1326-1359) Aradia de Toscano, is initiated into a Dianic cult of Italian Witchcraft (Stregheria), and discovers through a vision that she is the human incarnation of the goddess Aradia. ... Events 29 August - An English fleet personally commanded by King Edward III defeats a Spanish fleet in the battle of Les Espagnols sur Mer. ... Peter I of Cyprus (1328-17 January 1369) was King of Cyprus since his fathers abdication on him on 1358 till 1369. ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor deposed by his son, Henry V Tamna kingdom annexed by Korean Goryeo Dynasty. ... Events Taira no Kiyomori becomes the first samurai to be appointed Daijo Daijin, chief minister of the government of Japan Peter of Blois becomes the tutor of William II of Sicily Absalon, archbishop of Denmark, leads the first Danish synod at Lund Absalon fortifies Copenhagen William Marshal, the greatest knight...


The Castle

The castle of Toron occupies a steep hill, in fact a Bronze Age tell, north to the village of Tibnin, at a height of 725 m above sea level. It is oval in shape with its outline following the contours of the tell. It once had twelve rectangular towers with one of them - to the south - having been the donjon. The castle, razed in 1266 by the Mamluks was rebuilt 500 years later in the mid-18th century by a local Shiite sheik during his struggle against the Ottoman rule. He used the ruins of the medieval walls as a basis for his rebuilding campaign and thus the castle today mainly appears as an Ottoman construction.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Toron - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (962 words)
It was the centre of the Lordship of Toron, a seigneury within the Kingdom of Jerusalem, actually a rear-vassalage of the Principality of Galilee.
As Toron was sold in 1220 to the Teutonic Knights together with the territories called the Seigneury de Joscelin, it came to a dispute between them and Alice of Armenia, the niece of Humphrey IV and heiress of the lordship of Toron.
However, Toron tenuously remained in Crusader hands and was periodically under siege by the Mamluks until the jihad of Baibars further isolated it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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