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Encyclopedia > Torlakian

Torlakian is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia, Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo). Some linguists classified it as the fourth dialect of Serbo-Croatian language (with Shtokavian, Chakavian and Kaykavian) and today as the second Serbian language (with Shtokavian) dialect. In Bulgaria, these dialects are considered as western Bulgarian dialects. It is not standardized, and its subdialects significantly vary in some features. Motto: Samo Sloga Srbina Spasava (Serbian, Only solidarity will save the Serbs) Anthem: Bože pravde God of Justice Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire... Motto: (Transliteration: ) (English: ) Anthem: (Transliteration: ) (English: ) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian, Albanian1 Government Parliamentary republic  - President Branko Crvenkovski  - Prime Minister Nikola Gruevski Independence From Yugoslavia   - Declared September 8, 1991  Area    - Total 25,333 km² (148th)   (9,779 sq mi)   - Water (%) 1. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (also Croatian or Serbian, Serbian or Croatian) (srpskohrvatski or cрпскохрватски or hrvatskosrpski or hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, was an official language of Yugoslavia (along with Slovenian, Macedonian). ... Shtokavian (Å tokavian, Å¡tokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ... Chakavian (Čakavian, čakavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... Kajkavian (kajkavski) dialect is one of the three dialects of Croatian language. ... The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and by Serbs everywhere. ... Shtokavian (Å tokavian, Å¡tokavski/штокавски) is the primary dialect of the Central South Slavic languages system, Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian language. ...

Geographical distribution of the Torlakian dialect in former Yugoslav republics: (Bulgaria and the Western Outlands excluded here but Torlakian is spoken across the border)
Geographical distribution of the Torlakian dialect in former Yugoslav republics: (Bulgaria and the Western Outlands excluded here but Torlakian is spoken across the border)

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (881x935, 60 KB)This is the historical map of Soc. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (881x935, 60 KB)This is the historical map of Soc. ... A map of the Western Outlands The Western Outlands (Bulgarian: Западните покрайнини) is the Bulgarian name of a region in southeastern Serbia along the border with Bulgaria, which comprises the Serbian municipalities of Tzaribrod (Dimitrovgrad) and Bosilegrad, as well as parts of the municipalities of Pirot, Babušnica and Surdulica. ...


Classification

Some Croatian (like Milan Rešetar and Dalibor Brozović) and Serbian linguists (like Pavle Ivić) classify Torlakian as an old Shtokavian dialect, referring to it as "Prizren-Timok dialect"[1], because some subdialects use word što for "what". However, some subdialects use word kvo and all of the features (including both što and kvo) can be found in Bulgarian language or Bulgarian dialects. Milan ReÅ¡etar (February 1, 1860, Dubrovnik – January 14, 1942, Florence) was а Serbian slavist, linguist and historian. ... Professor Pavle Ivić (December 1, 1924 - September 19, 1999) was a leading South Slavic and general dialectologist and phonologist. ... Bulgarian is an Indo-European language, a member of the Southern branch of the Slavic languages. ...


Some linguists in Bulgaria (Stoyko Stoykov, Rangel Bozhkov) classify Torlakian as a "Belogradchik-Trn" dialects of Bulgarian language and also claim that Torlakian should be classified outside of shtokavian area. But Ivić argues that some Bulgarian dialects rather have some similarities to Serbian than vice versa.[2] He says, that Serbian vernaculars including those of Prizren-Timok dialect have typical West-Southslavic elements, not East-Southslavic as Bulgarian and Macedonian: Prof. ... Belograchik (Bulgarian Белоградчик) is a town in Northwestern Bulgaria. ... Tran (Трън) is a small town in Pernik Province, western Bulgaria. ...

  • the two Proto-Slavic semivowels (ъ, ь) gave only one phoneme in Serbian and Slovenian
  • ǫ gave labials u adn o in S.-C. and Slovenian, it gave unlabilaized ъ in Bulgarian, a in Macedonian)
  • vь- gave u in West, v- in East
  • Proto-Slavic *tj gave č/ć in west, št in East
  • *čr gave cr in West, but was preserved in East
  • Epenthetic l is preserved only in west (S.-C. zemlja, Bulgarian zemja)
  • Distinction between Proto-Slavic /ɲ/ and /n/ is lost in East (S.-C. njega, Bulgarian nego).
  • Consonants in final position preserve their leniency (S.-C. grad, Bulgarian/Macedonian grat)
  • *vs stays preserved without metathesis in East (S.-C. sve, Bulgarian vse)
  • Genitive njega in West, and old genitive on O in East (nego)
  • Nominative Plural of nomina on -a is on -e in West, -i in East
  • Ja (I), ego[citation needed] in West, jas in East
  • Mi 'we' in West, nie in East
  • Distinction between the plural of masculine, feminine and neutrum adjectives is preserved only in West (S.C. beli, bele, bela), not in East (beli for masc., fem. and neutr.)
  • First person singular of verbs is in West -m, and old reflex of *ǫ in East
  • sufixes *-itjь (-ić) and *-atja (-ača) are common in West, not known in East

... In poetry and phonetics, epenthesis (Greek epi on + en in + thesis putting) is the insertion of a consonant, a vowel, or a whole syllable into a word, usually to facilitate pronunciation. ... Metathesis is a sound change that alters the order of phonemes in a word. ...


