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Encyclopedia > Topeka, Kansas
City of Topeka
Downtown Topeka
Flag of City of Topeka
Flag
Official seal of City of Topeka
Seal
Nickname: Capitol City, T-Town Top City
Coordinates: 39°03′21″N 95°41′22″W / 39.05583, -95.68944
Country United States
State Kansas
County Shawnee
Founded December 5, 1854
Incorporated February 14, 1857
Government
 - Mayor Bill Bunten (R)
 - City Manager Norton Bonaparte Jr.
Area
 - City 57.0 sq mi (147.6 km²)
 - Land 56.0 sq mi (145.1 km²)
 - Water 1.0 sq mi (2.5 km²)
Elevation 945 ft (288 m)
Population (2006)
 - City 122,113
 - Density 2,180/sq mi (841.8/km²)
 - Urban 142,411
  (Urban is Census 2000)
Time zone CST (UTC-6)
 - Summer (DST) CDT (UTC-5)
Area code(s) 785
FIPS code 20-71000[1]
GNIS feature ID 0485477[2]
Website: topeka.org

Topeka is the capital city of the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat and most populous city of Shawnee County. It is situated along the Kansas River in the central part of Shawnee County, located in northeast Kansas, in the Central United States. The population was 122,377 at the 2000 census, and it was estimated to be 122,113 in the year 2006.[3] The Topeka Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Shawnee, Jackson, Jefferson, Osage, and Wabaunsee counties, had an estimated population of 226,268 in the year 2003. Three ships of the US Navy have been named USS Topeka in honor of the city. This article is about the U.S. state. ... Topeka is the name of two places in the United States of America: Topeka, Indiana Topeka, Kansas USS Topeka is the name of three United States Navy ships. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Topeka Kansas City Crest This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... EXAMPLE:Laughbox,Blondie,BamBam,Pinkie,etc. ... Image File history File links Shawnee_County_Kansas_Incorporated_and_Unincorporated_areas_Topeka_Highlighted. ... This list of countries, arranged alphabetically, gives an overview of countries of the world. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The political units and divisions of the United States include: The 50 states... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This is a listing of counties in the U.S. state of Kansas. ... Shawnee County (standard abbreviation: SN) is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... A Municipal Corporation is a legal defintion for a local governing body, including (but not necessarily limited to) cities, counties, and towns. ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Bill Bunten (b. ... GOP redirects here. ... The council-manager government is one of 2 main variations of representative municipal government (for contrast, also see Mayor-Council government). ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... To help compare different orders of magnitude and geographical regions, we list here areas between 100 km² and 1000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ...  CST or UTC-6 The Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC-6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC-5). ... −12 | −11 | −10 | −9:30 | −9 | −8 | −7 | −6 | −5 | −4 | −3:30 | −3 | −2:30 | −2 | −1 | −0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ...  CST or UTC−6 The Central Time Zone observes standard time by subtracting six hours from UTC during standard time (UTC−6) and five hours during daylight saving time (UTC−5). ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... A telephone numbering plan is a plan for allocating telephone number ranges to countries, regions, areas and exchanges and to non-fixed telephone networks such as mobile phone networks. ... Area Code 785 is the area code for telephone exchanges in most of northern Kansas. ... Federal Information Processing Standards (FIPS) are publicly announced standards developed by the U.S. Federal government for use by all (non-military) government agencies and by government contractors. ... GNIS (The Geographic Names Information System) contains name and locative information about almost two million physical and cultural features located throughout the United States of America and its Territories. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A county seat is a term for an administrative center for a county, primarily used in the United States. ... Shawnee County (standard abbreviation: SN) is a county located in the U.S. state of Kansas. ... The Kansas River near De Soto Kaw River (map) looking southward from middle of Turner Diagonal bridge. ... The Central United States is a bridge region between the Eastern United States and Western United States. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... Jackson County (standard abbreviation: JA) is a county located in the state of Kansas. ... Jefferson County (standard abbreviation: JF) is a county located in the state of Kansas. ... Osage County (standard abbreviation: OS) is a county located in the state of Kansas. ... Wabaunsee County (standard abbreviation: WB) is a county located in the state of Kansas. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... USS Topeka, named after the state capital Topeka, Kansas, may be any one of these United States Navy ships: USS Topeka (PG-35), a gunboat bought in England 1898, originally built as Diogenes by Howaldtswerke in Kiel and in periodic use until 1929. ...


The name "Topeka" comes from a Kansas tribal name meaning "a good place to grow potatoes". (The name "potato" in this case refers to the prairie potato, a perennial herb which was an important food for many Native Americans.[4]) Binomial name Psoralea esculenta Pursh. ...


Topeka, laid out in 1854, was one of the Free-State towns founded by Eastern antislavery men immediately after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill. In 1857, Topeka was chartered as a city. Free Stater[1] is an Irish blog set up (amongst other reasons) as a response to the censorship policies in place at the so-called Freedom Institute, a young think-tank effort by a coterie of (current and former) Irish third-level students of a right-wing bent. ... Eli Thayer (1819-1899) was a member of the National House of Representatives from 1857 to 1861. ... This 1856 map shows slave states (grey), free states (red), and US territories (green) with Kansas in center (white). ...

