In medicine, a topical medication is applied to body surfaces such as the skin or mucous membranes such as the vagina, nasopharynx, or the eye. Some hydrophobic chemicals such as steroid hormones can be absorbed into the body after being applied to the skin in the form of a cream, gel or lotion. Transdermal patches have become a popular means of administering some drugs for birth control, hormone replacement therapy, and prevention of motion sickness. Medicine is a branch of health science concerned with maintaining health and restoring it by treating disease. ... Model of the layers of human skin In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system; which is composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy The vagina (from the Latin for sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female mammals, or to the cloaca in female birds and some reptiles. ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... An eye is an organ that detects light. ... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... This article is about cream, the food item. ... A gel is an apparently solid, jellylike material formed from a colloidal solution. ... A lotion is a salve used when cleaning or freshening skin. ... A transdermal patch is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a time released dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream. ... Birth control generally refers to any plan or method used to alter or avoid the bodys natural state of fertility, thereby preventing or reducing the probability of pregnancy without abstaining from sexual intercourse; the term is also sometimes used to include abortion and natural family planning. ... This article is about the treatment with sex steroids. ... Motion sickness, also called seasickness, carsickness, airsickness or space sickness, depending on what one has been traveling in, is a condition in which the endolymph (the fluid found in the semicircular canals of the inner ears) becomes stirred up, causing confusion between the difference between apparent perceived movement (none or...
Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics
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