Notes on speech

A form of Torlakian is spoken in Romania, where indigenous Slavs known as Krašovani (Krashovans), a mixture of original settler Slavs and later settlers from Timočka Krajina (eastern Serbia) have escaped the influence of a standardized language which has existed in Serbia ever since a state was created following the defeat of the Ottomans. In each other region - the Slavic countries - the speech of the locals will still be largely influenced by the standard language, particularly when a new word or concept is introduced. CaraÅŸova (Romanian: CaraÅŸova, Serbian and Croatian: KraÅ¡ova, Hungarian: Krassóvár) is a commune in Romania, known especially for its geographical placement and for the origin of its inhabitants, the Krashovani. ... Map of the Timočka Krajina within Central Serbia Timočka Krajina (Serbian: Timočka Krajina or Тимочка Крајина, Vlach/Romanian: Valea Timocului or Timoc) is a geographical region located in Serbia and Montenegro. ...


Features

Some of the features of Torlakian clearly show how Macedonian yields to Bulgarian, and they both in turn blend into Serbian language, respectively in the north-west and the west.


Vocabulary

Basic Torlakian vocabulary shares most of Slavic roots with Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian, but it also contains a number of borrowed words from Aromanian, Greek, Turkish, and Albanian in the Gora region of the Šar mountain instilled during the course of time. Also, it preserved many words which in the "major" languages became archaisms or shifted meaning. Like other features, vocabulary is inconsistent across subdialects, i.e. a Krashovan need not necessarily understand a Goranac. The Serbian language is one of the standard versions of the Å tokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and by Serbs everywhere. ... Aromanian (also known as Macedo-Romanian, Arumanian or Vlach in most other countries; in Aromanian: limba aromână, limba armânească, armâneashti or armãneshce) is an Eastern Romance language spoken in Southeastern Europe. ... Former Gora municipality in Kosovo, marked in blue Gora (Гора) is a geographical region in southern Kosovo, inhabited by the Gorani people. ... The Sharr mountains Albanian Malet e Sharrit, Sharr) Å ar mountain (Serbian and Macedonian Шар Планина, Å ar Planina; is a mountain located on the southern border of Serbia and Montenegro (in Kosovo) and the northwest part of Republic of Macedonia. ... In language, an archaism is the deliberate use of an older form that has fallen out of current use. ... The Krashovani (Croatian and Serbian: KraÅ¡ovani, Крашовани, KaraÅ¡ovani or KraÅ¡ovanje, KaraÅ¡evci and KoroÅ¡evci; Romanian: CaraÅŸoveni, CârÅŸoveni, CotcoreÅ£i or CocoÅŸi; also known as Krashovans) are a South Slavic people indigenous to CaraÅŸova and other nearby locations in CaraÅŸ-Severin County within... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Å ar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os...


Cases lacking inflections

Macedonian and Bulgarian are on record as being the only two modern Slavic languages to have lost virtually the entire noun case system, with nearly all nouns spoken in the surviving nominative case. That is the case with Torlakian dialect as well; in the north-west, the instrumental merges into the genitive. The locative and the genitive in turn merge into the nominative; further South, all inflections disappear, and the meaning is determined solely by prepositions. The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ...


Lack of phoneme /h/

A unique feature of Macedonian language, Torlakian and a number of Serbian and Bulgarian dialects compared with all other Slavic languages is that, technically, there is no /h/. The appearance of the letter h in the alphabet is reserved mostly for loanwords, and toponyms within Macedonia but outside of the standard language region. In Macedonian, this is the case with eastern towns such as Pehčevo. In fact, the Macedonian language is based in Prilep, Pelagonia and words such as thousand and urgent are iljada and itno in standard Macedonian but hiljada and hitno in Serbian. This is actually a part of an isogloss, a dividing line separating Prilep from Pehčevo in Macedonia at the southern extreme, and reaching central Serbia, (Šumadija) at a northern extreme. In Šumadija, local folk songs may still use the traditional form of I want being oću compared with hoću as spoken in Vojvodina. The Macedonian language (Македонски, Makedonski) is a language in the Eastern group of South Slavic languages and is the official language of the Republic of Macedonia. ... A loanword (or a borrowing) is a word taken in by one language from another. ... In geography and cartography, a toponym is a place name, a geographical name, a proper name of locality, region, or some other part of Earths surface or its natural or artificial feature. ... Pelagonia was an ancient region of Europe later incorporated into Macedon. ... Isoglosses on the Faroe Islands An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ... Å umadija District in Central Serbia proposed Å umadija Region Kalenić village in Å umadija Å umadija is a geographical region in Central Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro. ... Republic of Serbia   â€“Vojvodina   â€“Kosovo (UN admin. ...