Contents

History

19th century

In the 1840s, wagon trains made their way west from Independence, Missouri, on a 2,000 miles (3,000 km) journey following what would come to be known as the Oregon Trail. About 60 miles (97 km) west of Kansas City, Missouri, three half Kansas Indian sisters married to the French-Canadian Pappan brothers established a ferry service allowing travelers to cross the Kansas River at what is now Topeka. During the 1840s and into the 1850s, travelers could reliably find a way across the river (and plenty of moonshine) but little else was in the area. Wagon Train was a television series on NBC from 1957 to 1962 and on ABC from 1962 to 1965. ... For other uses, see Oregon Trail (disambiguation). ... The Kansas River near De Soto Kaw River (map) looking southward from middle of Turner Diagonal bridge. ...


In the early 1850s, traffic along the Oregon Trail was supplemented by trade on a new military road stretching from Fort Leavenworth through "Topeka" to the newly-established Fort Riley. In 1854, after completion of the first cabin, nine men established the "Topeka Town Association." Included among them was Cyrus K. Holliday, an "idea man" who would become mayor of Topeka and founder of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad. Soon, steamboats were regularly docking at the Topeka landing, depositing meat, lumber, and flour and returning eastward with potatoes, corn, and wheat. By the late 1860s, Topeka had become a commercial hub providing access to many of the Victorian era's comforts. Colonel Cyrus Kurtz Holliday (April 3, 1826 – 1900) was one of the founders of Topeka, Kansas. ... Categories: Rail stubs | Defunct railroad companies of the United States | Arizona railroads | California railroads | Colorado railroads | Illinois railroads | Iowa railroads | Kansas railroads | Louisiana railroads | Missouri railroads | Nebraska railroads | New Mexico railroads | Oklahoma railroads | Texas railroads ...


After a decade of Bleeding Kansas abolitionist and pro-slavery conflict, the Kansas territory was admitted to the Union in 1861 as the 34th state. Topeka was finally chosen as the capital, with Dr. Charles Robinson as the first governor. Cyrus K. Holliday donated a tract of land to the state for the construction of a state capitol. Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a series of violent events, involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro-slavery Border Ruffian elements, that took place in the Kansas Territory and the western frontier towns of the U.S. state of Missouri...


Although the drought of 1860 and the ensuing period of the Civil War slowed the growth of Topeka and the state, Topeka kept pace with the revival and period of growth that Kansas enjoyed from the close of the war in 1865 until 1870. In 1869, the railway started moving westward from Topeka. General offices and machine shops of the Atchison, Topeka, and Santa Fe Railroad system were established in Topeka in 1878. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


During the late 1880s, Topeka passed through a boom period that ended in disaster. There was vast speculation on town lots. The 1889 bubble burst and many investors were ruined. Topeka, however, doubled in population during the period and was able to weather the depressions of the 1890s. Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ...

State Capitol at Topeka (1912)
State Capitol at Topeka (1912)

Early in the 20th Century, another kind of boom, this time the automobile industry, took off, and numerous pioneering companies appeared and disappeared. Topeka was not left out. The Smith Automobile Company was founded there in 1902, lasting until 1912. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Car redirects here. ... Smith Automobile Company of Topeka, Kansas was an early United States automobile manufacturing company which produced the Veracity, Smith, and Great Smith lines of automobiles from 1902 to 1912. ...


20th century

Downtown Topeka looking southwest
Downtown Topeka looking southwest

Home to the first African-American kindergarten west of the Mississippi River, Topeka became the home of Linda Brown, the named plaintiff in Brown v. Board of Education which was the case responsible for eliminating the standard of "separate but equal", and requiring racial integration in American public schools. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1114 KB) Taken on July 25, 2006 by John Opgaard File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1114 KB) Taken on July 25, 2006 by John Opgaard File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation...


It is interesting to note that, at the time the suit was filed, only the elementary schools were segregated in Topeka, and that Topeka High School had been fully integrated since its inception in the late 1890s. It is also interesting to note that Topeka High School was the only public high school in Topeka. Highland Park High School became part of the Topeka school system in 1959 along with the opening of Topeka West High School in 1961. A Catholic high school—Assumption High School, later renamed Capitol Catholic High School, then Hayden High School after its founder, Father Francis Hayden in 1939—also served the city beginning in 1911.[5] Topeka High School (THS) is located in the city of Topeka in the U.S. State of Kansas. ...


Monroe Elementary, a segregated school that figured in the historic Brown v. Board of Education decision, is now a National historic site with interpretive exhibits. The national historic site was opened by President George W. Bush on May 17, 2004. Holding Segregation of students in public schools violates the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment, because separate facilities are inherently unequal. ... National Historic Site is a designation for a protected area of historic significance. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Topeka has struggled with the burden of racial discrimination even after Brown. New lawsuits attempted unsuccessfully to force suburban school districts that ring the city to participate in racial integration with the inner city district. In the late 1980s a group of citizens calling themselves the Task Force to Overcome Racism in Topeka formed to address the problem in a more organized way.


