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Encyclopedia > Topics in cryptography
Cryptography Portal

This article is intended to be an 'analytic glossary', or alternatively, an organized collection of annotated pointers. See List of cryptography topics for an alphabetical listing of cryptography articles. Image File history File links Portal. ... This page aims to alphabetically list articles that are primarily related to cryptography. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of high-level messages. ...

Contents


Classical ciphers

An autokey cipher, or self-synchronizing stream cipher, is a cipher which incorporates the message (the plaintext) into the key. ... In classical cryptography, a permutation cipher is a transposition cipher in which the key is a permutation. ... A polyalphabetic cipher is any cipher based on substitution, using multiple substitution alphabets. ... The Vigenère cipher is named for Blaise de Vigenère (pictured), although Giovan Batista Belaso had invented the cipher earlier. ... A polygraphic substitution is a cipher in which a uniform substitution is performed on blocks of letters. ... The Playfair system was invented by Charles Wheatstone, who first described it in 1854. ... Charles Wheatstone Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802 - October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) He was a major figure in the development of... Hills cipher machine, from figure 4 of the patent In classical cryptography, the Hill cipher is a polygraphic substitution cipher based on linear algebra. ... In cryptography, a substitution cipher is a method of encryption by which units of plaintext are substituted with ciphertext according to a regular system; the units may be single letters (the most common), pairs of letters, triplets of letters, mixtures of the above, and so forth. ... The action of a Caesar cipher is to move each letter a number of places down the alphabet. ... ROT13 replaces each letter by its partner 13 characters further along the alphabet. ... The Affine cipher is a special case of the more general substitution cipher. ... Atbash is a simple substitution cipher in Hebrew. ... In classical cryptography, a transposition cipher changes one character from the plaintext to another (to decrypt the reverse is done). ... This article is about the encryption device; for the Dune character, see Scytale (Dune). ... In automotive engineering, a grille is an opening in the bodywork of a vehicle to allow air to enter. ... The VIC cipher was a pencil and paper cipher used by the Soviet spy Reino Hayhanen, codenamed VICTOR. It was arguably the most complex hand-operated cipher ever seen. ...

Famous ciphertexts

Some famous ciphertexts (or cryptograms) are: The Zimmermann Telegram The Magic Words are Squeamish Ossifrage The cryptogram in The Gold Bug Beale ciphers Voynich Manuscript Dorabella Cipher Khipu Kryptos Zodiac Killer ciphers DAgapeyeff cipher Chaocipher The Shugborough House inscription See also Topics in cryptography Category:Inscriptions External links Famous...

Attacks on classical ciphers

In mathematics, physics and signal processing, frequency analysis is a method to decompose a function, wave, or signal into its frequency components so that it is possible to have the frequency spectrum. ... In cryptography, coincidence counting is the technique (invented by William F. Friedman) of putting two texts side-by-side and counting the number of times that a letter appears next to itself in both copies. ... In cryptanalysis, the Kasiski examination or Kasiski test is a method of attacking polyalphabetic substitution ciphers, such as Vigenere ciphers. ...

Modern algorithms, methods evaluation and selection projects

Standards organizations

  • the Federal Information Processing Standards Publication program (run by NIST to produce standards in many areas to guide operations of the US Federal government; many FIPS Pubs are cryptography related, ongoing)
  • the ANSI standardization process (produces many standards in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing)
  • ISO standardization process (produces many standards in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing)
  • IEEE standardization process (produces many standards in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing)
  • IETF standardization process (produces many standards (called RFCs) in many areas; some are cryptography related, ongoing)

See Cryptography standards Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government for use by all (non-military) government agencies and by government contractors. ... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government for use by all (non-military) government agencies and by government contractors. ... The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit standards organization that produces industrial standards in the United States. ... ISO has many meanings: Iso is the stem of the Latin transliteration of the Greek word ίσος (ísos, meaning equal). The iso- prefix in English derives from this and means equality or similarity. ... The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers or IEEE (pronounced as eye-triple-ee) is an international non-profit, professional organization incorporated in the State of New York, United States. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ... In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ... There are a number of standards related to cryptography. ...


Cryptographic organizations

  • NSA internal evaluation/selections (surely extensive, nothing is publicly known of the process or its results for internal use; NSA is charged with assisting NIST in its cryptographic responsibilities)
  • GCHQ internal evaluation/selections (surely extensive, nothing is publicly known of the process or its results for GCHQ use; a division of GCHQ is charged with developing and recommending cryptographic standards for the UK government)
  • DSD Australian SIGINT agency - part of ECHELON
  • Communications Security Establishment (CSE) — Canadian intelligence agency.

NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (previously named the Government Code and Cipher School (GC&CS)) is the main British intelligence service providing signals intelligence (SIGINT). ... The Defence Signals Directorate (DSD) is Australias signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection agency. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... Antenna 4 (through the wire) in former Echelon intelligence gathering station at Silvermine, Cape Peninsula, South Africa. ... The CSE badge The Communications Security Establishment or CSE is an intelligence agency of the Canadian government, charged with the duty of keeping track of foreign signals intelligence. ...

Open efforts

  • the DES selection (NBS selection process, ended 1976)
  • the RIPE division of the RACE project (sponsored by the European Union, ended mid-'80s)
  • the AES competition (a 'break-off' sponsored by NIST; ended 2001)
  • the NESSIE Project (evaluation/selection program sponsored by the European Union; ended 2002)
  • the CRYPTREC program (Japanese government sponsored evaluation/recommendation project; draft recommendations published 2003)
  • the Internet Engineering Task Force (technical body responsible for Internet standards -- the Request for Comment series: ongoing)
  • the CrypTool project (eLearning programme in English and German; freeware; exhaustive educational tool about cryptography and cryptanalysis)

General Designer(s) IBM First published 1975 (January 1977 as the standard) Derived from Lucifer (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Triple DES, G-DES, DES-X, LOKI89, ICE Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 56 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... General Designer(s) Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen First published 1998 Derived from Square (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Crypton (cypher), Anubis (cipher), GRAND CRU Algorithm detail Block size(s) 128 bits note Key size(s) 128, 192 or 256 bits note Structure Substitution-permutation network Number of... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... The Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) is charged with developing and promoting Internet standards. ... In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ...

