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Encyclopedia > Topps
For the meat company, see Topps Meat Company.

The Topps Company, Inc. is a company based in New York City that manufactures candy and collectibles. It is best known as a leading producer of baseball cards and other sports-related trading cards. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Topps Meat Company was a privately owned family company founded in 1940,[1] headquartered in Elizabeth, New Jersey. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses, see Candy (disambiguation). ... A collectible (or collectable) is typically a manufactured item designed for people to collect. ... A baseball card is one type of trading card, relating to baseball, usually printed on some type of paper stock or card stock. ... Various trading cards A trading card (or collectible card) is a small card which is intended for trading and collecting. ...

Contents

Company history

Topps itself was founded in 1938, but the company can trace its roots back to an earlier firm, American Leaf Tobacco. Founded in 1890 by Morris Shorin, the American Leaf Tobacco Co. imported tobacco to the United States and sold it to other tobacco companies. (American Leaf Tobacco should not be confused with the American Tobacco Company, which monopolized US-grown tobacco during this period.) Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... The American Tobacco Company was founded in 1890 by J. B. Duke as a merger between a number of tobacco manufacturers including Allen and Ginter. ...


American Leaf Tobacco encountered difficulties as big butt duttiesWorld War I cut off Turkish supplies of tobacco to the United States, and later as a result of the Great Depression. Shorin's sons, Abram, Ira, Philip, and Joseph, decided to focus on a new product but take advantage of the company's existing distribution channels. To do this, they relaunched the company as Topps, with the name meant to indicate that it would be "tops" in its field. The chosen field was the manufacture of chewing gum, selected after going into the produce business was considered and rejected. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Chewing gum Chewing gum is a type of confectionery designed for chewing. ... Produce on display at La Boqueria market in Barcelona, Spain. ...


At the time, chewing gum was still a relative novelty sold in individual pieces. Topps's most successful early product was Bazooka bubblegum, which was packaged with a small comic on the wrapper. Starting in 1950, the company decided to try increasing gum sales by packaging them together with trading cards featuring Western character Hopalong Cassidy (William Boyd) at the time Boyd, as one of the biggest stars of early television, was featured in newspaper articles and on magazine covers, along with a wave of Hopalong merchandising. When Topps next introduced baseball cards as a product, the cards immediately became its primary emphasis. Bazooka is a brand of bubble gum that began to be marketed in the U.S. by the Brooklyn, New York based Topps Company shortly after World War II. The gum was packaged in a patriotic red, white, and blue color scheme, although Topps claims that it took the name... For other uses, see Bubblegum (disambiguation). ... Broncho Billy Anderson, from The Great Train Robbery The Western movie is one of the classic American film genres. ... This article is about the fictional character. ... William Boyd on Topper William Boyd (June 5, 1895 - September 12, 1972) was an American actor. ...


The so-called "Father of the modern baseball card" would be Sy Berger, a 28-year old World War II veteran who went home and designed the 1952 Topps baseball card set on his kitchen table, with photos, autograph facsimile, name, position, team and logo on the front; height, weight, bats, throws, birthplace, birthday, baseball stats and a short bio on the back. The basic design is still in use today. Berger would work for Topps for 50 years (1947-97) and serve as a consultant for another five, becoming a well-known figure on the baseball scene, and the face of Topps to major league baseball players, whom he signed up annually and paid in merchandise like refrigerators and carpeting.


Recognizing his negotiating skills, the Shorins sent Sy to London in 1964 to negotiate the rights for Topps to produce Beatles trading cards. Arriving without an appointment, Sy succeeded by speaking in Yiddish to Brian Epstein, the Beatles manager.


Around 1960, during a spring cleaning effort at the Topps Brooklyn headquarters, Sy hired a garbage boat, loaded 300 to 500 cases of 1952 high-series cards, and rode with them as a tugboat pulled them off the New Jersey shore. The cards were then dumped into the Atlantic Ocean. [1] The cards included Mickey Mantle's first Topps card, the most valuable card of the modern era. No one at the time, of course, knew the collector's value the cards would one day attain. Currently, a pack of 1952 Topps is worth at least $5,000. At $5,000 per pack, the value of the cards dumped into the Atlantic on that fateful day is a staggering $1,440,000,000. Although, the value of 1952 Topps cards would not be as high today if all of these cards hadn't been disposed of in the first place.


Incorporation

The company began its existence as Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., a partnership between the four Shorin brothers. It later incorporated under New York law in 1947. The entire company originally operated out of Brooklyn, but production facilities were moved to a plant in Duryea, Pennsylvania in 1965. Corporate offices remained at 254 36th Street in New York, a location in the Brooklyn waterfront district by the Gowanus Expressway. In 1994, the headquarters relocated to One Whitehall Street in lower Manhattan. A partnership is a type of business entity in which partners share with each other the profits or losses of the business undertaking in which all have invested. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ... Duryea is a borough located in Luzerne County, Pennsylvania. ... The original Gowanus Expressway in 1954, before widening. ... This article is about the borough of New York City. ...


After being privately held for several decades, Topps offered stock to the public for the first time in 1972 with the assistance of investment banking firm White, Weld & Co. The company returned to private ownership when it was acquired in a leveraged buyout led by Forstmann Little & Company in 1984. The new ownership group again made Topps into a publicly traded company in 1987, now renamed to The Topps Company, Inc. In this incarnation, the company was incorporated in Delaware for legal purposes, but company headquarters remained in New York. Management was left in the hands of the Shorin family throughout all of these maneuverings. A leveraged buyout (or LBO, or highly-leveraged transaction (HLT), or bootstrap transaction) occurs when a financial sponsor gains control of a majority of a target companys equity through the use of borrowed money or debt. ... Forstmann, Little & Company is a private equity firm, specializing in leveraged buyouts (LBOs). ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ...


Shareholder dispute and buyout

Criticism of the company's financial performance and flat stock price led two hedge funds holding 7.4% of the stock to launch a proxy fight in July 2006. Calling for better management of the company as the Topps Full Value Committee, they tried to place three members on the company's board of directors at the annual shareholder meeting. In a compromise with Topps, the three dissident shareholders were elected to the Topps board to replace two directors running for re-election, while CEO Arthur Shorin (son of Joseph) stayed on as a tenth member of the board. A hedge fund is a private investment fund charging a performance fee and typically open to only a limited range of qualified investors. ... Proxy fight is an event that may occur when opposition develops to a corporation management among its stockholders. ... Chairman of the Board redirects here. ...