On June 8, 1966, Topeka was struck by an F5 rated tornado, according to the Fujita scale. It started on the southwest side of town, moving northeast, passing over a local landmark named Burnett's Mound. According to a local Indian legend, this mound was thought to protect the city from tornadoes. It went on to rip through the city, hitting the downtown area and Washburn University. Total dollar cost was put at $100 million making it, at the time, one of the costliest tornadoes in American history. Even to this day, with inflation factored in, the Topeka tornado stands as one of the costliest on record. It also helped bring to prominence the CBS and A&E broadcaster Bill Kurtis, who became well known for his televised admonition to "take cover, for God's sake, take cover" on WIBW-TV during the tornado. (The city is, by the way, home of a National Weather Service Forecast Office that serves 23 counties in north-central, northeast, and east-central Kansas). F-scale redirects here. ... Bill Kurtis (born September 21, 1940) is a television journalist and producer best known as the host of numerous A&E crime and news documentary shows, including Investigative Reports, American Justice, and Cold Case Files. ... WIBW-TV is the CBS affiliate in Topeka, Kansas. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ...


Geography

Topeka, Kansas
Topeka, Kansas

Topeka is located at 39°03′N, 95°41′W.[6] Topeka is in north east Kansas at the intersection of I-70 and U.S. Highway 75. It is the origin of I-335 which is a portion of the Kansas Turnpike running from Topeka to Emporia, Kansas. Topeka is also located on U.S. Highway 24 and U.S. Highway 40. 40 is coincident with I-70 west from Topeka. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x680, 607 KB)Image courtesy of Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x680, 607 KB)Image courtesy of Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory, NASA Johnson Space Center. ... I-70 looking westbound near Mile 326, Wabaunsee County, Kansas Interstate 70 is a long interstate highway in the United States. ... U.S. Highway 75 is a north-south United States highway. ... Interstate 335 is the name of an interstate highway spur route of Interstate 35 in the U.S. state of Kansas. ... The Kansas Turnpike is a tolled freeway that lies entirely within the U.S. state of Kansas. ... Emporia is a city located in Lyon County, Kansas, USA. As of the 2000 census, the city had a total population of 26,760. ... U.S. Highway 24, a dual north-south/east-west route, is one of the original United States highways of 1926. ... United States Highway 40 is an east-west United States highway. ...


According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 57.0 square miles (147.6 km²), of which 56.0 square miles (145.1 km²) is land and 1.0 square miles (2.5 km²), or 1.70%, is water.[1] The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ...


Climate

Topeka has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), with hot, somewhat humid summers and cool to cold, fairly dry winters. Over the course of a year, temperatures range from an average low of about 17 °F in January to an average high of nearly 90 °F in July. The maximum temperature reaches 90 °F an average of 45 days per year and reaches 100 °F an average of 4 days per year. The minimum temperature falls below the freezing point (32 °F) an average of 117 days per year. Typically the first fall freeze occurs between the last week of September and the end of October, and the last spring freeze occurs between the first week of April and early May. The humid continental climate is a climate found over large areas of land masses in the temperate regions of the mid-latitudes where there is a zone of conflict between polar and tropical air masses. ... The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. ...


The area receives nearly 36 inches of precipitation during an average year with the largest share being received in May and June—the April–June period averages 32 days of measurable precipitation. Generally, the spring and summer months have the most rainfall, with autumn and winter being fairly dry. During a typical year the total amount of precipitation may be anywhere from 25 to 47 inches. Much of the rainfall is delivered by thunderstorms. These can be severe, producing frequent lightning, large hail, and sometimes tornadoes. There are on average 100 days of measurable precipitation per year. Winter snowfall is light, as is the case in most of the state, not due to lack of sufficient cold temperatures, but due to the dry, sunny weather patterns that dominate Kansas winters, that do not allow for sufficient moisture for significant snowfall. Winter snowfall averages almost 20 inches, but the median is less than 11 inches. Measurable snowfall occurs an average of 15 days per year with at least an inch of snow being received on seven of those days. Snow depth of at least an inch occurs an average of 26 days per year. A rolling thundercloud over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... Not to be confused with lighting. ... This article is about the precipitation. ... For other uses of Tornado, see Tornado (disambiguation). ...

