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Encyclopedia > Top Fuel
Clocked Speed = 314 mph (506 km/h), Kwinana Race Track, W.A., 2005
Clocked Speed = 314 mph (506 km/h), Kwinana Race Track, W.A., 2005
Top fuel dragster time (4.567 s at 321 mph or 516 km/h)
Top fuel dragster time (4.567 s at 321 mph or 516 km/h)

Top-Fuel Racing refers to a class of drag racing in which the cars are run on a maximum of 85% nitromethane and about 15% methanol (also known as racing alcohol), instead of gasoline. The cars are purpose built race cars, with a layout superficially resembling open-wheel circuit racing vehicles - however, they are much longer, much narrower, and have very thin front tires, to optimize their performance exclusively in a straight line. Image File history File links I took this photo myself using an Olympus C8080W. Top fueller, speeed=506kph, Kwinana race track, W.A., 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links I took this photo myself using an Olympus C8080W. Top fueller, speeed=506kph, Kwinana race track, W.A., 2005 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Top_Fuel_dragster_time,_Indianapolis,_2004. ... Image File history File links Top_Fuel_dragster_time,_Indianapolis,_2004. ... Top Fuel dragster Drag racing is a sport in which cars race down a track with a set distance as fast as possible. ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Petrol redirects here. ...


Like other drag racing classes, these cars compete in a 1/4 mile (0.4 km) race. They are the fastest such category, with the fastest cars completing it in less than 4.5 seconds at upwards of 330 mph (530 km/h). A Top Fuel dragster accelerates from 0 to 100 mph (160 km/h) in less than 0.8 seconds, subjecting the driver to a force about 5.7 times their weight. This acceleration takes less than a tenth of the time needed by a production Porsche 911 Turbo to reach the same speed. A fuel dragster can exceed 280 mph (450 km/h) in just 660 feet (0.2 km). For further information and standards for drag-racing, including safety requirements, see NHRA. Porsche 911 in hillclimb The Porsche 912 (pronounced as nine eleven) is a sports car made by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany. ... The National Hot Rod Association, known as the NHRA, was founded by Wally Parks in 1951 in the State of California to provide a governing body to organize and promote the sport of drag racing. ...

Contents

Facts about Top Fuel

Before their run, they do a burnout. This is done for three reasons. First, after applying some water, it heats the tires up, which results in better traction. Secondly, it removes debris from the tires. Thirdly, and most importantly, it coats the track surface with rubber which greatly improves traction during the subsequent launch. A top fuel dragster's burnout alone can travel one quarter of the way down the track. A Ford Mustang competes in a burnout contest A burnout (also called a brake burn by some) occurs when the driver of a car or motorcycle spins the vehicles drive wheels on dry pavement until a trail of white smoke is generated. ...


At top engine speed, the exhaust gases escaping from the open headers produce about 800-1000 pounds-force (3.6 kilonewtons) of downforce. The massive foil over and behind the rear wheels produces much more downforce, peaking at around 12,000 lbf (53 kN) when the car reaches a speed of about 325 mph. The pound-force is a non-SI unit of force or weight (properly abbreviated lbf or lbf). The pound-force is equal to a mass of one pound multiplied by the standard acceleration due to gravity on Earth (which is defined as exactly 9. ... For other uses, see Newton (disambiguation). ... Three different styles of front wings from three different Formula 1 eras, all designed to produce downforce on the front wheels. ... The kilonewton, symbol kN, is an SI unit of force. ...


Top Fuel dragsters are notorious for the deafening amount of noise their engines create at full throttle. They generate over 150 dB, enough to cause some peoples' eardrums physical pain. The intense levels of sound are not only heard, but also felt as pounding vibrations all over one's body, leading many to compare the experience of watching a Top Fuel dragster make a pass to 'feeling as though the entire drag strip is being bombed'. Prior to the dragsters going down the strip, race announcers usually advise spectators to cover or plug their ears—indeed, ear plugs and even earmuffs are often handed out to fans at the entrance to a Top Fuel event.