The battle extended into 2007 with a $385 million buyout offer led by the firms Madison Dearborn and Tornante (an investment company started by former longtime Disney CEO Michael Eisner). The price of $9.75 per share was endorsed by Topps executives, but the dissident board members felt it undervalued the company and pushed to shop for other bidders. This led to discussions of a potential merger with the rival Upper Deck Company, which was prepared to buy Topps for $10.75 per share (a total of about $425 million). Topps management decided to reject this offer, citing concerns about the financing and potential antitrust regulation; Upper Deck pursued it for several more months, but as a hostile takeover bid. Madison Dearborn Partners (MDP) is a private equity firm specializing in buyouts of private or publicly held companies, or divisions of larger companies; recapitalizations of family-owned or closely held companies; balance sheet restructurings; acquisition financings; and growth capital investments in mature companies. ... The Tornante Company is a privately held investment firm founded by former Walt Disney Company CEO Michael Eisner in 2005. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... Michael Dammann Eisner (born March 7, 1942) was CEO of The Walt Disney Company from September 22, 1984 to September 30, 2005. ... Upper Deck Company, LLC (colloquially as Upper Deck, Upper Deck Authenticated, Ltd. ... This article is about anti-competitive business behavior. ... Hostile takeover can refer to: For the business usage see takeover. ...


Upper Deck eventually withdrew its offer, complaining that Topps had impeded any reasonable efforts toward a merger. Meanwhile, a vote on the lower bid was delayed in the aftermath of Upper Deck's withdrawal, allowing management more time to lobby for shareholder support. The buyout was eventually approved in a special shareholders meeting by nearly two-thirds of the shares voting. The result was close, however, as the bloc voting for the deal was only a narrow majority of total shares outstanding, including those not voted (a requirement to complete the deal).


On October 12, 2007, Topps announced the closing of the acquisition by Michael Eisner's Tornante Company and Madison Dearborn Partners. [2]


Topps baseball cards: A history

Entry into the baseball card market

In 1951, Topps produced its first baseball cards in two different sets known today as Red Backs and Blue Backs. Each set contained 52 cards, like a deck of playing cards, and in fact the cards could be used to play a game that would simulate the events of a baseball game. Also like playing cards, the cards had rounded corners and were blank on one side, which was colored either red or blue (hence the names given to these sets). The other side featured the portrait of a player within a baseball diamond in the center, and in opposite corners a picture of a baseball together with the event for that card, such as "fly out" or "single". For the Russian group of artists, see Jack of Diamonds (artists). ... For other uses, see Game (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... A baseball A baseball, is a ball used primarily in the sport of the same name, baseball. ... In baseball, an out occurs when the defensive team effects any of a number of different events, and the umpire rules a batter or baserunner out. ... In baseball, a single is the most common type of base hit, accomplished through the act of a batter safely reaching first base by striking the ball and getting to first before being made out, without the benefit of a fielders misplay (see error) or another runner being put...


Topps changed its approach in 1952, this time creating a much larger (407 total) set of baseball cards and packaging them with its signature product, bubblegum. The company also decided that its playing card model was too small (2 inches by 2-5/8 inches) and changed the dimensions to 2-3/4 inches by 3-5/8 inches with square corners. The cards now had a color portrait on one side, with statistical and biographical information on the other. This set became a landmark in the baseball card industry, and today the company considers this its first true baseball card set.In 1957, Topps shrank the dimensions of its cards slightly, to 2-1/2 inches by 3-1/2 inches, setting a standard that remains the basic format for most sports cards produced in the United States. It was at this time Topps began to use color photographs in their set. For other uses, see Bubblegum (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Portrait (disambiguation). ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... Some Topps baseball cards. ...


The cards were released in several series over the course of the baseball season, a practice Topps would continue with its baseball cards until 1974. However, the last series of each year did not sell as well, as the baseball season wore on and popular attention began to turn towards football. Thus cards from the last series are much scarcer and are typically more expensive (even commons) than earlier series of the same year. Topps was left with a substantial amount of surplus stock in 1952, which it largely disposed of by dumping many cards into the Atlantic. In later years, Topps either printed series in smaller quantities late in the season or destroyed excess cards. As a result, cards with higher numbers from this period are rarer than low numbers in the same set, and collectors will pay significantly higher prices for them. The last series in 1952 started with card #311, which is Topps' first card of Mickey Mantle and remains the most valuable Topps card ever (and the most valuable post-1948 card). The 1952 Topps Mantle is often mistakenly referred to as Mickey's rookie card, but that honor belongs to his 1951 Bowman card (which is worth about a third of the 1952 Topps card). United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... The Atlantic Ocean, not including Arctic and Antarctic regions. ... Mickey Charles Mantle (October 20, 1931 – August 13, 1995) was an American baseball player who was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1974. ...


The combination of baseball cards and bubblegum was popular among young boys, and given the mediocre quality of the gum, the cards quickly became the primary attraction. In fact, the gum eventually became a hindrance because it tended to stain the cards, thus impairing their value to collectors who wanted to keep them in pristine condition. It was finally dropped from baseball card packs in 1992, although Topps began its Heritage line, which included gum, in the year 2001. Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...


Competition for player contracts

During this period, baseball card manufacturers generally obtained the rights to depict players on merchandise by signing individual players to contracts for the purpose. Topps first became active in this process through an agent called Players Enterprises in July 1950, in preparation for its first 1951 set. The later acquisition of rights to additional players allowed Topps to release its second series. A contract is a legally binding exchange of promises or agreement between parties that the law will enforce. ... Agency is an area of law dealing with a contractual or quasi-contractual relationship between at least two parties in which one, the principal, authorizes the other, the agent, to represent her or his legal interests and to perform legal acts that bind the principal. ...