Source: Monthly Station Climate Summaries, 1971-2000, U.S. National Climatic Data Center
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Temperatures (°F)
Mean high 37.2 43.8 55.5 66.1 75.3 84.5 89.1 87.9 80.3 68.9 53.1 40.9 65.2
Mean low 17.2 23.0 32.9 42.9 53.4 63.2 67.7 65.4 55.9 44.3 32.1 21.8 43.3
Highest recorded 73
(1967)
84
(1972)
89
(1986)
95
(1987)
97
(1998)
107
(1953)
110
(1980)
110
(1984)
109
(2000)
96
(1963)
85
(1980)
73
(2001)
110
(1984)
Lowest recorded −20
(1974)
−23
(1979)
−7
(1978)
10
(1975)
26
(1963)
42
(1964)
43
(1972)
41
(1988)
29
(1984)
19
(1993)
2
(1976)
−26
(1989)
−26
(1989)
Precipitation (inches)
Median 0.90 0.89 2.09 3.04 4.41 4.81 2.90 3.99 2.94 3.25 2.17 1.19 36.57
Mean number of days 6.2 6.1 9.2 10.1 11.8 10.5 8.6 8.7 7.9 7.2 7.3 6.4 100.0
Highest monthly 2.67
(1973)
3.49
(1971)
8.44
(1973)
8.69
(1999)
11.81
(1995)
10.91
(1977)
10.98
(1993)
11.18
(1977)
12.71
(1973)
7.24
(1980)
5.64
(1998)
4.30
(1973)
Snowfall (inches)
Median 3.8 2.4 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 3.6 10.9
Mean number of days 4.5 3.2 1.7 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.5 3.5 15.0
Highest monthly 17.3
(1979)
22.4
(1971)
7.8
(1975)
4.5
(1983)
0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.0
(1996)
9.4
(1972)
18.8
(1983)
Notes: Temperatures are in degrees Fahrenheit. Precipitation includes rain and melted snow or sleet in inches; median values are provided for precipitation and snowfall because mean averages may be misleading. Mean and median values are for the 30-year period 1971–2000; temperature extremes are for the station's period of record (1948–2001). The station is located at Topeka Billard Municipal Airport at 39°4′N 95°38′W, elevation 881 feet (269 m).

For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... This article is about precipitation. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Sleet is a term used in a variety of ways to describe precipitation intermediate between rain and snow but distinct from hail. ... An inch (plural: inches; symbol or abbreviation: in or, sometimes, ″ - a double prime) is the name of a unit of length in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... This article is about the statistical concept. ... In mathematics and statistics, the arithmetic mean (or simply the mean) of a list of numbers is the sum of all the members of the list divided by the number of items in the list. ...

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1860 759
1870 5,790 662.8%
1880 15,452 166.9%
1890 31,007 100.7%
1900 33,608 8.4%
1910 43,684 30.0%
1920 50,022 14.5%
1930 64,120 28.2%
1940 67,833 5.8%
1950 78,791 16.2%
1960 119,484 51.6%
1970 125,011 4.6%
1980 115,266 -7.8%
1990 119,883 4.0%
2000 122,377 2.1%

Topeka's population was estimated to be 122,113 in the year 2006, a decrease of 988, or -0.8%, over the previous six years.[3] The United States Census of 1860 was the eighth Census conducted in the United States. ... The Ninth United States Census was taken in 1870. ... 1880 US Census The United States Census of 1880 was the tenth United States Census. ... The Eleventh United States Census was taken June 1, 1890. ... 1900 US Census The Twelfth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 76,212,168, an increase of 21. ... The Thirteenth United States Census was taken in 1910. ... The Fourteenth United States Census was taken in 1920. ... The Fifteenth United States Census was taken in 1930. ... The Sixteenth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 132,164,569, an increase of 7. ... The Seventeenth United States Census was taken in 1950. ... The Eighteenth United States Census was taken in 1960. ... The Nineteenth United States Census was taken in 1970. ... The Twentieth United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 226,545,805, an increase of 11. ... The Twenty-first United States Census, conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States to be 248,709,873, an increase of 9. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ...


As of the U.S. Census in 2000,[1] there were 122,377 people, 52,190 households, and 30,687 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,185.0 people per square mile (843.6/km²). There were 56,435 housing units at an average density of 1,007.6/sq mi (389.0/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 78.52% White, 11.71% Black or African American, 1.31% Native American, 1.09% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 4.06% from other races, and 3.26% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 10.86% of the population. 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... It has been suggested that Ethnicity (United States Census) be merged into this article or section. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably and incorrectly with Caucasian American[2] and within the United States simply white[3]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European descent residing in the United States. ... African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... An Asian American is a person of Asian ancestry or origin who was born in or is an immigrant to the United States. ... The United States Census Bureau uses the federal governments definitions of race when performing a census. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother and a black father The terms multiracial and mixed-race describe people whose parents are not the same race. ... Hispanic (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ; Latin: , adjective from Hispānia, the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula) is a term that historically denoted relation to the ancient Hispania and its peoples. ... For the Brazilian pop singer, see Latino (singer). ...


There were 52,190 households out of which 28.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.8% were married couples living together, 13.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.2% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.94. The household is the basic unit of analysis in many microeconomic and government models. ... Matrimony redirects here. ...


In the city the population is spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 9.9% from 18 to 24, 28.9% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, and 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.4 males.