The Fuel

NHRA regulations limit the composition of the fuel to a maximum of 85% nitromethane; the remainder is largely methanol. However, this mixture is not mandatory, and less nitromethane can be used if desired. The National Hot Rod Association, known as the NHRA, was founded by Wally Parks in 1951 in the State of California to provide a governing body to organize and promote the sport of drag racing. ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ...


Kenny Bernstein was the first drag racer in NHRA history to break 300 mph in the 1/4 mile in March, 1992. Bernstein took his dragster over 300 mph using a mixture of 90-to-100% nitromethane at the time. Despite nitromethane having a much a lower energy density (11.2 MJ/kg) than either gasoline (44 MJ/kg) or methanol (22.7 MJ/kg), its addition to the fuel mixture has the net effect of increasing engine output by around 2.3 times compared to gasoline for the same mass of air. Kenny Bernstein (born September 6, 1944 in Clovis, New Mexico), is an American drag racing driver. ...


The high temperature of vaporization of nitromethane also means that it will absorb substantial engine heat as it vaporizes, providing an invaluable cooling mechanism. Compared to gasoline the laminar flame speed and combustion temperature are higher at 0.5 m/s and 2400°C respectively. Power output can be increased by using very rich air fuel mixtures. This is also something that helps prevent detonation, something that is usually a problem when using nitromethane.


Due to the relatively slow burn rate of nitromethane, very rich fuel mixtures are often not fully ignited and some remaining nitromethane can escape from the exhaust pipe and ignite on contact with atmospheric oxygen, burning with a characteristic yellow flame. Additionally, after sufficient fuel has been combusted to consume all available oxygen, nitromethane can combust in the absence of atmospheric oxygen, producing hydrogen, which can often be seen burning from the exhaust pipes at night as a bright white flame. In a typical run the engine can consume as much as 103 litres (22.75 gallons) of fuel during warmup, burnout, staging, and the quarter-mile run. Flame generated by the burning of a candle. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...


Top fuel engines

Engine of a top fuel car
Engine of a top fuel car

Like many other motor sport formulas originating in the United States, the NHRA favors heavy restrictions on engine configuration, rather than technological development. This restricts the teams to using many decades old technologies. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1227 KB) Source: Taken by me at European Finals 2005, at Santa Pod Raceway. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2048x1536, 1227 KB) Source: Taken by me at European Finals 2005, at Santa Pod Raceway. ... The National Hot Rod Association, known as the NHRA, was founded by Wally Parks in 1951 in the State of California to provide a governing body to organize and promote the sport of drag racing. ...


The engine used to power a Top Fuel drag racing car has its roots in the second generation Chrysler Hemi 426 "Elephant Engine" made 1964-71. Although the Top Fuel engine is built exclusively of aftermarket parts, it retains the basic configuration with two valves per cylinder activated by pushrods from a centrally-placed camshaft. The engine has hemispherical combustion chambers, a 90 degree V angle; 4.8" bore pitch and a 5.4" cam lift. The configuration is identical to the overhead valve, single camshaft-in-block "Hemi" V-8 engine which became available for sale to the public in selected Chrysler Corporation (Dodge, DeSoto, and Chrysler) automotive products in 1952. Early Hemi in a 1957 Chrysler 300C See also: Chrysler Hemi engine Hemi (from hemisphere) is a design of internal-combustion engines in which the cylinder heads combustion chamber is of hemispherical form. ...


The NHRA competition rules limit the displacement to 500 cubic inch (8194 cc). A 4.19" (106.4 mm) bore with a 4.5" (114.3 mm) stroke are customary dimensions. Larger bores have been shown to weaken the cylinder block. Compression ratio is about 6.5:1, as is common on engines with overdriven (the supercharger is driven faster than the crankshaft speed) superchargers.