Cryptographic hash functions (message digest algorithms)

  • Cryptographic hash function
  • Message authentication code
  • Keyed-hash message authentication code
    • EMAC (NESSIE selection MAC)
    • HMAC (NESSIE selection MAC; ISO/IEC 9797-1, FIPS and IETF RFC)
    • TTMAC aka Two-Track-MAC (NESSIE selection MAC; K.U.Leuven (Belgium) & debis AG (Germany))
    • UMAC (NESSIE selection MAC; Intel, UNevada Reno, IBM, Technion, & UCal Davis)
  • MD5 (one of a series of message digest algorithms by Prof Ron Rivest of MIT; 128 bit digest)
  • SHA-1 (developed at NSA 160-bit digest, an FIPS standard; the first released version was defective and replaced by this; NIST/NSA have released several variants with longer 'digest' lengths; CRYPTREC recommendation (limited))
    • SHA-256 (NESSIE selection hash function, FIPS 180-2, 256 bit digest; CRYPTREC recommendation)
    • SHA-384 (NESSIE selection hash function, FIPS 180-2, 384 bit digest; CRYPTREC recommendation)
    • SHA-512 (NESSIE selection hash function, FIPS 180-2, 512 bit digest; CRYPTREC recommendation)
  • RIPEMD-160 (developed in Europe for the RIPE project, 160-bit digest;CRYPTREC recommendation (limited))
  • Tiger (by Ross Anderson et al)
  • Snefru
  • Whirlpool (NESSIE selection hash function, Scopus Tecnologia S.A. (Brazil) & K.U.Leuven (Belgium))

In cryptography, a cryptographic hash function is a hash function with certain additional security properties to make it suitable for use as a primitive in various information security applications, such as authentication and message integrity. ... In cryptography, a cryptographic hash function is a hash function with certain additional security properties to make it suitable for use as a primitive in various information security applications, such as authentication and message integrity. ... A cryptographic message authentication code (MAC) is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message. ... A keyed-hash message authentication code, or HMAC, is a type of message authentication code (MAC) calculated using a cryptographic hash function in combination with a secret key. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... A keyed-hash message authentication code, or HMAC, is a type of message authentication code (MAC) calculated using a cryptographic hash function in combination with a secret key. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ... UMAC - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... In cryptography, MD5 (Message-Digest algorithm 5) is a widely-used cryptographic hash function with a 128-bit hash value. ... Professor Ron Rivest Professor Ronald Linn Rivest (born 1947, Schenectady, New York) is a cryptographer, and is the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Professor of Computer Science at MITs Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. ... The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... The SHA (Secure Hash Algorithm) family is a set of related cryptographic hash functions designed by the National Security Agency (NSA) and published by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... RIPEMD-160 (RACE Integrity Primitives Evaluation Message Digest) is a 160-bit message digest algorithm (and cryptographic hash function) developed in Europe by Hans Dobbertin, Antoon Bosselaers and Bart Preneel, and first published in 1996. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... In cryptography, Tiger is a cryptographic hash function designed by Ross Anderson and Eli Biham in 1996 with a view for efficiency on 64-bit platforms. ... Ross J. Anderson is a researcher, writer, and industry consultant in security engineering. ... This article is about the cryptographic hash function. ... WHIRLPOOL is a cryptographic one-way hash function designed by Vincent Rijmen and Paulo S. L. M. Barreto. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ...

Public key / private key encryption algorithms (aka asymmetric key algorithms)

  • ACE-KEM (NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; IBM Zurich Research)
    • ACE Encrypt
  • Chor-Rivest
  • Diffie-Hellman (key agreement; CRYPTREC recommendation)
  • El Gamal (discrete logarithm)
  • Elliptic curve cryptography (discrete logarithm variant)
    • PSEC-KEM (NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; NTT (Japan); CRYPTREC recommendation only in DEM construction w/SEC1 parameters) )
    • ECIES (Elliptic Curve Integrated Encryption System; Certicom Corp)
    • ECIES-KEM
    • ECDH (Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman key agreement; CRYPTREC recommendation)
  • EPOC
  • Merkle-Hellman (knapsack scheme)
  • McEliece
  • NTRUEncrypt
  • RSA (factoring)
    • RSA-KEM (NESSIE selection asymmetric encryption scheme; ISO/IEC 18033-2 draft)
    • RSA-OAEP (CRYPTREC recommendation)
  • Rabin cryptosystem (factoring)
    • Rabin-SAEP
    • HIME(R)
  • XTR

In cryptography, an asymmetric key algorithm uses a pair of cryptographic keys to encrypt and decrypt. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... Diffie-Hellman key exchange is a cryptographic protocol which allows two parties to agree on a secret key over an insecure communication channel. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... The ElGamal algorithm is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public key cryptography which is based on discrete logarithms. ... Elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) is an approach to public-key cryptography based on the algebraic structure of elliptic curves over finite fields. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... Integrated Encryption Scheme (IES) is a public-key encryption scheme which provides semantic security against an adversary who is allowed to use chosen-plaintext and chosen-ciphertext attacks. ... Elliptic Curve Diffie-Hellman (ECDH) is a key agreement protocol that allows two parties to estabilish a shared secret key over an unsecure channel. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... EPOC (Efficient Probabilistic Public Key Encryption) is a probabilistic public-key encryption scheme. ... Merkle-Hellman (MH) was one of the earliest public key cryptosystems invented by Ralph Merkle and Martin Hellman in 1978. ... In cryptography, McEliece is an asymmetric key algorithm developed in 1978 by Robert McEliece. ... NTRUEncrypt, also known as the NTRU encryption algorithm, is an asymmetric key encryption algorithm for public key cryptography. ... In cryptography, RSA is an algorithm for public-key encryption. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... The Rabin cryptosystem is an asymmetric cryptographic technique, which like RSA is based on the difficulty of factorization. ... In cryptography, XTR is an algorithm for public-key encryption. ...