The median income for a household in the city was $35,928, and the median income for a family was $45,803. Males had a median income of $32,373 versus $25,633 for females. The per capita income for the city was $19,555. About 8.5% of families and 12.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.7% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over. The median household income is commonly used to provide data about geographic areas and divides households into two equal segments with the first half of households earning less than the median household income and the other half earning more. ... The per capita income for a group of people may be defined as their total personal income, divided by the total population. ... Map of countries showing percentage of population who have an income below the national poverty line The poverty line is the level of income below which one cannot afford to purchase all the resources one requires to live. ...


Economy

Being the state's capital city, Topeka's largest employer is the State of Kansas—employing about 8,400 people,[7] or 69% of the city's government workers. Altogether, government workers make up one out of every five employed persons in the city.[1] Not to be confused with capitol. ...


The educational, health and social services industry makes up the largest proportion of the working population (22.4%[1]). The four school districts employ nearly 4,700 people, and Washburn University employs about 1,650.[7] Three of the largest employers are Stormont-Vail HealthCare (with about 3,100 employees), St. Francis Health Center (1,800), and Colmery-O'Neil VA Hospital (900).[7] Washburn University, located in Topeka, Kansas, provides broadly-based liberal arts and professional education through more than 200 certificate, associate, baccalaureate, master’s and juris doctor programs through the College of Arts and Sciences and the Schools of Law, Business, Nursing and Applied Studies. ...


The retail trade employs more than a tenth of the working population (11.5%[1]) with Wal-Mart and Dillons having the greater share. Nearly another tenth is employed in manufacturing (9.0%[1]). Top manufacturers include Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Payless ShoeSource (headquartered in Topeka), Jostens Printing and Publishing, Hill's Pet Nutrition (also headquartered in the city), and Frito-Lay. Southwest Publishing & Mailing Corporation, a smaller employer, has its headquarters in Topeka. Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. ... Dillons is a grocery supermarket chain based in Hutchinson, Kansas, and the flagship banner of Dillon Stores Divison, one of the regional segments of The Kroger Company. ... Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company was founded in 1898 by Frank Seiberling. ... Payless ShoeSource is a discount footwear retailer that was founded in 1956 in Topeka, Kansas. ... Jostens is an American company that makes class rings for high schools and colleges as well as championship rings for sports, including the Super Bowl rings. ... Hills Pet Nutrition, Inc is a subsidiary of Colgate-Palmolive Company. ... External links Frito-Lay Frito-Lay Canada Frito-Lay company history Frito-Lay company timeline Categories: Food and drink stubs | PepsiCo subsidiaries | Food companies of the United States | Snack companies of the United States ...


Other industries are finance, insurance, real estate, and rental and leasing (7.8%); professional, scientific, management, administrative, and waste management services (7.6%); arts, entertainment, recreation, accommodation and food services (7.2%); construction (6.0%); transportation and warehousing, and utilities (5.8%); and wholesale trade (3.2%).[1] Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Kansas is the largest insurance employer, with about 1,800 employees.[7] BCBS of Kansas, Security Benefit Group of Companies, CoreFirst Bank & Trust, and Capitol Federal Savings Bank are headquartered in Topeka. BNSF Railway is the largest transportation employer, with about 1,100.[7] Westar Energy employs nearly 800[7] and is headquartered in the city. It has been suggested that Blue Shield of California be merged into this article or section. ... Commerce Bank & Trust of Topeka (becomes CoreFirst Bank & Trust September 4, 2007) is a community bank based in Topeka, Kansas. ... The BNSF Railway (AAR reporting marks BNSF), headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, is one of the four remaining transcontinental railroads and one of the largest railroad networks in North America (only one competitor, the Union Pacific Railroad, is larger in size). ...


About a tenth of the working population is employed in public administration (9.9%[1]). Other corporations headquartered in Topeka include the Sports Car Club of America. The Sports Car Club of America (SCCA) is a club and sanctioning body supporting road racing, rally, and autocross in the United States and was formed in 1944. ...


Met-Con products also has its headquarters in Topeka.


