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Encyclopedia > Toreutics
Ewer from the Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós (Height 23 cm, weight 733 g.)[1]
Ancient Mesopotamia
Euphrates · Tigris
Cities / Empires
Sumer: Uruk · Ur · Eridu
Kish · Lagash · Nippur
Akkadian Empire: Akkad
Babylon · Isin · Susa
Assyria: Assur · Nineveh
Dur-Sharrukin · Nimrud
Babylonia · Chaldea
Elam · Amorites
Hurrians · Mitanni
Kassites · Urartu
Chronology
Kings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Language
Aramaic
Sumerian · Akkadian
Elamite · Hurrian
Mythology
Enûma Elish
Gilgamesh · Marduk


Toreutics is the art of working metal[2][3], by hammering gold or silver (or other materials), engraving, embossing and chasing to form minute detailed reliefs or small engraved patterns[4]. Toreutics can include metal-engraving - forward-pressure linear metal removal with a burin[5]. This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Map of modern Romania (right pannel) and location of Sânnicolau Mare (left pannel), ~50km from SW-Arad/NW-TimiÅŸoara. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and Southwest Iran. ... Image File history File links Babylonlion. ... Surfer Rosa The Euphrates (IPA: /juːˈfreɪtiːz/; Greek: EuphrátÄ“s; Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu; Hebrew: פְּרָת PÄ•rāth; Syriac: Prâth; Arabic: الفرات Al-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Kurdish: فرهات, Firhat, Ferhat, Azeri: FÉ™rat) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... Sumer (or Å umer) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in the southern part of Mesopotamia (southeastern Iran) from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term Sumerian applies... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see UR. Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the mouth (at the time) of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a security. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Assur (Assyrian: ܐܫܘܪ) also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian AÅ¡Å¡ur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... , For other uses, see Nineveh (disambiguation). ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Chaldean. ... Elam (Persian: تمدن ایلام) is one of the oldest recorded civilizations. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or AmurrÅ«m (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... For the history of the kingdom of Mitanni (1500–1300 BC), see Mitanni. ... Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... // The Kassites were a Near-Eastern mountain tribe which migrated to the Zagros Mountains and Mesopotamia (present Doroud) in 3000 and 4000 BC.[1] They spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This page lists the Kings of Assyria from earliest times. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... Aramaic is a Semitic language with a four-thousand year history. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Akkadian (lišānum akkadÄ«tum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken by the ancient Elamites (also known as Ilamids). ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians (Khurrites), a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. Hurrian was the language of the Mitanni kingdom in northern Mesopotamia, and was likely spoken at least initially in Hurrian settlements in... Mesopotamian mythology is the collective name given to Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian, and Babylonian mythologies from the land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in Iraq. ... Enûma EliÅ¡ is the Babylonian creation epic. ... Gilgamesh, according to the Sumerian king list, was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda, ruling circa 2650 BC. He is also the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, which says that his mother was Ninsun, (whom some call Rimat... Marduk (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical: Merodach) was the Babylonian name of a late-generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi (18th century... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Engraving is the practice of incising a design onto a hard, flat surface, by cutting grooves into it. ...

Contents

Archeological background

Toreutics claims great antiquity[6]. It was practised in the 'Bronze Age' and was well established centuries before the shaft graves[7]. Toreutics florished to an unusual degree among the peoples of Asia Minor, Assyria, Babylon, and passed from thence to ancient Persia[8]. One spectacular example of the direct influence of Persia in toreutics is believed to be the Treasure of Nagyszentmiklós found in Transylvania in 1799, and considered to be work of Old Bulgarian[9] gold smiths. It consists of 23 vessels and has been attributed to Attila's Huns[10], the Avars[11] and Pechenegs. The majority of scholars however, consider it Bulgarian (Proto-Bulgarians[12], Bulgars), because of its runic inscriptions[13]. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... A shaft tomb or shaft grave is a type of burial structure formed from a deep and narrow shaft sunk into natural rock. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to... An Assyrian winged bull, or lemmasu. ... Babylon (in Arabic: بابل; in Syriac: ܒܒܙܠ in Hebrew:בבל) was an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq), the ruins of which can be found in present-day Babil Province, about 50 miles (80 km) south of Baghdad. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Map of modern Romania (right pannel) and location of Sânnicolau Mare (left pannel), ~50km from SW-Arad/NW-TimiÅŸoara. ... Map of Romania with Transylvania in yellow Transylvania (Romanian: or ; Hungarian: ; German: ; Serbian: / Transilvanija or / Erdelj) is a historical region in central and western Romania. ... Vessels are a post-rock band from Leeds, UK. Vessels were born from the ashes of A Day Left in September 2005. ... For other uses, see Attila (disambiguation). ... The Huns were a confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks, also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppes people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... Map showing the location of Bulgars, 650. ... Bulgar warriors slaughter Byzantines, from the Menology of Basil II, 10th century. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Etymology