Public key / private key signature algorithms

The Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) is a United States Federal Government standard for digital signatures. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... Elliptic Curve DSA (ECDSA) is a variant of the Digital Signature Algorithm (DSA) which operates on elliptic curve groups. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... A Schnorr signature is a digital signature scheme based on discrete logarithms. ... RSA-PSS is a new signature scheme that is based on the RSA cryptosystem and provides increased security assurance. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... The Lamport signature scheme shows how to construct a signature scheme for one use from any one-way function. ... Undeniable signatures are a form of digital signature invented by David Chaum and Hans van Antwerpen in 1989. ... Direct anonymous attestation is a digital signature scheme which allows anonymous signing. ... NTRUSign, also known as the NTRU Signature Algorithm, is a public key cryptography digital signature algorithm based on the GGH signature scheme. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ...

Key authentication

Key authentication is a problem that arises when using public key cryptography. ... In cryptography, a public key infrastructure (PKI) is an arrangement that provides for trusted third party vetting of, and vouching for, user identities. ... In cryptography, X.509 is an ITU-T standard for public key infrastructure (PKI). ... In cryptography, a public key certificate (or identity certificate) is a certificate which uses a digital signature to bind together a public key with an identity — information such as the name of a person or an organization, their address, and so forth. ... In cryptography, a certificate authority or certification authority (CA) is an entity which issues digital certificates for use by other parties. ... In the operation of some cryptosystems, usually public key infrastructures (PKIs), a certificate revocation list (CRL) is a list of certificates (more accurately: their serial numbers) which have been revoked, are no longer valid, and should not be relied upon by any system user. ... ID-based cryptography (or identity based cryptography or identity based encryption) is a key authentication system in which the public key of a user is some unique information about the identity of the user (e. ... Certificate-based encryption is a system in which a certificate authority uses ID_based cryptography to produce a certificate. ... Secure key issuing is variant of ID-based cryptography that reduces the level of trust that needs to be placed in a trusted third party by spreading the trust across multiple third parties. ... Certificateless cryptography is a variant of ID-based cryptography intended to prevent any need for key escrow. ... In computer science, hash trees, also known as Merkle (hash) trees or Tiger tree hashes, are an extension of the simpler concept hash list, which in turn is an extension of the old concept of hashing, for instance, a file. ...

Anonymous identification scheme

  • GPS (NESSIE selection anonymous identification scheme; Ecole Normale Supérieure, France Télécom, & La Poste)

Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ...

Secret key algorithms (aka symmetric key algorithms)

  • Polyalphabetic substitution machine cyphers
    • Enigma (WWII German rotor cypher machine -- many variants, many user networks for most of the variants)
    • Purple (highest security WWII Japanese Foreign Office cypher machine; by Japanese Navy Captain)
    • SIGABA (WWII US cypher machine by William Friedman, Frank Rowlett, et al)
    • TypeX (WWII UK cypher machine)
  • Hybrid code/cypher combinations
    • JN-25 (WWII Japanese Navy superencyphered code; many variants)
    • Naval Cypher 3 (superencrypted code used by the Royal Navy in the 30s and into WWII)