Arts and culture

Religion

Topeka is sometimes cited as the home of Pentecostalism as it was the site of Charles Fox Parham's Bethel Bible College, where glossolalia was first claimed as the evidence of a spiritual experience referred to as the baptism of the Holy Spirit in 1901. It is also the home of Reverend Charles Sheldon, author of In His Steps, and was the site where the famous question "What would Jesus do?" originated in a sermon of Sheldon's at Central Congregational Church. The First Presbyterian Church in Topeka is one of the very few churches in the U.S. to have its sanctuary completely decorated with Tiffany stained glass (another is St. Lukes United Methodist in Dubuque, Iowa). Topeka is also headquarters for the controversial Westboro Baptist Church led by the preacher Fred Phelps. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Pentecostal... Charles Fox Parham Charles Fox Parham (4 June 1873 - c. ... Tongues redirects here. ... In Christian Pentecostal theology, Baptism with the Holy Spirit is a second baptism, in fire, spoken of by Jesus in the Gospels. ... Charles Sheldon (February 26, 1857 Wellsville, New York - February 24, 1946) was an American minister in the Congregational churches and leader of the Social Gospel movement. ... In His Steps is a best-selling book written by Charles Monroe Sheldon. ... A W.W.J.D bracelet The phrase What would Jesus do? (often abbreviated to WWJD) became popular in the United States in the 1990s as a personal motto for thousands of Christians who used the phrase as a reminder of their belief that Jesus is the example to be... Louis Comfort Tiffany (1848-1933) circa 1908 Louis Comfort Tiffany (February 18, 1848 – January 17, 1933) was an American artist and designer who worked in the decorative arts and is best known for his work in stained glass and is the American artist most associated with the Art Nouveau and... Nickname: Location in the State of Iowa Coordinates: , Country State County Dubuque Incorporated 1833 Government  - Type Council-Manager  - Mayor Roy D. Buol  - City manager Michael C. Van Milligen Area  - City 71. ... WBC member Jael Phelps (right) and an unidentified Westboro Baptist child protesting near the Boston Avenue United Methodist Church in Tulsa, Oklahoma The Westboro Baptist Church (WBC) is a religious organization headed by Fred Phelps and based in Topeka, Kansas, United States. ... Fred Waldron Phelps, Sr. ...


Points of interest

Brown v. ... Detail of Currys controversial mural in Kansas Statehouse, illustrating John Brown and the clash of forces in Bleeding Kansas John Steuart Curry (November 14, 1897 - August 29, 1946) was an American painter noted for his pictures depicting life in his home state, Kansas. ... Forbes Air Force Base is a long-time Strategic Air Command base located five miles south of Topeka, Kansas; much now transferred to the Metropolitan Topeka Airport Authority. ... Heartland Park Topeka is a multi-purpose motorsports facility located 5 miles south of Topeka, Kansas. ... Reinisch Rose Garden and Doran Rock Garden is a garden located in Gage Park (160 acres), at 4320 SW 10th Avenue, Topeka, Kansas. ... Topeka High School (THS) is located in the city of Topeka in the U.S. State of Kansas. ... The Topeka & Shawnee County Public Library is a public library located in Topeka, Kansas. ... The Topeka Zoological Park is a medium-sized zoo in Topeka, Kansas in the United States. ... For other uses, see Golden Eagle (disambiguation). ... Ward-Meade Park Botanical Gardens (2. ... Washburn University, located in Topeka, Kansas, provides broadly-based liberal arts and professional education through more than 200 certificate, associate, baccalaureate, master’s and juris doctor programs through the College of Arts and Sciences and the Schools of Law, Business, Nursing and Applied Studies. ...

Media

Topeka is the home of a daily newspaper, the Topeka Capital Journal, and a bi-weekly newspaper, The Topeka Metro News.


There are affiliates of the major television networks including NBC 27 (KSNT), ABC 49 (KTKA), PBS 11 ((KTWU-TV)) and CBS 13 (WIBW-TV), which is the station where Bill Kurtis started his television career. WIBW-TV is the CBS affiliate in Topeka, Kansas. ... Bill Kurtis (born September 21, 1940) is a television journalist and producer best known as the host of numerous A&E crime and news documentary shows, including Investigative Reports, American Justice, and Cold Case Files. ...


There are also many local radio stations and AM talk shows, including the Jim Cates Show and The Wake Up Call on AM 1440 and On The Other Hand on AM 580. All 3 shows are available on their websites live via streaming audio. (See below)


Government

See also: List of mayors of Topeka

The chief executives of Topeka are Mayor Bill Bunten (R) and City Manager Norton Bonaparte Jr. A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Bill Bunten (b. ... GOP redirects here. ... The council-manager government is one of 2 main variations of representative municipal government (for contrast, also see Mayor-Council government). ...


Education

Monroe Elementary

Topeka is served by four public school districts including Topeka USD 501, Auburn-Washburn USD 437, Shawnee Heights USD 450, and Seaman USD 345. Topeka is also home to several private and parochial schools including Topeka Collegiate, Cair Paravel-Latin School, and Hayden High school. There are also elementary and junior high schools supported by other Christian denominations. Image File history File links Monroe1. ... Image File history File links Monroe1. ... The term public school has three distinct meanings: In the USA and Canada, elementary or secondary school supported and administered by state and local officials. ... Topeka Public Schools (Officially Kansas Unified School District 501) (known locally as 5-O-1 and/or TPS) is one of four school districts that serve the City of Topeka, the capital city of Kansas. ... Cair Paravel-Latin School (commonly Cair Paravel or CPLS) is a coeducational, non-profit, interdenominational Christian private school in Topeka, Kansas, United States. ...


Topeka has several colleges, universities and technical schools including Washburn University and the Baker University School of Nursing. Washburn University, located in Topeka, Kansas, provides broadly-based liberal arts and professional education through more than 200 certificate, associate, baccalaureate, master’s and juris doctor programs through the College of Arts and Sciences and the Schools of Law, Business, Nursing and Applied Studies. ... Baker is a small university of more than 3000 students and is located in Baldwin City, Kansas. ...