This promptly brought Topps into furious competition with Bowman Gum, another company producing baseball cards. Bowman had become the primary maker of baseball cards and driven out several competitors by signing its players to exclusive contracts. The language of these contracts focused particularly on the rights to sell cards with chewing gum, which had already been established in the 1930s as a popular product to pair with baseball cards. Bowman Gum was a Philadelphia-based manufacturer of bubble gum and trading cards in the period surrounding World War II. Originally known as Gum, Inc. ... Chewing gum Chewing gum is a type of confectionery designed for chewing. ...


To avoid the language of Bowman's existing contracts, Topps sold its 1951 cards with caramel candy instead of gum. However, because Bowman had signed many players in 1950 to contracts for that year, plus a renewal option for one year, Topps included in its own contracts the rights to sell cards with gum starting in 1952 (as it ultimately did). Topps also tried to establish exclusive rights through its contracts by having players agree not to grant similar rights to others, or renew existing contracts except where specifically noted in the contract. Caramel candy For other uses, see Caramel (disambiguation). ... A real option is the right, but not the obligation, to undertake some business decision, typically the option to make a capital investment. ...


Bowman responded by adding chewing gum "or confections" to the exclusivity language of its 1951 contracts, and also sued Topps in U.S. federal court. The lawsuit alleged infringement on Bowman's trademarks, unfair competition, and contractual interference. The court rejected Bowman's attempt to claim a trademark on the word "baseball" in connection with the sale of gum, and disposed of the unfair competition claim because Topps had made no attempt to pass its cards off as being made by Bowman. The contract issue proved more difficult because it turned on the dates when a given player signed contracts with each company, and whether the player's contract with one company had an exception for his contract with the other. Map of the boundaries of the United States Courts of Appeals and United States District Courts The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system. ... Civil action redirects here. ... “(TM)” redirects here. ...


As the contract situation was sorted out, several Topps sets during these years had a few "missing" cards, where the numbering of the set skips several numbers because they had been assigned to players whose cards could not legally be distributed. The competition, both for consumer attention and player contracts, continued until 1956, when Topps bought out Bowman. This left Topps as the dominant producer of baseball cards for a number of years.


Consolidation of a monopoly

The next company to challenge Topps was Fleer, another gum manufacturer. Fleer signed star Ted Williams to an exclusive contract in 1959 and sold a set of cards oriented around him. Williams retired the next year, so Fleer began adding around him other mostly retired players in a Baseball Greats series, which was sold with gum. Two of these sets were produced before Fleer finally tried a 67-card set of currently active players in 1963. However, Topps held onto the rights of most players and the set was not particularly successful. The Fleer Corporation, founded by Frank H. Fleer in the mid-19th century, was the first company to successfully manufacture bubblegum. ... Theodore Samuel Williams (August 30, 1918 – July 5, 2002), best known as Ted Williams, nicknamed The Kid, the Splendid Splinter, Teddy Ballgame and The Thumper, was an American left fielder in Major League Baseball. ...


Stymied, Fleer turned its efforts to supporting an administrative complaint filed by the Federal Trade Commission, alleging that Topps was engaging in unfair competition through its aggregation of exclusive contracts. A hearing examiner ruled against Topps in 1965, but the Commission reversed this decision on appeal. The Commission concluded that because the contracts only covered the sale of cards with gum, competition was still possible by selling cards with other small, low-cost products. However, Fleer chose not to pursue such options and instead sold its remaining player contracts to Topps for $395,000 in 1966. The decision gave Topps an effective monopoly of the baseball card market. | logo_caption = | seal = US-FederalTradeCommission-Seal. ... This article is about the economic term. ...


That same year, however, Topps faced an attempt to undermine its position from the nascent players' union, the Major League Baseball Players Association. Struggling to raise funds, the MLBPA discovered that it could generate significant income by pooling the publicity rights of its members and offering companies a group license to use their images on various products. After initially putting players on Coca-Cola bottlecaps, the union concluded that the Topps contracts did not pay players adequately for their rights. The Lawrence textile strike (1912), with soldiers surrounding peaceful demonstrators A trade union or labor union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas of wages, hours, and working conditions. ... The Major League Baseball Players Association (or MLBPA) is the union of professional major-league baseball players. ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... The wave shape (known as the dynamic ribbon device) present on all Coca-Cola cans throughout the world derives from the contour of the original Coca-Cola bottles. ... Heineken bottle cap Bottle caps are used to seal the opening of a bottle. ...


MLBPA executive director Marvin Miller then approached Joel Shorin, the president of Topps, about renegotiating these contracts. At this time, Topps had every major league player under contract, generally for five years plus renewal options, so Shorin declined. After continued discussions went nowhere, the union before the 1968 season asked its members to stop signing renewals on these contracts, and offered Fleer the exclusive rights to market cards of most players (with gum) starting in 1973. Although Fleer declined the proposal, by the end of the year Topps had agreed to double its payments to each player from $125 to $250, and also to begin paying players a percentage of Topps's overall sales. The figure for individual player contracts has since increased to $500. Marvin Julian Miller (born April 14, 1917 in The Bronx, New York City) is the former executive director of the Major League Baseball Players Association (MLBPA) from 1966 - 1982. ... Major Leagues redirects here. ...


As a byproduct of this history, Topps continues to use individual player contracts as the basis for its baseball card sets today. This contrasts with other manufacturers, who all obtain group licenses from the MLBPA. The difference has occasionally affected whether specific players are included in particular sets. Players who decline to sign individual contracts will not have Topps cards even when the group licensing system allows other manufacturers to produce cards of the player, as happened with Alex Rodriguez early in his career. On the other hand, if a player opts out of group licensing, as Barry Bonds did in 2004, then manufacturers who depend on the MLBPA system will have no way of including him. Topps, however, can negotiate individually and was belatedly able to create a 2004 card of Bonds. In addition, Topps is the only manufacturer able to produce cards of players who worked as replacement players during the 1994 baseball strike, since they are barred from union membership and participation in the group licensing program. Alexander Emmanuel Alex Rodriguez (born July 27, 1975, in New York, New York), commonly nicknamed A-Rod, is a Dominican-American baseball infielder. ... Barry Lamar Bonds (born July 24, 1964 in Riverside, California) is currently a left fielder for the San Francisco Giants of Major League Baseball. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1994 Major League Baseball strike was the eighth work stoppage in baseball history, as well as the fourth in-season work stoppage in 23 years. ...