Syllabic /l/

Torlakian has preserved much of the ancient syllabic /l/ which, like /r/, can serve the nucleus of a syllable. This is still the case in the Czech and Slovak language. In standard Serbian, Croatian and Bosnian, the syllabic /l/ eventually became /u/ or /o/. In Bulgarian, it became preceded by the vowel represented by ъ (/ɤ/ or /ə/), to separate consonant clusters. Not all Torlak subdialects preserved syllabic /l/ to the full extent, but it is reflected either as full syllabic or in various combinations with [ə], [u], [ɔ] or [a]. Naturally, the /l/ becomes velarized in most such positions, giving /ɫ/.[3] Slovak (slovenčina, slovenský jazyk) is an Indo-European language belonging to the West Slavic languages (together with Czech, Polish and Sorbian). ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Velarization is a secondary articulation of consonants by which the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum during the articulation of the consonant. ... The velarized alveolar lateral approximant (also known as dark l) is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

Torlakian Krašovan (Karas) влк /vɫk/ пек'л /pεkəl/ с'лза /səɫza/ жлт /ʒɫt/
Northern (Svrljig) вук /vuk/ пекал /pεkəɫ/ суза /suza/ жл'т /ʒlət/
Central (Lužnica) вук /vuk/ пек'л /pεkəɫ/ сл'за /sləza/ жл'т /ʒlət/
Southern (Vranje) в'лк /vəlk/ пекал /pεkаl/ солза /sɔɫza/ ж'лт /ʒəɫt/
Western (Prizren) вук /vuk/ пекл /pεkɫ/ слуза /sluza/ жлт /ʒt/
Serbian standard вук /vuk/ пекао /pεkaɔ/ суза /suza/ жут /ʒut/
Bulgarian вълк /vəlk/ пекъл /pεkəl/ сълза /səlza/ жълт /ʒəlt/
Macedonian волк /vɔlk/ пекол /pεkol/ солза /sɔlza/ жолт /ʒɔlt/
English wolf (have) baked tear yellow

Cultural marginalization and ethnic affiliation

The regional names once used by many people in the Torlakian-speaking region was Torlaci (Torlaks) and Šopi (Shops). However, except for mutual understanding, Torlakian speakers seldom had other common ethnic or national consciousness, apart from being Slavs and, mostly, Christians. The borders in the region were frequently shifting before the Ottoman conquest among Byzantine, Serbian and Bulgarian rulers. With Ottoman influence ever weakening, the increase of nationalist sentiment in the Balkans in late 19th and early 20th century, and the redrawing of national boundaries after Balkan wars and World war II, the traditional Torlakian-speaking region had been split. As a result, Torlakian has become a minority in three countries at once. Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power (1683) Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Söğüt (1299-1326), Bursa (1326-1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah... Byzantine Empire (native Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Serbs entered their present territory early in the 7th century AD, settling in six distinct tribal delimitations: Rascia/RaÅ¡ka (present-day western Serbia and northern Montenegro), Bosnia/Bosna (present-day south-central and southeastern Bosnia), Zachumlie/Zahumlje (western Herzegovina), Trebounia/Travunija (eastern Herzegovina), Pagania/Paganija (middle Dalmatia) and... The outcome as of April 1913 Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War (1912-1913) Distribution of races in the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor in 1923, Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, New York (The map does not reflect the results of the 1923... This article is becoming very long. ...


Today, there is no state-sanctioned education in Torlakian language or culture, and the usage of both the language and the regional name Torlaci is gradually vanishing. Torlakian is now seen in Serbia—and to a degree in Macedonia and Bulgaria—as an uneducated and provincial dialect of the dominant language. Also, among the traditional speakers of Torlakian are the non-Serb Slavs of Kosovo such as the Muslim Gorani and Catholic Janjevci, whose ethnic affiliations are appropriated by neighboring nations. A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Gorani or Gorançe or Goranska are a Slavic ethnic group living in Gora region, just south of Prizren in the territory of Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, north-western Macedonia in the Å ar-planina region near Tetovo, as well as in north-eastern Albania, most notably in the village os... Janjevci (Janjevs) are inhabitants of the Kosovo town of Janjevo and surrounding villages, located near Pristina as well as villages centered on Letnica near Vitina (Papare, Vrmez, Vrnavo Kolo). ...