Transportation

I-70 Viaduct going through Downtown Topeka
I-70 Viaduct going through Downtown Topeka

I-70, I-470, and I-335 all go through the City of Topeka. I-335 is part of the Kansas Turnpike where it passes through Topeka. Other major highways include: US-24, US-40, US-75, and K-4. Major roads within the city include NW/SW Topeka Blvd. SW Wanamaker Road. N/S Kansas Ave. SW/SE 29th St. SE/SW 21st St. SE California Ave. SW Gage Blvd. and SW Fairlawn Rd. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I-70 Viaduct going through Downtown Topeka I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2304 × 1728 pixel, file size: 537 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I-70 Viaduct going through Downtown Topeka I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this... I-70 looking westbound near Mile 326, Wabaunsee County, Kansas Interstate 70 is a long interstate highway in the United States. ... Torontos Bloor Street Viaduct bridges the Don valley; road traffic uses the upper deck, rail traffic uses the lower deck. ... I-70 looking westbound near Mile 326, Wabaunsee County, Kansas Interstate 70 is a long interstate highway in the United States. ... Interstate 470 is the designation for three Interstate highway routes in the United States associated with Interstate 70. ... Interstate 335 is the name of an interstate highway spur route of Interstate 35 in the U.S. state of Kansas. ... The Kansas Turnpike is a tolled freeway that lies entirely within the U.S. state of Kansas. ... United States Highway 24, a dual north-south/east-west route, is one of the original United States highways of 1926. ... United States Highway 40 is an east-west United States highway. ... US 75 is a north-south United States highway. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Philip Billard Municipal Airport (TOP) is located in the Oakland neighborhood of Topeka and Forbes Field (FOE)is located south of Topeka in Pauline, Kansas. Passenger air service is not currently available. Service may be added in the near future. Forbes Field also serves as an Air National Guard base, home of the highly decorated 190th Air Refueling Wing. Kansas City International Airport is the closest commercial airport. Philip Billard Municipal Airport (IATA: TOP, ICAO: KTOP) is a public airport located 3 miles (5 km) northeast of Topeka, the capital city of the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Shawnee County. ... Forbes Field (IATA: FOE, ICAO: KFOE) is a public airport located 6 miles (10 km) south of Topeka, the capital city of the U.S. state of Kansas and the county seat of Shawnee County. ... Pauline, Kansas Pauline, Kansas is an unincorperated town south of Topeka, located next to Forbes Field. ... The Air National Guard (ANG) is part of the United States National Guard and a reserve component of the United States Air Force (USAF). ...


Passenger rail service provided by Amtrak stops at the Topeka Station. Freight service is provided by the Burlington Northern Santa Fe railroad and Union Pacific Railroad. The high-speed Acela Express in West Windsor, New Jersey. ... Other information Code TOP Traffic Passengers (2006) 6,403 4. ... The Burlington Northern and Santa Fe Railway Company (AAR reporting mark BNSF) (NYSE: BNI), headquartered in Fort Worth, Texas, and established as a result of a 1995 merger between the parent companies of the Burlington Northern Railroad and the Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe Railway, is one of the largest... The Union Pacific Railroad (NYSE: UNP) is the largest railroad in the United States. ...


Bus service is provided by Greyhound
In City bus service provided by Topeka Transit