The monopoly and its end

A semblance of competition returned to the baseball card market in the 1970s when Kellogg's began producing "3-D" cards and inserting them in boxes of breakfast cereal (originally Corn Flakes, later Raisin Bran and other Kellogg's brands). The Kellogg's sets contained fewer cards than Topps sets, and the cards served as an incentive to buy the cereal rather than being the intended focus of the purchase, as tended to be the case for cards distributed with smaller items like candy or gum. Topps appears not to have considered the Kellogg's cards a threat and took no action to stop them. For other things with Kellogg in the name, see Kellogg (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cornflakes in a bowl Corn flakes are a popular breakfast cereal originally manufactured by Kelloggs through the treatment of corn. ... A Raisin Bran box Raisin bran is generally consisting of wheat bran flakes mixed with raisins. ... For other things with Kellogg in the name, see Kellogg (disambiguation). ...


The Topps monopoly on baseball cards was finally broken by a lawsuit that let Fleer and another company, Donruss, enter the market in 1981. Fleer and Donruss began making large, widely distributed sets to compete directly with Topps, packaged with gum. When the ruling was overturned on appeal in August of 1981, Topps appeared to have regained its monopoly, but both of its competitors instead began packaging their cards with other baseball items--logo stickers from Fleer, and cardboard puzzle pieces from Donruss. Other manufacturers later followed, but Topps remains one of the leading brands in the baseball card hobby. In response to the competition, Topps began regularly issuing additional "Traded" sets featuring players who had changed teams since the main set was issued, following up on an idea it had experimented with a few years earlier. Donruss is a U.S. brand of bubble gum and trading card. ... A hobby is a spare-time recreational pursuit. ...


Topps in the modern baseball card industry

While "Traded" or "Update" sets were originally conceived to deal with players who changed teams, they became increasingly important for another reason. In order to fill out a 132-card set (the number of cards that fit on a single sheet of the uncut cardboard used in the production process), it would contain a number of rookie players who had just reached the major leagues and not previously appeared on a card. They also included a few single cards of players who previously appeared in the regular set on a multi-player "prospects" card; one notable example is the 1982 Topps Traded Cal Ripken, Jr.. Since a "rookie card" is typically the most valuable for any given player, the companies now competed to be the first to produce a card of players who might be future stars. Increasingly, they also included highly touted minor league players who had yet to play in the major leagues. For example, Topps obtained a license to produce cards featuring the U.S. Olympic baseball team and thus produced the first card of Mark McGwire prior to his promotion to the major league level, and one that would become quite valuable to collectors for a time. This card from the 1984 squad appeared in Topps's regular 1985 set, but by the next Olympic cycle the team's cards had been migrated to the "Traded" set. As a further step in this race, Topps resurrected its former competitor Bowman as a subsidiary brand in 1989, with Bowman sets similarly chosen to include a lot of young players with bright prospects. The Rookie: Norman Rockwells cover for The Saturday Evening Post Rookie is a term for a person who is in their first year of play of their sport and has little or no professional experience. ... Cal Ripken redirects here. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Mark David McGwire (born October 1, 1963 in Pomona, California) is a former professional baseball player who played the majority of his major league career with the Oakland Athletics before finishing his career with the St. ...


Also beginning in 1989 with the entry of Upper Deck into the market, card companies began to develop higher-end cards using improved technology. Following Topps's example, other manufacturers now began to diversify their product lines into different sets, each catering to a different niche of the market. The initial Topps effort at producing a premium line of cards, in 1991, was called Stadium Club. Topps continued adding more sets and trying to distinguish them from each other, as did its competitors. The resulting glut of different baseball sets caused the MLBPA to take drastic measures as the market for them deteriorated. The union announced that for 2006, licenses would only be granted to Topps and Upper Deck, the number of different products would be limited, and players would not appear on cards before reaching the major leagues.


Although most of its products were distributed through retail stores and hobby shops, Topps also attempted to establish itself online, where a significant secondary market for sports cards was developing. Working in partnership with eBay, Topps launched a new brand of sports cards called etopps in December 2000. These cards are sold exclusively online through individual "IPOs" (or, "Initial Player Offering") in which the card is offered for usually a week at the IPO price. The quantity sold depends on how many people offer to buy, but is limited to a certain maximum. After a sale, the cards are held in a climate-controlled warehouse unless the buyer requests delivery, and the cards can be traded online without changing hands except in the virtual sense. This article is about the online auction center. ... Etopps is a new type of trading card that was launched by the Topps company in 2000. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Topps also acquired ThePit.com, a startup company that earlier in 2000 had launched a site for online stock-market style card trading. The purchase was for $5.7 million cash in August 2001 after Topps had earlier committed to invest in a round of venture capital financing for the company. This undertaking was not very successful, however, and Topps unloaded the site on Naxcom in January 2006. The amount of the transaction was not disclosed, but Topps charged a $3.7 million after-tax loss on its books in connection with the sale.


Topps grabbed national attention early in 2007 when the new card of Yankees' shortstop Derek Jeter was found to have been altered to include an image of Mickey Mantle standing in the dugout and President George W. Bush walking through the stands.


Card design

Although Topps did not invent the concept of baseball cards, its dominance in the field basically allowed the company to define people's expectations of what a baseball card would look like. In addition to establishing a standard size, Topps developed various design elements that are considered typical of baseball cards. Some of these were the company's own innovations, while some were ideas borrowed from others that Topps helped popularize.


Use of statistics

One of the features that contributed significantly to Topps's success beginning with the 1952 set was providing player statistics. At the time, complete and reliable baseball statistics for all players were not widely available, so Topps actually compiled the information itself from published box scores. While baseball cards themselves had been around for years, including statistics was a relative novelty that fascinated many collectors. Those who played with baseball cards could study the numbers and use them as the basis for comparing players, trading cards with friends, or playing imaginary baseball games. It also had some pedagogical benefit by encouraging youngsters to take an interest in the underlying mathematics. Statistics are very important to baseball, perhaps as much as they are for cricket, and more than almost any other sport. ... In baseball, the statistical summary of a game is reported in a box score. ... For other meanings of mathematics or uses of math and maths, see Mathematics (disambiguation) and Math (disambiguation). ...