Symmetric-key algorithms are a class of algorithms for cryptography that use trivially related cryptographic keys for both decryption and encryption. ... The operation of A5/1, a LFSR-based stream cipher used to encrypt mobile phone conversations. ... Not to be confused with Get Some Mates The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... For the British code-word for World War II German stream cipher teleprinter secure communications devices, see Fish (cryptography). ... Fish (sometimes FISH) was the Allied codename for any of several German teleprinter stream ciphers used during World War II. While a large number of links were monitored, at least three different encryption systems were distinguished: Tunny — the Lorenz SZ 40/42 from Lorenz Electric. ... STURGEON exhibit at the National Cryptologic Museum. ... Siemens AG (FWB:SIE, NYSE: SI) is the worlds largest electronics company. ... STURGEON exhibit at the National Cryptologic Museum. ... During World War II, British and American cryptographers at Bletchley Park broke a large number of Axis codes and ciphers, including the German Enigma machine. ... For the fish, see Tuna. ... Lorenz could refer to: people with the surname Lorenz: Edward Norton Lorenz American mathematician, Konrad Lorenz Austrian writer on evolution, Christian Lorenz a German musician, Max O. Lorenz an American economist, or those with the first name Lorenz: Lorenz Hart of the Rodgers and Hart musical partnership, Lorenz Böhler... For the fish, see Tuna. ... During World War II, British and American cryptographers at Bletchley Park broke a large number of Axis codes and ciphers, including the German Enigma machine. ... ISAAC is a pseudorandom number generator designed by Bob Jenkins (1996) to be cryptographically secure. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... In cryptography, MULTI-S01 (pronounced multi-ess-zero-one), is an encryption algorithm based on a pseudorandom number generator (PRNG). ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... Excerpt from a one-time pad. ... The Pike stream cipher was invented by Ross Anderson to be a leaner and meaner version of FISH after he broke FISH in 1994; the name is a humorous allusion to the Pike fish. ... Ross J. Anderson is a researcher, writer, and industry consultant in security engineering. ... For the Vietnam road named RC4, see Route Coloniale 4. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... CipherSaber is a symmetric encryption system based on RC4 that is simple enough that novice programmers can memorize the algorithm implement it from scratch, yet supposedly strong. ... For the Vietnam road named RC4, see Route Coloniale 4. ... IV may refer to: 4: The Roman numeral (there are also separate Unicode characters for this number, 0x2163 â…£ and 0x2173 â…³). Côte dIvoire: NATO country code; from Ivory Coast. ... SEAL (Software-Optimized Encryption Algorithm) is a very fast stream cipher optimised for machines with a 32-bit word size and plenty of RAM. The first version was published by Phil Rogaway and Don Coppersmith in 1994. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... A wake is the region of turbulence immediately to the rear of a solid body caused by the flow of air or water around the body. ... Encryption Decryption In cryptography, a block cipher is a symmetric key cipher which operates on fixed-length groups of bits, termed blocks, with an unvarying transformation. ... In cryptography, a block cipher operates on blocks of fixed length, often 64 or 128 bits. ... In cryptography, a product cipher is a popular type of block cipher that works by executing in sequence a number of simple transformations such as substitution, permutation, and modular arithmetic. ... Feistel cipher - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Horst Feistel (30 January 1915(1)–14 November 1990) was a cryptographer who worked on the design of ciphers at IBM, initiating research that would culminate in the development of the Data Encryption Standard (DES) in the 1970s. ... General Designer(s) Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen First published 1998 Derived from Square (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Crypton (cypher), Anubis (cipher), GRAND CRU Algorithm detail Block size(s) 128 bits note Key size(s) 128, 192 or 256 bits note Structure Substitution-permutation network Number of... As a non-regulatory agency of the United States Department of Commerce’s Technology Administration, the National Institute of Standards (NIST) develops and promotes measurement, standards, and technology to enhance productivity, facilitate trade, and improve the quality of life. ... Joan Daemen (born 1965) is a Belgian cryptographer and one of the designers of Rijndael, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), together with Vincent Rijmen. ... Together with Joan Daemen, Vincent Rijmen designed the Rijndael block cipher, which was selected as the Advanced Encryption Standard in 2000. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... Anubis is a block cipher designed by Vincent Rijmen and Paulo S. L. M. Barreto as an entrant in the NESSIE project. ... Genera Ailuropoda Ailurus Helarctos Melursus Ursus Tremarctos Arctodus (extinct) A bear is a large mammal in the family Ursidae of the order Carnivora. ... Ross J. Anderson is a researcher, writer, and industry consultant in security engineering. ... General Designer(s) Bruce Schneier First published 1993 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design Twofish Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 32-448 bits in steps of 8 bits; default 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best cryptanalysis Four rounds of... Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... In cryptography, Camellia is a block cipher that has been evaluated favorably by several organisations, including the European Unions NESSIE project (a selected algorithm), and the Japanese CRYPTREC project (a recommended algorithm). ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... Three rounds of the CAST-128 block cipher In cryptography, CAST-128 (alternatively CAST5) is a block cipher used in a number of products, notably as the default cipher in some versions of GPG and PGP. It has also been approved for Canadian government use by the Communications Security Establishment. ... The following article is about the block cipher. ... In cryptography, CAST-256 (or CAST6) is a block cipher published in June 1998 and submitted as a candidate for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). ... In cryptography, CAST-256 (or CAST6) is a block cipher published in June 1998 and submitted as a candidate for the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES). ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... In cryptography, the Cellular Message Encryption Algorithm (CMEA) is a block cipher which was used for securing mobile phones in the United States. ... In cryptography, the CS-Cipher is a block cipher invented by Jacques Stern and Serge Vaudenay in 1998. ... General Designer(s) IBM First published 1975 (January 1977 as the standard) Derived from Lucifer (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Triple DES, G-DES, DES-X, LOKI89, ICE Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 56 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best... Deal can refer to: an agreement reached after negotiation, for example a contract to sell as a dealer or dealership a bargain a situation, as in whats the deal with the Johnson account ?. a problem, as in whats your deal ?. Deal$, a U.S. dollar store a Deal... In cryptography, DES-X (or DESX) is a variant on the DES (Data Encryption Standard) block cipher intended to increase the complexity of a brute force attack using a technique called key whitening. ... General Designer(s) Akihiro Shimizu and Shoji Miyaguchi (NTT) First published FEAL-4 in 1987; FEAL-N/NX in 1990 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 64 bits (128 bits for FEAL-NX) Structure Feistel network Number of... In cryptography, the Generalized DES Scheme (G-DES or GDES) is a variant of the DES block cipher designed to speed-up the encryption. ... General Designer(s) IBM First published 1975 (January 1977 as the standard) Derived from Lucifer (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Triple DES, G-DES, DES-X, LOKI89, ICE Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 56 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best... Grand Cru is the highest level of classification of AOC wines from Burgundy or Alsace, those that come from a single vineyard. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... General Designer(s) James Massey, Xuejia Lai First published 1991 Derived from PES Cipher(s) based on this design MESH, Akelarre, FOX (IDEA NXT) Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 128 bits Structure Substitution-permutation network Number of rounds 8. ... Eth (Ð, ð), also spelled edh or eð, is a letter used in Old English (Anglo-Saxon) and present-day Icelandic, and in Faroese language which call the letter edd. ... In cryptography, the Iraqi block cipher was a block cipher published in source code form by anonymous FTP upload around July 1999, and widely distributed on Usenet. ... In cryptography, KASUMI, also termed A5/3, is a block cipher used in the confidentiality (f8) and integrity algorithms (f9) for 3GPP mobile communications. ... In cryptography, MISTY1 (or MISTY-1) is a block cipher designed in 1995 by Mitsuru Matsui for Mitsubishi Electric. ... W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G cellular network. ... Cellular redirects here. ... In cryptography, KHAZAD is a block cipher designed by Paulo S. L. M. Barreto together with Vincent Rijmen, one of the designers of the Advanced Encryption Standard (Rijndael). ... Together with Joan Daemen, Vincent Rijmen designed the Rijndael block cipher, which was selected as the Advanced Encryption Standard in 2000. ... In cryptography, Khufu and Khafre are two block ciphers designed by Ralph Merkle in 1989 while working at Xeroxs Palo Alto Research Center. ... Ross J. Anderson is a researcher, writer, and industry consultant in security engineering. ... This picture, from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript, shows Loki with his invention - the fishing net. ... General Designer(s) Lawrie Brown, assisted by Jennifer Seberry and Josef Pieprzyk First published 1998 Derived from LOKI91 Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 128 bits Key size(s) 128, 192 or 256 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best cryptanalysis Linear cryptanalysis... In cryptography, Lucifer was the name given to several of the earliest civilian block ciphers, developed by Horst Feistel and his colleagues at IBM. Lucifer was a direct precursor to the Data Encryption Standard. ... Big Blue redirects here. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... NBS can stand for: Nash Bargaining Solution in Economics National Banking System in Economics National Bureau of Standards which is, today, called NIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology). ... General Designer(s) IBM First published 1975 (January 1977 as the standard) Derived from Lucifer (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Triple DES, G-DES, DES-X, LOKI89, ICE Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 56 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 16 Best... Magenta is a color made up of red and blue light. ... In cryptography, MARS is a block cipher which was IBMs submission to the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) process; the cipher was selected as a finalist. ... Don Coppersmith is a cryptographer and mathematician who was involved in the design of the Data Encryption Standard block cipher at IBM. He has also worked on algorithms for computing discrete logarithms, the cryptanalysis of RSA, methods for rapid matrix multiplication and IBMs MARS cipher, In 1972, Coppersmith obtained... In cryptography, MISTY1 (or MISTY-1) is a block cipher designed in 1995 by Mitsuru Matsui for Mitsubishi Electric. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... Noekeon is a block cipher with a block and key length of 128 bits. ... General Designer(s) Ron Rivest First published source code leaked 1996 (designed 1987) Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 8–128 bits, in steps of eight bits; default 64 bits Structure Source-heavy Feistel network Number of rounds... In cryptography, RC6 is a symmetric key block cipher derived from RC5. ... Professor Ron Rivest Professor Ronald Linn Rivest (born 1947, Schenectady, New York) is a cryptographer, and is the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Professor of Computer Science at MITs Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. ... General Designer(s) Ron Rivest First published 1994 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design RC6, Akelarre Algorithm detail Block size(s) 32, 64 or 128 bits (64 suggested) Key size(s) 0 to 2040 bits (128 suggested) Structure Feistel network Number of rounds 12 suggested originally Best cryptanalysis... Professor Ron Rivest Professor Ronald Linn Rivest (born 1947, Schenectady, New York) is a cryptographer, and is the Andrew and Erna Viterbi Professor of Computer Science at MITs Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. ... This article is about the encryption algorithm. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... Serpent is a symmetric key block cipher which was a finalist in the Advanced Encryption Standard contest, where it came second to Rijndael. ... Ross J. Anderson is a researcher, writer, and industry consultant in security engineering. ... Eli Biham is an Israeli cryptographer and cryptanalyst, currently a professor at the Technion Israeli Institute of Technology Computer Science department. ... Lars R. Knudsen Lars Ramkilde Knudsen (born February 21, 1962) is a Danish researcher in cryptography, particularly interested in the design and analysis of block ciphers, hash functions and message authentication codes (MACs). ... SHACAL is a 160-bit block cipher based on the cryptographic hash function SHA-1. ... SHACAL is a 160-bit block cipher based on the cryptographic hash function SHA-1. ... NESSIE (New European Schemes for Signatures, Integrity and Encryption) was a European research project funded from 2000–2003 to identify secure cryptographic primitives. ... In cryptography, SHARK is a block cipher identified as one of the predecessors of Rijndael (the Advanced Encryption Standard). ... This article is about the block cipher. ... General Designer(s) Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen First published 1998 Derived from Square (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Crypton (cypher), Anubis (cipher), GRAND CRU Algorithm detail Block size(s) 128 bits note Key size(s) 128, 192 or 256 bits note Structure Substitution-permutation network Number of... In cryptography, Square (sometimes written SQUARE) is a block cipher invented by Joan Daemen and Vincent Rijmen. ... This article is about the block cipher. ... General Designer(s) Vincent Rijmen and Joan Daemen First published 1998 Derived from Square (cipher) Cipher(s) based on this design Crypton (cypher), Anubis (cipher), GRAND CRU Algorithm detail Block size(s) 128 bits note Key size(s) 128, 192 or 256 bits note Structure Substitution-permutation network Number of... In cryptography, 3-Way is a block cipher designed in 1994 by Joan Daemen, who also (with Vincent Rijmen) designed Rijndael, the winner of NISTs Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) contest. ... Joan Daemen (born 1965) is a Belgian cryptographer and one of the designers of Rijndael, the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES), together with Vincent Rijmen. ... General Designer(s) Roger Needham and David Wheeler First published 1994 Derived from - Cipher(s) based on this design XTEA Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds variable; recommended 64 Feistel rounds; 32 cycles Best cryptanalysis TEA suffers from... David John Wheeler (9 February 1927–13 December 2004) was a computer scientist. ... Horrid old man, I hope you died in pain Roger Needham in 1999 Roger Michael Needham CBE FREng FRS (February 9, 1935–March 1, 2003) was a British computer scientist. ... In cryptography, Triple DES (also 3DES) is a block cipher formed from the Data Encryption Standard (DES) cipher. ... Dr Walter Tuchman. ... In cryptography, Lucifer was the name given to several of the earliest civilian block ciphers, developed by Horst Feistel and his colleagues at IBM. Lucifer was a direct precursor to the Data Encryption Standard. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... In cryptography, Twofish is a symmetric key block cipher with a block size of 128 bits and key sizes up to 256 bits. ... Bruce Schneier Bruce Schneier (born January 15, 1963) is an American cryptographer, computer security specialist, and writer. ... General Designer(s) Roger Needham and David Wheeler First published 1997 Derived from Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA) Cipher(s) based on this design - Algorithm detail Block size(s) 64 bits Key size(s) 128 bits Structure Feistel network Number of rounds variable; recommended 64 Feistel rounds; 32 cycles Best cryptanalysis... David John Wheeler (9 February 1927–13 December 2004) was a computer scientist. ... Horrid old man, I hope you died in pain Roger Needham in 1999 Roger Michael Needham CBE FREng FRS (February 9, 1935–March 1, 2003) was a British computer scientist. ... In the history of cryptography, the Enigma was a portable cipher machine used to encrypt and decrypt secret messages. ... A fragment of an actual Purple machine found in Berlin at the end of WWII In the history of cryptography, 97-shiki-obun In-ji-ki (九七式欧文印字機) (System 97 Printing Machine for European Characters) or Angooki Taipu B (暗号機B型) (Type B Cipher Machine), codenamed PURPLE by the United States, was... SIGABA In the history of cryptography, the ECM Mark II was a rotor machine used by the United States from World War II (WWII) until the 1950s. ... William Frederick Friedman (September 24, 1891 - November 12, 1969) served as a US Army cryptologist, running the research division of the Armys Signals Intelligence Service (SIS) through the 1930s and its follow-on services right into the 1950s. ... Frank Rowlett. ... Typex was based on the commercial Enigma machine, but incorporated a number of additional features to improve the security. ... JN-25 is the name used by Western cryptography organizations for the main secure command and control communications scheme used by the Imperial Japanese Navy (JIN) during and before WWII (it was the 25th Japanese Navy system identified). ... Visual cryptography is a cryptographic technique which allows visual information (pictures, text, etc. ...