Notable natives and residents

Charles Patrick Pat Roberts (born April 20, 1936) is a United States Senator from Kansas. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Annette Bening (born May 29, 1958) is an American Academy Award-nominated and Golden Globe-winning actress. ... Greg Binkley (born February 10, 1970) is an American television actor. ... Gwendolyn Elizabeth Brooks (June 7, 1917 – December 3, 2000) was an African-American poet. ... Fred Comer (19 February 1893 Topeka, Kansas – 12 October 1928 Lawrence, Massachusetts) was an American racecar driver. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... Art Crews (born January 3, 1959 in Topeka, Kansas) was a professional wrestler, working mainly in southern promotions. ... Power Plant, Harlem by Aaron Douglas in oil, 1939. ... Ronald Ellwin Evans, Jr. ... Max Falkenstein (1924-) is one of the most recognizable voices in all of collegiate sports history. ... Ann Gottesman, an American writer associated with the Sebastopol Literary Renaissance, was born in Topeka, Kansas, and raised in Los Angeles, near Will Rogers State Park. ... Josh Kulick is an American Heavy Metal drummer who is formerly the drummer of Through the Eyes of the Dead. ... Through the Eyes of the Dead are a gore-flick inspired deathcore band from Florence, South Carolina. ... Coleman Hawkins Coleman Randolph Hawkins, nicknamed Hawk and sometimes Bean, (November 21, 1901 or 1904 - May 19, 1969) was a prominent jazz tenor saxophone musician. ... Wes Jackson is the founder and current president of the Land Institute. ... The Land Institute works for agriculture to change from annuals grown in large fields of the same plant type to perennials grown as mixed species. ... For other uses, see Kansas (disambiguation). ... Bill Kurtis (born September 21, 1940) is a television journalist and producer best known as the host of numerous A&E crime and news documentary shows, including Investigative Reports, American Justice, and Cold Case Files. ... Ben Lerner (born February 4, 1979) is an American Poet. ... Katrina Leskanich (born April 10, 1960, Topeka, Kansas, United States) is an American singer and musician. ... Katrina and the Waves were a pop rock band of the 1980s, best known for their smash hit Walking on Sunshine and their 1997 Eurovision Song Contest victory. ... Andy McKee during a 2007 concert This article is about the guitarist Andy McKee. ... This article is about the psychiatrist. ... William C. Menninger is a co-founder with his brother Karl and his father of The Menninger Foundation in Topeka, Kansas. ... Origin is an American technical death metal group, hailing from Topeka, Kansas. ... John Parrella (born 11/22/1969) is a retired NFL defensive tackle. ... Justice Eric S. Rosen Eric S. Rosen is a Kansas Supreme Court Justice appointed by Governor Kathleen Sebelius in 2005. ... The Kansas Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority in the state of Kansas. ... Thomas Ryan (November 25, 1837 – April 5, 1914) was a nineteenth century politician and lawyer from Kansas. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Mexico since 1823, when Andrew Jackson was appointed Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary to that country. ... Dean Edwards Smith (born February 28, 1931) is a retired head coach of men’s college basketball. ... Mark Turgeon (born February 5, 1965 in Topeka, Kansas) is the current head basketball coach of Texas A&M University. ... Texas A&M University redirects here. ... Karl Kalman Targownik (June 17, 1915 - January 2, 1996) was a psychiatrist and Holocaust survivor. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... John Riggins (born August 4, 1949, in Seneca, Kansas) is a former American Football running back, playing from 1971-1985. ... Trey Lewis (born May 23, 1985) is an American football defensive tackle for the Atlanta Falcons. ...

Other topics

Topeka in popular culture

Blooregard Q. Kazoo, or Bloo for short, is a character from the television show Fosters Home for Imaginary Friends, voiced by Keith Ferguson. ... Fosters Home for Imaginary Friends (sometimes called Fosters for short, and abbreviated as FHIF/FHFIF) is an Emmy Award-Winning American animated television series created and produced at Cartoon Network Studios by animator Craig McCracken, who also created The Powerpuff Girls. ... The Waste Lands is book III of the Dark Tower series by Stephen King. ... Wizard and Glass is the fourth book in the Dark Tower series by Stephen King. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Dark Tower. ... A portrait of Sherlock Holmes by Sidney Paget from the Strand Magazine, 1891 Sherlock Holmes is a fictional detective of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, who first appeared in publication in 1887. ... The Adventure of the Three Garridebs, one of the 56 Sherlock Holmes short stories written by British author Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, is one of 12 stories in the cycle collected as The Case Book of Sherlock Holmes. ... Wasteland is a post-apocalyptic computer role-playing game first released in 1988. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... True Q is a season 6 episode of Star Trek:The Next Generation Spoiler warning: The Enterprise has received an intern from Starfleet Academy, Amanda Rogers, to study biological sciences under Dr. Crusher, but soon strange things start to happen. ... Cover to JLA: Our Worlds at War #1. ... A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... CrossOver (before version 6. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Doctor Doom, one of the most archetypal supervillains and his arch-enemies The Fantastic Four (in background). ... Imperiex, also called the Devourer of Galaxies, is a fictional extraterrestrial supervillain featured in the Our Worlds at War crossover published by DC Comics. ... This article is about the first Command & Conquer video game. ... This article or section contains a plot summary that is overly long. ... This article is about the TV series. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i American FactFinder. United States Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  2. ^ US Board on Geographic Names. United States Geological Survey (2007-10-25). Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  3. ^ a b Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. Annual estimates of the population to 2006-07-01. Released 2007-06-28. Population change is from 2000-07-01 to 2006-07-01.
  4. ^ Topeka's Roots: the Prairie Potato — Barbara Burgess
  5. ^ Hayden History
  6. ^ US Gazetteer files: 2000 and 1990. United States Census Bureau (2005-05-03). Retrieved on 2008-01-31.
  7. ^ a b c d e f Largest Employers. Greater Topeka Chamber of Commerce.
  • Burgess, Barbara. Topeka's Roots: the Prairie Potato. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  • Giles, Thirty years in Topeka: A Historical Sketch, (Topeka, 1886)
  • Z. L. Potter, Industrial Conditions in Topeka, (New York, 1915)
  • D. O. Decker, Municipal Administration in Topeka, (New York, 1915)
  • FallingRain Map - elevation = 273m

The Russell Sage Foundation published the last two books. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Russell Sage Foundation is a small foundation located in New York City that is devoted exclusively to research in the social sciences. ...

External links

Official sites


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