The cards originally had one line for statistics from the most recent year (i.e. the 1951 season for cards in the 1952 set) and another with the player's lifetime totals. Bowman promptly imitated this by putting statistics on its own cards where it had previously only had biographical information. For the first time in 1957, Topps put full year-by-year statistics for the player's entire career on the back of the card. Over the next few years, Topps alternated between this format and merely showing the past season plus career totals. The practice of showing complete career statistics became permanent in 1963, except for one year, 1971, when Topps sacrificed the full statistics in order to put a player photo on the back of the card as well. For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ...


Artwork and photography

Although the 1971 set was an aborted experiment in terms of putting photos on card backs, that year was also a landmark in terms of baseball card photography, as Topps for the first time included cards showing color photographs from actual games. The cards themselves had been in color from the beginning, though for the first few years this was done by using artist's portraits of players rather than actual photographs and until 1971, Topps used mostly portrait or posed shots. The 1971 set is also known for its jet black borders, which because they chip so easily, makes it much more difficult to find top grade cards for 1971. Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ...


After starting out with simple portraits, in 1954 Topps put two pictures on the front of the card--a hand-tinted 'color' close-up photo of the player's head, and the other a black-and-white full-length pose. The same basic format was used in 1955, this time with the full-length photo also hand-tinted. For 1956, the close-up tinted photo was placed against a tinted full-background 'game-action' photo of the player. The close-up head shots of some individual players were reused each year.


From 1957 on, virtually all cards were posed photographs, either as a head shot or together with a typical piece of equipment like a bat or glove. If using such a prop, the player might pose in a position as if he were in the act of batting, pitching, or fielding. Photographs did not appear in sharp focus and natural color until 1962. However, that year also saw problems with the print quality in the second series, which lacked the right proportion of ink and thus gave the photographs a distinctly greenish tint. The affected series of cards was then reprinted, and several players were actually shown in different poses in the reprinting. Although Topps had produced error cards and variations before, this was its largest single production glitch. Four historically significant baseball bats showcased in the National Baseball Hall of Fames traveling exhibit Baseball As America. ... A typical infielders or outfielders glove. ... Barry Bonds batting Photo:Agência Brasil In baseball, batting is the act of facing the opposing pitcher and trying to produce offense for ones team. ... A baseball pitcher delivers the ball to home plate In baseball, pitching is the act of throwing the baseball from the pitchers mound toward the catcher with the goal of retiring a batter who attempts to make contact with it, or draw a walk. ... Fielding can be: The role of a fielder in cricket. ... For other uses, see Ink (disambiguation). ... In the trading card collecting hobby, an error card is a card that shows incorrect information or some other unintended flaw. ...


In the absence of full-color action photography, Topps still occasionally used artwork to depict action on a handful of cards. Starting in 1960 a few cards showed true game action, but the photographs were either in black-and-white or hand-tinted color. These cards were primarily highlights from the World Series (in addition to basic cards of individual players, Topps sets commonly include cards for special themes—the 1974 tribute to Hank Aaron as he was about to break Babe Ruth's career home run record is one example). The 1972 set finally included color photographs, which were used for special "In Action" cards of selected star players. Thereafter, Topps began simply mixing game photography with posed shots in its sets. Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... For other events named World Series, see World Series (disambiguation). ... Henry Louis Hank Aaron (born February 5, 1934 in Mobile, Alabama), nicknamed Hammer, Hammerin Hank”, or Bad Henry”, is a retired American baseball player whose Major League Baseball (MLB) career spanned the 1950s through the 1970s. ... This article is about the baseball player. ...


When used for the cards of individual players, some of the early action photography had awkward results. The photos were sometimes out of focus or included several players, making it difficult to pick out the player who was supposed to be featured on the card. In a few cases, a misidentification meant that the player didn't even appear in the picture. These problems diminished as Topps's selection of photographs gradually improved.


Before statistics, biographical information, and commentary became the dominant element on the backs of cards, Topps also featured artwork there. This primarily involved using various types of cartoons drawn by its stable of artists. These appeared on card backs as late as 1982, but gradually declined in the prominence of their placement and the proportion of cards on which they appeared. In 1993, Topps finally managed again to incorporate a player photo on the back as well as the front of the card, after some competitors had been doing so for a number of years.


Coping with updated developments

The pictures and information on baseball cards sold during one season came primarily from earlier seasons, so Topps used various tactics to give its cards a greater sense of staying current with the times. Before coming up with the idea of a "Traded" set, the company still tried to produce cards of players with their new team if they changed teams in the offseason. This was sometimes accomplished by showing the player without any team cap, or by airbrushing out elements of the former team's logo on his uniform. Cards for rookies could also be prepared by airbrushing over their minor-league uniforms in photos. Paasche F#1 Single Action External Mix Airbrush An airbrush is a small, air-operated tool that sprays various media including ink and dye, but most often paint by a process of atomization. ...


In one case, Topps even got too far in front of events, as in 1974 it showed a number of players as being with the "Washington Nat'l Lea." franchise, due to expectations that the San Diego Padres would relocate to the vacant Washington, D.C. market. The team designation was the only change, as no new nickname for the franchise had been selected. When the move failed to materialize, Topps had to replace these with cards showing the players still as Padres. Major league affiliations National League (1969–present) West Division (1969–present) Current uniform Retired Numbers 6, 19, 31, 35, 42 Name San Diego Padres (1969–present) Other nicknames The Pads, The Friars, The Fathers, The Dads Ballpark PETCO Park (2004–present) Qualcomm Stadium (1969-2003) a. ... ...


On rare occasions, Topps has issued special cards for players who had either died or had been injured. The 1959 set had card 550 as "Symbol Of Courage - Roy Campanella", with a color photo of the paralyzed former Dodger in his wheelchair and a black-and-white photo of him in uniform inserted to the upper left. The 1964 set issued cards for two recently deceased players: Ken Hubbs of the Cubs with a different "In Memoriam" front design compared to standard cards, and Colts pitcher Jim Umbricht's regular card with a special note on the back about his April 1964 death from cancer. In October 2006, Topps was prepping for its annual updated/traded card release, which featured Cory Lidle in a Yankees uniform. After Lidle's tragic death, the cards were pulled and subsequently released with "In Memoriam" on its front. Roy Campanella (November 19, 1921 – June 26, 1993) was an American catcher in the Negro leagues and Major League Baseball. ... Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ... Kenneth Douglas Hubbs (December 23, 1941 - February 13, 1964) was an American second baseman in Major League Baseball for the Chicago Cubs. ... James Umbricht (September 17, 1930 in Chicago, Illinois - April 8, 1964 in Houston, Texas) was an American pitcher in Major League Baseball. ... Cory Fulton Lidle (March 22, 1972 – October 11, 2006) was an American right-handed pitcher in Major League Baseball. ...