Classified cryptography (U.S.)

  • EKMS NSA's Electronic Key Management System
  • FNBDT NSA's secure narrow band voice standard
  • Fortezza encryption based on portable crypto token in PC Card format
  • KW-26 ROMULUS teletype encryptor (1960s - 1980s)
  • KY-57 VINSON tactical radio voice encryption
  • SINCGARS tactical radio with cryptographically controlled frequency hopping
  • STE secure telephone
  • STU-III older secure telephone
  • TEMPEST prevents compromising emanations
  • Type 1 products

Classified information is secret information to which access is restricted by law or corporate rules to a particular hierarchical class of people. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Electronic Key Management System (EKMS) system is an National Security Agency led program responsible for Communications Security (COMSEC) key management, accounting and distribution. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... FNBDT is the U.S. Governments new standard for secure voice communication. ... NSA can stand for: National Security Agency of the USA The British Librarys National Sound Archive This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Fortezza is also a town in Italy, see: Franzensfeste-Fortezza A Fortezza card made by Mykotronx Corp. ... The PCMCIA is the Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, an industry trade association that creates standards for notebook computer peripheral devices. ... An array of KW-26s The TSEC/KW-26, code named ROMULUS, was an encryption system used by the U.S. Government and, later, by NATO countries. ... The Speech Security Equipment (VINSON), TSEC/KY-57, is a portable, tactical cryptographic device in the VINSON family, designed to provide voice encryption for a range of military communication devices such as radio or telephone. ... SINCGARS stands for Single Channel Ground and Airborne Radio System. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... A STU-III secure telephone; this model AT&T STU-III is a family of secure telephones introduced in 1987 by the NSA for use by the United States government, its contractors, and its allies . ... A tempest is a violent storm. ... In cryptography, a Type 1 product is a device or system certified by the National Security Agency (NSA) for use in cryptographically securing classified U.S. Government information. ...

Breaking ciphers

A passive attack on a cryptosystem is one in which the cryptanalyst cannot interact with any of the parties involved, attempting to break the system solely based upon observed data (i. ... A chosen plaintext attack is any form of cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker has the capability to choose arbitrary plaintexts to be encrypted and obtain the corresponding ciphertexts. ... A chosen ciphertext attack is an attack on a cryptosystem in which the cryptanalyst chooses ciphertext and causes it to be decrypted with an unknown key. ... An adaptive chosen ciphertext attack is an interactive form of chosen ciphertext attack in which an attacker sends a number of ciphertexts to be decrypted, then uses the results of these decryptions to select subsequent ciphertexts. ... The EFFs US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 18,000 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days — the photograph shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted with several Deep Crack chips In cryptanalysis, a brute force attack is a method... In cryptography, the key size (alternatively key length) is a measure of the number of possible keys which can be used in a cipher. ... Unicity distance is a term used in cryptography referring to the length of an original ciphertext needed to break the cipher by reducing the number of possible spurious keys to zero in a brute force attack. ... Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, hidden, and analýein, to loosen or to untie) is the study of methods for obtaining the meaning of encrypted information, without access to the secret information which is normally required to do so. ... The Meet-in-the-middle attack is a cryptographic attack which, like the Birthday attack, makes use of a space-time tradeoff. ... Differential cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis applicable primarily to block ciphers, but also to stream ciphers and cryptographic hash functions. ... In cryptography, linear cryptanalysis is a general form of cryptanalysis based on finding affine approximations to the action of a cipher. ... The idea of the slide attack was originally published by Edna Grossman and Bryant Tuckerman in an IBM Technical Report in 1977. ... New Scientist magazine featured the XSL attack in June 2003 with an article billed as Cipher crisis: the end of internet privacy. In cryptography, the XSL attack is a method of cryptanalysis for block ciphers. ... In cryptography, mod n cryptanalysis is an attack applicable to block and stream ciphers. ...