The block is CNC machined from a piece of forged aluminium. It has press-fitted ductile iron liners. There are no water passages in the block which adds considerable strength and stiffness. Like the original Hemi, the racing cylinder block has a long skirt (to reduce piston "rocking" at the lower limit of piston travel); there are five main bearing caps which are fastened with aircraft-standard-rated steel studs; with additional reinforcing main studs and side bolts. There are three approved suppliers of these custom-made after-market blocks, from which the teams may choose. The cylinder block of a Ford I4 DOHC engine The cylinder block or engine block is a machined casting (or sometimes an assembly of modules) containing cylindrically bored holes for the pistons of a multi-cylinder reciprocating internal combustion engine, or for a similarly constructed device such as a pump. ... A CNC Turning Center A CNC Milling Machine The abbreviation CNC stands for computer numerical control, and refers specifically to a computer controller that reads G-code instructions and drives the machine tool, a powered mechanical device typically used to fabricate metal components by the selective removal of metal. ... For finery forges (making iron), see finery forge. ...


The cylinder heads are CNC-machined from aluminum billets. As such, they have no water jackets and rely entirely on the incoming air/fuel mixture for their cooling. The original Chrysler design of two large valves per cylinder is used. The intake valve is made from solid titanium and the exhaust from solid Nimonic 80A or similar. Seats are of ductile iron, beryllium-copper have been tried but its use is limited due to cost. Valve sizes are around 2.45" (62.2 mm) for the intake and 1.925" (48.9 mm) for the exhaust. In the ports there are integral tubes for the push rods. The heads are sealed to the block by copper gaskets and stainless steel o-rings. Securing the heads to the block is done with aircraft-rated steel bolts. The cylinder head from a GMC van. ... Billet is a term used in manufacturing to refer to a cast product. ... General Name, symbol, number titanium, Ti, 22 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 4, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 47. ... -1... General Name, symbol, number beryllium, Be, 4 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, period, block 2, 2, s Appearance white-gray metallic Standard atomic weight 9. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Typical O-ring and application An O-ring is a loop of elastomer with a round (o-shaped) cross-section used as a mechanical seal. ...


The camshaft is billet steel, made from 8620 carbon steel or similar. It runs in five oil pressure lubricated bearing shells and is driven by gears in the front of the engine. Mechanical roller lifters ride atop the cam lobes and drive the steel push rods up into the steel rockers that actuate the valves. The rockers are of roller type on the intake side, high pressures on the exhaust limits its use to the intake side only. The steel roller rotates on a steel roller bearing and the steel rocker arms rotates on a titanium shaft within bronze bushings. Intake rockers are billet while the exhausts are investment cast. The dual valve springs are of coaxial type and made out of titanium. Valve retainers are also made of titanium, as are the rocker covers.


Billet steel crankshafts are used; they all have a cross plane a.k.a. 90 degree configuration and runs in five conventional bearing shells. 180 degree crankshafts have been tried and they can offer increased power, even though the exhaust is of open type. A 180 degree crankshaft is also about 10 kg lighter than 90 degree crankshaft, but they create a lot of vibration. Such is the strength of a top fuel crankshaft that in one incident, the entire engine block was split open and blown off the car during an engine failure, and the crank, with all eight connecting rods and pistons, was left still bolted to the clutch. Crankshaft (red), pistons (gray) in their cylinders (blue), and flywheel (black) Continental engine marine crankshafts, 1942 Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ...


Pistons are of forged aluminium, 2618 alloy. They have three rings and aluminium buttons retain the 1.156" x 3.300" steel pin. The piston is anodized and Teflon coated to prevent galling during high temperature operation. The top ring is an L-shaped Dykes ring that provides a good seal during combustion but a second ring must be used to prevent oil from entering the combustion chamber during intake strokes as the Dykes-style ring offers less than optimal combustion gas sealing. The third ring is an oil scraper ring whose function is helped by the second ring. The connecting rods are of forged aluminium and do provide some shock damping, which is why aluminum is used in place of titanium, because titanium connecting rods transmit too much of the combustion impulse to the big-end rod bearings, endangering the bearings and thus the crankshaft and block. Each con rod has two bolts, shell bearings for the big end while the pin runs directly in the rod. For the American composer, see Walter Piston. ... Spring-loaded piston rings. ... The iPod mini has an anodised aluminium surface, and comes in many colours Anodizing or Anodising is a process used to protect aluminium from abrasion and corrosion and to allow it to be dyed in a wide range of colors. ... Teflon is a trademark of DuPont and is commonly used for the chemical compound polytetrafluoroethylene. ... piston (top) and connecting rod from typical automotive engine (scale is in centimetres) Components of a typical, four stroke cycle, DOHC piston engine. ...