Football cards

In addition to baseball, Topps also produced cards for American football in 1951, which are known as the Magic set. For football cards Bowman dominated the field, and Topps did not try again until 1955, when it released an All-American set with a mix of active players and retired stars. After buying out Bowman, Topps took over the market the following year. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ...


Since then, Topps has sold football cards every season. However, the emergence of the American Football League in 1960 to compete with the established National Football League also allowed Topps's competitors, beginning with Fleer, to make inroads. Fleer produced a set for the AFL in 1960, then featured both leagues for one year before focusing on the AFL again. Philadelphia Gum then secured the NFL rights for 1964, forcing Topps to go for the AFL and leaving Fleer with no product in either baseball or football. The American Football League (AFL) was a professional football league that operated from 1960 until 1969, when all of its teams were absorbed into the National Football League (NFL). ... NFL redirects here. ... The Philadelphia Chewing Gum Company is an American candy, chewing gum, and confectionary company. ...


Although more competitive for a time, the football card market was never as lucrative, so the other companies did not fight as hard over it. After the AFL-NFL Merger was agreed to, Topps became the only major football card manufacturer beginning in 1968. In spite of the lack of competition, or perhaps to preempt it, Topps also created two sets of cards for the short-lived United States Football League in the 1980s. Many NFL legends had their first ever cards produced in the USFL sets. These players include Steve Young, Jim Kelly, and Reggie White. This resulted in a controversy when these players debuted in the NFL. Many wondered if the USFL cards should be considered rookie cards because the league did not exist anymore. The situation continued until growth in the sports card market generally prompted two new companies, Pro Set and Score, to start making football cards in 1989. The AFL-NFL Merger of 1970 involved the merger of the two major professional American football leagues in the United States during the time: the National Football League (NFL) and the American Football League (AFL). ... “USFL” redirects here. ... Some Topps baseball cards. ...


Trading cards for other sports

Topps also makes cards for other major American professional sports. After football, its next venture was into ice hockey, with a 1954 set featuring players from the four National Hockey League franchises located in the U.S. at the time (Boston Bruins, Chicago Blackhawks, Detroit Red Wings, and New York Rangers). Topps did not make a serious effort to take on Parkhurst Products, the leading Canadian hockey card manufacturer, for a couple more years. Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The 1954-55 Topps hockey set was Topps first attempt at producing trading cards for the National Hockey League. ... NHL redirects here. ... The Boston Bruins are a professional mens ice hockey team based in Boston, Massachusetts. ... The Chicago Blackhawks are a professional mens ice hockey team based in Chicago, Illinois. ... The Detroit Red Wings are a professional ice hockey team based in Detroit, Michigan. ... The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in New York, New York, U.S.A. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... Parkhurst Products was a Canadian manufacturer of sports cards, primarily for ice hockey. ...


After Parkhurst disappeared from the market in the 1960s, Topps then reached an agreement with O-Pee-Chee, another Canadian company, to jointly produce hockey cards. O-Pee-Chee had already obtained a license to print Topps baseball cards for the Canadian market, and for a number of years the two companies would produce often-identical cards for both sports, but each under its own brand for its respective market. It was not uncommon that O-Pee-Chee would have a card set with 264 cards or 396 cards but Topps would have much smaller sets. Topps then acquired the rights to use the O-Pee-Chee name on sports cards after that company was sold to Nestlé. However, anticipating the 2004-05 NHL lockout, Topps allowed its license for hockey to expire after the 2003-04 season. This ultimately left the sport to Upper Deck, which emerged as the sole licensee when the league resumed play. Bilingual back of a 1984 Mookie Wilson baseball card. ... This article is about the company. ... The 2004-05 NHL Lockout resulted in the cancellation of what would have been the 88th season of the National Hockey League (NHL). ...


Topps first sold cards for basketball in 1957, but stopped after one season. It started again in 1969 and continued until 1982, then abandoned the market for another decade, missing out on printing the prized rookie cards of Michael Jordan and other mid- and late-80s National Basketball Association stars. Topps finally returned to basketball cards in 1992, several years after its competitors. This would be perfect timing because 1992 was the rookie year of Shaquille O'Neal. In a more recent addition to its lineup, Topps began producing cards for soccer in 1996, in partnership with Major League Soccer. This article is about the sport. ... For other persons named Michael Jordan, see Michael Jordan (disambiguation). ... NBA redirects here. ... Shaquille Rashaun ONeal (pronounced sha-KEEL; born March 6, 1972), frequently referred to simply as Shaq, is an American professional basketball player, regarded as one of the most dominant in the history of the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... Soccer redirects here. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Major League Soccer (MLS) is a North America professional soccer league. ...


In England, where football stickers have been popular for roughly the same time period as trading cards, Topps acquired the old Amalgamated and British Confectionary firm in the mid-1970s, bringing over its production methods and card style. Under its Merlin brand, it has the licence to produce stickers for the Premier League and the national team. Its main competition is the Italian firm Panini. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other sports leagues which may be referred to by this name, see List of professional sports leagues. ... First international Scotland 0 - 0 England (Partick, Scotland; 30 November 1872) Biggest win Ireland 0 - 13 England (Belfast, Ireland; 18 February 1882) Biggest defeat Hungary 7 - 1 England (Budapest, Hungary; 23 May 1954) World Cup Appearances 12 (First in 1950) Best result Winners, 1966 European Championship Appearances 7 (First in... Panini is the brand name of an Italian firm which produces collectable stickers. ...


Non-sports products

Topps Comics The X-Files #5 (May 1995), cover art by Miriam Kim.
Topps Comics The X-Files #5 (May 1995), cover art by Miriam Kim.