Weak keys and password-based cryptography

The EFFs US$250,000 DES cracking machine contained over 18,000 custom chips and could brute force a DES key in a matter of days — the photograph shows a DES Cracker circuit board fitted with several Deep Crack chips In cryptanalysis, a brute force attack is a method... In cryptanalysis, a dictionary attack refers to discovering a password by running through a list of likely possibilities, often a list of words from a dictionary. ... In cryptography, a related-key attack is any form of cryptanalysis which presumes that the attacker has the capability to consider the operation of a cipher under several different keys. ... A Key derivation function or key stretcher is a cryptographic hash function which is designed to make a key or password harder to attack using a precomputed dictionary attack or brute force attack. ... In cryptography, key strengthening or key stretching are techniques to make a weak key such as a password or passphrase stronger. ... In cryptography, a weak key is a key which when used with a specific cipher, makes the cipher behave in some undesirable way. ... A password is a form of secret authentication data that is used to control access to a resource. ... In cryptography, a password-authenticated key agreement method is an interactive method for two or more parties to establish cryptographic keys based on one or more partys knowledge of a password. ... A passphrase is a sequence of words or other text used to control access to a computer system, program or data. ... In data encryption, salt is an initialization vector of a block cipher. ...

Key transport/exchange

Burrows-Abadi-Needham logic (also known as the BAN logic) uses postulates and definitions -- like all axiomatic systems -- to analyze authentication protocols. ... Needham-Schroeder is a computer network authentication protocol designed for use on insecure networks (the Internet for example), invented by Roger Needham and Michael Schroeder (1978). ... Wide Mouth Frog is a computer network authentication protocol designed for use on insecure networks (the Internet for example). ... Diffie-Hellman key exchange is a cryptographic protocol which allows two parties to agree on a secret key over an insecure communication channel. ... In cryptography, a man-in-the-middle attack (MITM) is an attack in which an attacker is able to read, insert and modify at will, messages between two parties without either party knowing that the link between them has been compromised. ...

Pseudo- and true random number generators

A cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator (CSPRNG) is a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) with properties that make it suitable for use in cryptography. ... A pseudorandom number generator (PRNG) is an algorithm that generates a sequence of numbers, the elements of which are approximately independent of each other. ... A cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator (CSPRNG) is a pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) with properties that make it suitable for use in cryptography. ... In computing, a hardware random number generator is an apparatus that generates random numbers from a physical process. ... Blum Blum Shub (BBS) is a pseudorandom number generator proposed in 1986 by Lenore Blum, Manuel Blum and Michael Shub (Blum et al, 1986). ... The Yarrow algorithm is a cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator. ... Fortuna is a cryptographically secure pseudo-random number generator (PRNG) devised by Bruce Schneier and Niels Ferguson. ... ISAAC is a pseudorandom number generator designed by Bob Jenkins (1996) to be cryptographically secure. ... The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) is a private, non-profit standards organization that produces industrial standards in the United States. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... FIPS could mean Federal Information Processing Standard, publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ... FIPS could mean Federal Information Processing Standard, publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government. ... CRYPTREC is the Cryptography Research and Evaluation Committee set up by the Japanese Government to evaluate and recommend cryptographic techniques for government and industrial use. ...

Anonymous communication

The dining cryptographers protocol is a method of anonymous communication. ... David Chaum is the inventor of many cryptographic protocols and has contributed to the advancement of electronic cash. ... An anonymous remailer is a server computer which receives messages with embedded instructions on where to send them next, and which forwards them without revealing where they originally came from. ... This article contains self-references. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Onion Routing is a technique for pseudonymous (or anonymous) communication over a computer network, developed by David Goldschlag, Michael Reed, and Paul Syverson. ...

Legal issues

Freedom of speech is the right to freely say what one pleases, as well as the related right to hear what others have stated. ... Bernstein v. ... DeCSS is a computer program capable of decrypting content on a DVD video disc encrypted using the Content-Scrambling System (CSS). ... Phil Zimmermann is the creator of the popular PGP encryption software. ... Since World War II, Western governments, including the U.S. and its NATO allies have regulated the export of cryptography for national security considerations. ... Key escrow is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow by a third party, so that someone else (typically government agencies) can obtain them to decrypt messages which they suspect to be relevant to national security. ... The Clipper chip is a chipset that was developed and promoted by the U.S. Government as an encryption device to be adopted by telecommunications companies for voice transmission. ... The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a controversial United States copyright law. ... Digital Rights Management or DRM is an umbrella term for any of several technologies used to enforce holder desired policies for controlling access to digital data (such as software, music, movies) and hardware. ... A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a government to an inventor or applicant for a limited amount of time (normally maximum 20 years from the filing date, depending on extension). ... In cryptography, RSA is an algorithm for public-key encryption. ... David Chaum is the inventor of many cryptographic protocols and has contributed to the advancement of electronic cash. ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Espionage is the practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential (spying) without the permission of the holder of the information. ... The Official Secrets Act is any of several Acts of the United Kingdom Parliament for the protection of official information, mainly related to national security. ... Regulation of Investigatory Powers Act 2000 (RIP or RIPA) is a United Kingdom law covering the interception of communications. ...