Literature

Literature written in Torlakian is rather sparse, as the dialect has never been an official state language, and for the most part of the history literacy in the region was limited to Eastern Orthodox clergy, which chiefly used Old Church Slavonic in writing. The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that encompasses national jurisdictions such as the Greek Orthodox, Russian Orthodox and other Churches (see Eastern Orthodox Church organization). ... Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Church Slavic, Old Bulgarian, Old Macedonian, and Old Slavonic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavonic dialect of Thessaloniki by 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. ...


One of the earliest literary monuments influenced by Torlakian dialects is Manuscript from Temska from 1762 in which its author Kiril Zhivkovich from Pirot considered his language "Simple Bulgarian". Pirot (Пирот) is a city located in Serbia and Montenegro at 43. ...


Serbian writer Bora Stanković used a lot of Torlakian dialect in his novels, which describe the life of people in Southern Serbia in early 20th century. Comedian writer Stevan Sremac, although born in Vojvodina, spent a portion of his life in southern Serbia, and his novels Zona Zamfirova and Ivkova slava depict the mentality and language of its inhabitants. Borisav-Bora Stanković (Vranje, March 31, 1875-Belgrade October 22, 1927) was a Serbian writer belonging to school of realism. ... Comedy has a classical meaning (comical theatre) and a popular one (the use of humour with an intent to provoke laughter in general). ... Stevan Sremac (November 11, 1855, Senta – August 13, 1906, Sokobanja) was a Serbian realist and comedian writer. ... Zona Zamfirova (Зона Замфирова) is a 1906 book by Serbian author Stevan Sremac, as well as a 2002 comedy-drama film based on the book and directed by Zdravko Å otra. ... Slavas cake Slava (Serbian Cyrillic: Слава) is a Serb custom of celebrating a family saint. ...


The recent screening of the film Zona Zamfirova by director Zdravko Šotra attracted huge popularity in Serbia and Montenegro. However, many spectators, especially from northern Serbia, commented that "the film was good but it really needs subtitles". Film refers to the celluloid medium on which motion pictures are printed. ... Zona Zamfirova (Зона Замфирова) is a 1906 book by Serbian author Stevan Sremac, as well as a 2002 comedy-drama film based on the book and directed by Zdravko Å otra. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... In printed material In printed material, a subtitle is an explanatory or alternate title. ...


References

General references

  • Dijalekti istočne i južne Srbije, Aleksandar Belić, Srpski dijalektološki zbornik, 1, 1905.
  • Encyclopedia of the Languages of Europe, Glanville Price, Blackwell Publishing, p. 423.
  • Language and Conflict: A Neglected Relationship, Dan Smith, Paul A Chilton - Language Arts & Disciplines, 1998, Page 59
  • South Slavic and Balkan Linguistics, A. Barentsen, Rodopi, 1982
  • Hrvatska dijalektologija 1, Josip Lisac, Golden marketing – Tehnička knjiga, Zagreb, 2003.
  • The Slavonic Languages, Bernard Comrie, Greville G Corbett - Foreign Language Study, 2002, pp 382-384.

Footnotes

  1. ^ Pavle Ivić, Dijalektološka karta štokavskog narečja
  2. ^ Ivić Pavle, Dijalektologija srpskohtrvatskog jezika, 2001, 25 (also published in German)
  3. ^ Josip Lisac, Osnovne značajke torlačkoga narječja

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Torlakian - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1403 words)
Torlakian is the name used for the Slavic dialects spoken in Southern and Eastern Serbia, Northwest Republic of Macedonia (Kratovo-Kumanovo) and Northwest Bulgaria (Vidin-Bregovo).
Torlakian is now seen in Serbia—and to a degree in Macedonia and Bulgaria—as an uneducated and provincial dialect of the dominant language.
Literature written in Torlakian is rather sparse, as the dialect has never been an official state language, and for the most part of the history literacy in the region was limited to Eastern Orthodox clergy, which chiefly used Old Church Slavonic in writing.
Krashovani - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (448 words)
The question of whether the Torlakian dialect belongs to the eastern or western branches of South Slavic languages is also disputed, and it is often classified as a transitional dialect between the two.
The Catholic supremacy inside the Kingdom of Hungary (to which the Banat region belonged at the time) may account for their distinctiveness from the rest of the Torlakian-speaking population in present-day eastern Serbia.
Their dialect is an archaic speech elsewhere preserved only in the area of eastern and southern Serbia and in the Republic of Macedonia and Bulgaria, the Torlakian dialect of the Timok valley around Zaječar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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