Originally, Topps was purely a gum company, and its first product was simply called "Topps gum". Other gum and candy products followed. In imitation of Bowman and other competitors, Topps eventually also began producing trading cards and other collectibles for a variety of topics unrelated to sports. More recently, the company has tried its hand at developing comic books and games. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x614, 64 KB) Summary Cover, The X-Files #5 - Topps, May 1995, cover art by Miriam Kim Source: http://comics. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (400x614, 64 KB) Summary Cover, The X-Files #5 - Topps, May 1995, cover art by Miriam Kim Source: http://comics. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ...


Candy and confectionery items

The longest-lived Topps product line remains Bazooka bubblegum, small pieces of gum in patriotic red, white, and blue packaging. Bazooka was introduced in 1947 as a bar of gum that sold for five cents. Unlike the gum sold with baseball cards, it was of better quality and capable of selling on its own merit. In 1953, Topps began selling smaller penny pieces with the Bazooka Joe comic strip on the wrapper as an added attraction. Bazooka is a brand of bubble gum that began to be marketed in the U.S. by the Brooklyn, New York based Topps Company shortly after World War II. The gum was packaged in a patriotic red, white, and blue color scheme, although Topps claims that it took the name... Bazooka Joe comic, in Hebrew Bazooka Joe is a comic strip character, featured on small comics included inside individually wrapped pieces of Bazooka bubble gum. ...


Even though baseball cards became the company's primary focus during this period, Topps still developed a variety of candy items. For quite a few years, the company stuck within familiar confines, and virtually all of these products involved gum in some way. Sales declined significantly in the 1970s, however, when this relatively hard gum was challenged by Bubble Yum, a new, softer form of bubblegum from Lifesavers. Bubble Yum logo Bubble Yum is a brand of bubble gum marketed by The Hershey Company. ... LifeSavers Five-Flavor Roll For the band see Lifesavers Underground LifeSavers is a traditional American brand of hard candy. ...


In recent years, Topps has added more candy items without gum. One particular focus has been lollipops, such as Ring Pops. However, Topps has complained that increasing public attention to childhood nutrition undercuts its candy sales. Under pressure by shareholders, the company considered selling off its confectionery business in 2005, but was unable to find a buyer to meet its price and decided to cut management expenses instead. For other uses, see Lollipop (disambiguation). ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ...


Non-sports trading cards

As its sports products relied more on photography, Topps redirected its artistic efforts toward non-sports trading cards, on themes inspired by popular culture. For example, the Space Race prompted a set of "Space Cards" in 1958. Topps has continued to create collectible cards and stickers on a variety of subjects, often targeting the same adolescent male audience as its baseball cards. In particular, these have covered movies, television series, and other cultural phenomena ranging from The Beatles to the life story of John F. Kennedy. The many Star Wars card series have done well, with a few exceptions. These are trading cards with any subject other than sports. ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... Jan. ... The White Album, see The Beatles (album). ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... First card of the 1st Topps series. ...


Many Topps artists came from the world of comics and continued to work in that field as well. The shift from sports to other topics better suited the creative instincts of the artists and coincided with turmoil in the comic book industry over regulation by the Comics Code Authority. Beginning at Topps when he was a teenager, Art Spiegelman was the company's main staff cartoonist for more 20 years. Other staffers in Topps' Product Development Department at various times included Larry Riley, Mark Newgarden, Bhob Stewart and Rick Varesi. Topps' creative directors of Product Development, Woody Gelman and Len Brown, gave freelance assignments to leading comic book illustrators, such as Jack Davis, Wally Wood and Bob Powell. Spiegelman, Gelman and Brown also hired freelance artists from the underground comix movement, including Bill Griffith and Kim Deitch and Robert Crumb. Jay Lynch did extensive cartooning for Topps over several decades. Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... The seal of the Comics Code Authority, which appears on the covers of approved comic books. ... Art Spiegelman (born February 15, 1948) is an American comics artist, editor, and advocate for the medium of comics, best known for his Pulitzer Prize-winning comic memoir, Maus. ... Mark Newgarden is an American underground cartoonist. ... Bhob Stewart is an American writer, editor and artist who has written for a variety of publications over a span of five decades. ... A 1956 Jack Davis page for ECs Picto-Fiction Jack Davis (born December 2, 1924) is an American cartoonist and illustrator. ... Wallace Wally Wood (born June 17, 1927, Menahga, Minnesota, United States; died November 2, 1981), was an American writer-artist best known for his work in EC Comics and Mad. ... Bob Powell (born Stanley Pawlowski or Stanley Pulowski [sources differ], 1917; died 1967) is an American comic book artist known for his work during the 1940s Golden Age of comic books, including the features Sheena, Queen of the Jungle and Mr. ... Mr. ... Bill Griffith (born William Henry Jackson Griffith in Brooklyn, NY 1944) is a popular cartoonist in the United States. ... An underground comic that Deitch contributed to. ... Robert Dennis Crumb (born August 30, 1943), often credited simply as R. Crumb, is an American artist and illustrator recognized for the distinctive style of his drawings and his critical, satirical, subversive view of the American mainstream. ... Jay Lynch, born January 7, 1945 in Orange, New Jersey, is an American cartoonist who played a key role in the underground comix movement with his Bijou Funnies and other titles. ...


Drawing on their previous work, these artists were adept at things like mixing humor and horror, as with the Funny Monsters cards in 1959. The 1962 Mars Attacks cards, sketched by Wood and Powell and painted by Norman Saunders, later inspired a Tim Burton movie. A tie-in with the Mars Attacks film led to a 1994 card series, a new 100-card "archives" set reprinting the 55 original cards, plus 45 new cards from several different artists, including Norm Saunders' daughter, Zina Saunders. Look up Humour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Horror story” redirects here. ... Mars Attacks is a highly popular lurid science fiction trading card series. ... Norman Saunders (1907-1989) was a prolific commercial artist who produced paintings for pulp magazines, paperbacks, mens magazines, comic books, and trading cards. ... Timothy Tim William Burton (born August 25, 1958) is an Academy Award and Golden Globe-nominated American film director, writer and designer notable for the quirky and often dark atmosphere in his high-profile films. ... Zina Saunders Native Americans trading cards (1995) Zina Saunders (born August 30, 1953) is an artist-writer best known for Overlooked New York, [1] a collection of interviews, profiles and portraits of diverse New York subcultures and hobbyists. ...