Toreutics comes from Greek -toreutikos[14]: of metal work; from toreutos: worked in relief; from toreuein[15]; to work in relief; from toreus: a boring tool; see terə- in Indo-European roots. The art of working metal or other materials by the use of embossing and chasing to form minute detailed reliefs. The origin of 'toreutics' goes back to 1830–40; < Gk toreutikós, equiv. to toreú(ein) to bore, chase, emboss (v. deriv. of toreús graving tool) -tikos. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ...


Applications

See also

The Parthenons facade showing an interpretation of golden rectangles in its proportions. ... The Ancient World Antique Furniture Pottery of Ancient Greece The Byzantine Empire The Antique and Medieval Asian World Chinese Pottery Japanese Pottery Korean Pottery The Arts of Islam Islamic pottery Persian rug Renaissance Europe Cassone Baroque Europe Eighteenth-Century Europe Carpet Neoclassicism Rococo Nineteenth-Century Europe Arts and Crafts movement... // Medieval art Main article: Medieval art Saint Matthew from the Lindisfarne Gospels. ... Byzantine earrings - gold, emeralds, amethysts, pearls - 10th century[1] The Preslav Treasure was found in autumn of 1977 at the vineyard in Castana, 3 km to the north - west of the second Bulgarian capital – Veliki Preslav[2]. The excavations that followed revealed more than 170 golden, silver and bronze objects... Lion and griffin fighting, Lestnitsa treause (Lovech). ... A goldsmith creating a new ring A goldsmith is a metalworker who specializes in working with precious metals, usually to make jewelry. ... Map of modern Romania (right pannel) and location of Sânnicolau Mare (left pannel), ~50km from SW-Arad/NW-Timişoara. ... Dhvaja (Victory banner) - pole design with silk scarfs, on the background the Potala Palace Dhvaja (Skt. ...

References

  1. ^ Kells Portraits and Eastern Ornament by Harold Picton in The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs, Vol. 73, No. 426 (Sep., 1938), pp. 121-123.
  2. ^ Aesthetics: Lectures on Fine Art Volume II (Aesthetics) by G. W. F. Hegel and T. M. Knox (1998) p.161
  3. ^ How to Understand Sculpture by Margaret Thomas, Kessinger Publishing, 2005, p.25
  4. ^ Hutchinson Encyclopaedia. Helicon Publishing LTD 2007
  5. ^ Jewelry Concepts & Technology by Oppi Untracht (1982) p.283
  6. ^ How to Understand Sculpture by Margaret Thomas, Kessinger Publishing, 2005, p.25-6
  7. ^ Social Transformations in Archaeology: Global and Local Perspectives (Material Cultures) by Kri Kristiansen (1998) p.135
  8. ^ The Cambridge History of Iran by I. Gershevitch (1985) p.154
  9. ^ A Short History of Modern Bulgaria by R.J. Crampton, Cambridge University Press, 1987
  10. ^ The Empire of the Steppes, a History of Central Asia by Rene Grousset (transl. by Naomi Walford), Rutgers University Press, 2005, p.25
  11. ^ Worriors of the Steppe by Erik Hildinger, De Capo Press, 1997, pp. 57-92
  12. ^ Bulgaria - Land of Ancient Civilizations by Dimiter Dimitrov, Foreign Language Press, Sofia 1961, p.33
  13. ^ Bulgarian's Treasures from the Past by Ivan Venedikov, Sava Boyadjiev and Dimiter Kartalev, Foreign Languages Press, Sofia 1965, pp. 345-55.
  14. ^ Sculpture: Some Observations on Shape and Form from Pygmalion's Creative Dream by Johann Gottfried Herder and Jason Gaiger (2002)
  15. ^ Conspiracy Of Catiline And The Jurgurthine War by Sallust (2004/6) p.62/72
  16. ^ Athens and Persia in the Fifth Century BC: A Study in Cultural Receptivity by Margaret C. Miller (2004) p.59
  17. ^ The history of the origins of Christianity: Volume 3 by Ernest Renan (2007) p.95
  18. ^ Antique Brass & Copper Identification & Value Guide by Mary Frank Gaston (1991) p.19

 
 

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