Terminology

A key is a piece of information that controls the operation of a cryptography algorithm. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... This article is about algorithms for encryption and decryption. ... The plain text term has a different meaning. ... In communications, a code is a rule for converting a piece of information (for example, a letter, word, or phrase) into another form or representation, not necessarily of the same type. ... Tabula recta In cryptography, the tabula recta is a square table of alphabets, each one made by shifting the previous one to the left. ...

Books and publications

Johannes Trithemius Polygraphiae (1518) — the first printed book on cryptology. ... This is a list of important publications in computer science, organized by field. ...

Cryptographers

// Pre-19th century Leone Battista Alberti Giovanni Battista della Porta Julius Caesar Johannes Trithemius Philips van Marnix, lord of Sint-Aldegonde Pre-computer Charles Babbage Alistair Denniston Nigel de Grey Elizebeth Friedman William F. Friedman Friedrich Kasiski Auguste Kerckhoffs Dilwyn Knox Solomon Kullback Leo Marks Marian Rejewski John Joseph Rochefort...

Uses of cryptographic techniques

In cryptography, a commitment scheme or a bit commitment scheme is a method of sending hidden information such that it is verifiable in spite of possible later bias from either the sender or the receiver. ... In cryptography, secure multiparty computation is a problem that was initially suggested by Andrew C. Yao in a 1982 paper. ... Electronic voting machine used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ... Authentication (Greek: αυθεντικός, from authentes=author) is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic, that is, that claims made by or about the thing are true. ... Digital signatures are a subset of electronic signatures. ... This article is an overview of cryptographic engineering which notes at least some of the differences between ordinary engineering and the cryptographic sort. ... A cryptosystem (or cryptographic system) is the package of all procedures, protocols, cryptographic algorithms and instructions used for encoding and decoding messages using cryptography. ...

Miscellaneous

Antenna 4 (through the wire) in former Echelon intelligence gathering station at Silvermine, Cape Peninsula, South Africa. ... Espionage is the practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential (spying) without the permission of the holder of the information. ... The International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR) is a non-profit scientific organization whose purpose is to further research in cryptology and related fields. ... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... Security engineering is the field of engineering dealing with the security and integrity of real-world systems. ... SIGINT stands for SIGnals INTelligence, which is intelligence-gathering by interception of signals, whether by radio interception or other means. ... Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the content is obscured. ... Pre-19th century Leone Battista Alberti, polymath/universal genius, inventor of polyalphabetic substitution (see frequency analysis for the significance of this -- missed by most for a long time and dumbed down in the Vigenère cipher), and what may have been the first mechanical encryption aid. ... Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS), its successor, are cryptographic protocols which provide secure communications on the Internet. ... Quantum cryptography is an approach based on quantum physics for secure communications. ... Crypto-anarchism is a philosophy that expounds the use of strong public-key cryptography to enforce privacy and individual freedom. ... The cypherpunks (from cipher and punk) comprise an informal group of people interested in privacy and cryptography who originally communicated through the cypherpunks mailing list. ... Key escrow is an arrangement in which the keys needed to decrypt encrypted data are held in escrow by a third party, so that someone else (typically government agencies) can obtain them to decrypt messages which they suspect to be relevant to national security. ... In cryptography, a zero-knowledge proof or zero-knowledge protocol is an interactive method for one party to prove to another that a (usually mathematical) statement is true, without revealing anything other than the veracity of the statement. ... A random oracle is a mathematical abstraction used in cryptographic proofs. ... In cryptography, a blind signature is a form of digital signature in which the content of a message is disguised (blinded) before it is signed. ... In cryptography, blinding is a technique by which an agent can provide a service to (i. ... Digital timestamping is the process of securely keeping track of the creation and modification time of a document. ... Each secret share is a plane, and the secret is the point at which three shares intersect. ... The phrase trusted operating system generally refers to an operating system that provides sufficient support for multilevel security and evidence of correctness to meet a particular set of government requirements. ...

Free / open-source cryptosystems (ie, algorithms + protocols + system design)

  • PGP (a name for any of several related crypto systems, some of which, beginning with the acquisition of the name by Network Associates, have not been Free Software in the GNU sense)
  • FileCrypt (an open source/commercial command line version of PGP from Veridis of Denmark, see PGP)
  • GPG (an open source implementation of the OpenPGP IETF standard crypto system)
  • SSH (Secure SHell implementing cryptographically protected variants of several common Unix utilities, First developed as open source in Finland by Tatu Ylönen. There is now OpenSSH, an open source implementation supporting both SSH v1 and SSH v2 protocols. There are also commercial implementations.
  • IPsec (Internet Protocol Security IETF standard, a mandatory component of the IPv6 IETF standard)
  • Free S/WAN (an open source implementation of IPsec)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Category:Cryptography - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (188 words)
Cryptography is, traditionally, the study of ways to convert information from its normal, comprehensible form into an obscured guise, unreadable without special knowledge — the practice of encryption.
In the past, cryptography helped ensure secrecy in important communications, such as those of spies, military leaders, and diplomats.
Cryptography is now often built into the infrastructure for computing and telecommunications; users may not even be aware of its presence.
NodeWorks - Encyclopedia: Cryptography (2315 words)
Cryptography (from Greek kryptós, "hidden", and gráphein, "to write") is, traditionally, the study of means of converting information from its normal, comprehensible form into an incomprehensible format, rendering it unreadable without secret knowledge — the art of encryption.
Secondly, cryptography has come to be in widespread use by many civilians who do not have extraordinary needs for secrecy, although typically it is transparently built into the infrastructure for computing and telecommunications, and users are not aware of it.
Asymmetric cryptography also provides mechanisms for digital signatures, which are way to establish with high confidence (under the assumption that the relevant private key has not been compromised in any way) that the message received was sent by the claimed sender.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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