Among Topps's most notable achievements in the area of satire and parody have been Wacky Packages, a takeoff on various household consumer products, and Garbage Pail Kids, a parody of the Cabbage Patch Kids dolls. Another popular series was the Civil War set, also with Norman Saunders' artwork. In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Wacky Packages were a series of non-sports trading cards produced by the Topps company between 1967 and 1992. ... Garbage Pail Kids is a series of humorous trading cards produced by the Topps Company, originally released in 1985 and designed to parody the Cabbage Patch Kids dolls created by Xavier Roberts, which were immensely popular at the time. ... Two Cabbage Patch Kids dolls Cabbage Patch Kids are a brand of doll created by Xavier Roberts in 1978. ... Original box from Topps Civil War trading cards Civil War News was a set of collectible trading cards issued in the early 1960s by Topps. ...


Although baseball cards have been Topps's most consistently profitable item, certain fads have occasionally produced spikes in popularity for non-sports items. For a period beginning in 1973, the Wacky Packages stickers managed to outsell Topps baseball cards, becoming the first product to do so since the company's early days as purely a gum and candy maker. Pokémon cards would accomplish the same feat for a few years starting in 1999. In the absence of new fads to capitalize on, Topps has come under pressure from stock analysts, since its sports card business is more stable and has less growth potential. The official Pokémon logo. ...


Disney Channel

Topps had worked together with Disney Channel to create trading cards of High School Musical, High School Musical 2, and Hannah Montana. For the Disney Channel in other countries, see Disney Channel around the world. ... For other uses, see High School Musical (disambiguation). ... For the soundtrack, see High School Musical 2 (soundtrack). ... This article is about the Disney Channel original series. ...


Comic books

Main article: Topps Comics

Drawing on its established connections with artists, in 1993 Topps created a division of the company to publish comic books. Known as Topps Comics, its early efforts included several concepts from retired industry legend Jack Kirby, known collectively as the "Kirbyverse". Topps Comics particularly specialized in licensed titles with tie-ins to movies or television series, though it also published a few original series. Its longest-running and best-selling title was The X-Files, based on the Fox TV show. Topps Comics was a division of the American trading card publisher and gum/candy distributor the Topps Company, Inc. ... Jack Kirby (born Jacob Kurtzberg, August 28, 1917 – February 6, 1994) was one of the most influential, recognizable, and prolific artists in American comic books, and the co-creator of such enduring characters and popular culture icons as the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, the Hulk, Captain America, and hundreds... The X-Files is an American Peabody and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on September 10, 1993, and ended on May 19, 2002. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company is a television network in the United States. ...


These comic books featured former Marvel Comics editor Jim Salicrup as its editor-in-chief. Some of the more famous titles included The X-Files, Lone Ranger and Tonto by Timothy Truman, Xena, Mars Attacks, and Zorro, which introduced the famous comics character Lady Rawhide. With sales stagnating, the company decided to pull out of the comics business in 1998. This article is about the comic book company. ... The X-Files is an American Peabody and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on September 10, 1993, and ended on May 19, 2002. ... The Lone Ranger was an early, long-running radio and television show based on characters created by George W. Trendle of Detroit, Michigan and developed by writer Fran Stryker of Buffalo, New York. ... Timothy Truman (born February 9, 1956 in Gauley Bridge, West Virginia is an American writer, artist and musician best known for his stories and Western Movie-style comic book art. ... For the television show, see Xena: Warrior Princess. ... Mars Attacks is a highly popular lurid science fiction trading card series. ... For other uses, see Zorro (disambiguation). ...


Games

The Topps Pokémon cards were purely for entertainment and collecting, but a new niche of collectible card games was also developing during this period (a Pokémon trading card game was produced simultaneously by Wizards of the Coast). Topps made its first foray into the world of games in July 2003 by acquiring the game company WizKids for $28.4 million in cash. By inventing yet another niche, the constructible strategy game Pirates of the Spanish Main, this unit managed to reach profitability. Collectible card games (CCGs), also called trading card games (TCGs), are played using specially designed sets of cards. ... This article is about the card game. ... Wizards of the Coast (often referred to as WotC or simply Wizards) is a publisher of games, primarily based on fantasy and science fiction themes. ... WizKids, Inc. ... A Constructable Strategy Game (or CSG) is a strategy game employing pieces assembled from components. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


See also

The Topps Company has created a number of different baseball card products during its existence. ...

Products By Year

References

  1. ^ Collect.com: Find What You Keep
  2. ^ ::TOPPS::. About topps
  • Bowman Gum, Inc. v. Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., 103 F.Supp. 944 (E.D.N.Y. 1952).
  • Boyd, Brendan C. & Fred C. Harris (1973). The Great American Baseball Card Flipping, Trading and Bubble Gum Book. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. ISBN 0-316-10429-9.
  • Caple, Jim. "A card fan's dream come true". ESPN.com Page 2, 25 July 2006.
  • Fleer Corp. v. Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., 501 F.Supp. 485 (E.D. Pa. 1980).
  • Fleer Corp. v. Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., 658 F.2d 139 (3d Cir. 1981).
  • Haelan Laboratories, Inc. v. Topps Chewing Gum, Inc., 202 F.2d 866 (2d Cir. 1953).
  • Haelan Laboratories, Inc. v. Topps Chewing Gum Co., 112 F.Supp. 904 (E.D.N.Y. 1953).
  • Schwartz, Ben. "Culture Jamming for the Swingset Set". Chicago Reader, 25 June 2004.
  • Schwarz, Alan (2004). The Numbers Game: Baseball's Lifelong Fascination with Statistics. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-32222-4.
  • Slocum, Frank & Red Foley (1990). Topps Baseball Cards: The complete picture collection, a 40 year history. New York: Warner Books.
  • Smith, Aaron. "Mickey Mantle or Martha?" CNN/Money, 24 March 2005.
  • Thompson, Wright. "Investors gear up for takeover". ESPN.com Page 2, 27 July 2006.

is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ...

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Topps is the most popular maker of baseball cards.
The most popular card Topps has ever produced was in the 1952 set, #311 featured Mickey Mantle.
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