The supercharger is a 14-71 type Roots blower. It has twisted lobes and is driven by a toothed belt. The supercharger is slightly offset to the rear to provide an even distribution of air. Absolute manifold pressure is usually 3.8-4.5 bar (56-66 PSI), but up to 5.0 bar (74 PSI) is possible. The manifold is fitted with a 200 psi burst plate. Air is fed to the compressor from throttle butterflies with a maximum area of 65 sq. in. At maximum pressure, it takes approximately 400 horsepower to drive the supercharger. A supercharger (also known as a blower) is an air compressor used to force more air (and hence more oxygen) into the combustion chamber(s) of an internal combustion engine than can be achieved at ambient atmospheric pressure (natural aspiration). ... A Roots Blower refers to a specific design of positive displacement vacuum pump”. // General description The term derives from the Roots brothers who invented the rotary lobe pump more than a century ago. ... Timing belt A timing belt, timing chain or cam belt is a part of an internal combustion engine that controls the timing of the engines valves. ... Manifold vacuum, or engine vacuum in an internal combustion engine is the difference in air pressure between the engines intake manifold and Earths atmosphere. ... In an engine, the throttle is the mechanism by which the engines power is increased or decreased. ...


These superchargers are in fact derivatives of General Motors scavenging-air blowers for their two-cycle diesel engines, which were adapted for automotive use in the early days of the sport. The model name of these superchargers delineates their size; i.e. the once commonly used 6-71 and 4-71 blowers were designed for General Motors diesels having six cylinders of 71 cubic inches each, and four cylinders of 71 cubic inches each, respectively. Thus, the currently used 14-71 design can be seen to be a huge increase in power delivery over the early designs. General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, an American multinational corporation, is the worlds largest auto company by production volume for the first 9 months of 2007, and by sales volume for 76 consecutive years. ... A diesel engine built by MAN AG in 1906 Rudolf Diesels 1893 patent on his engine design A Diesel engine is an internal combustion engine which operates using the Diesel cycle. ...


Mandatory safety rules require a secured Kevlar-style blanket over the supercharger assembly as "blower explosions" are not uncommon. The absence of a protective blanket exposes the driver, team and spectators to shrapnel in the event that nearly any irregularity in the induction of the air/fuel mixture, the conversion of combustion into rotating crankshaft movements, or in the exhausting of spent gasses is encountered.


The oil system has a wet sump which contains 16 quarts of SAE 70 mineral or synthetic racing oil. The pan is made of titanium or aluminium. Titanium can be used to prevent oil spills in the event of a blown rod. Oil pressure is somewhere around 160–170 lbf/in² during the run, 200 lbf/in² at start up, but actual figures differs between teams. A pressure gauge reading in PSI (red scale) and kPa (black scale) The pound-force per square inch (symbol: lbf/in2) is a non-SI unit of pressure based on avoirdupois units. ...


Fuel is injected by a constant flow injection system. There is an engine driven mechanical fuel pump and about 42 fuel nozzles. The pump can flow 100 gallons per minute at 8000 rpm and 500 PSI fuel pressure. In general 10 injectors are placed in the injector hat above the supercharger, 16 in the intake manifold and two per cylinder in the cylinder head. Usually a race is started with a leaner mixture, then as the clutch begins to tighten as the engine speed builds, the air/fuel mixture is enriched. As engine speed builds pump pressure the mixture is made leaner to maintain a predetermined ratio that is based on many factors, one of which is primary one of race track surface friction. The stoichiometry of both methanol and nitromethane is considerably greater than that of racing gasoline, as they have oxygen atoms attached to their carbon chains and gasoline does not. This means that a "fueler" engine will provide power over a very broad range from very lean to very rich mixtures. Thus, to attain maximum performance, before each race, by varying the level of fuel supplied to the engine, the mechanical crew may select power outputs barely below the limits of tire traction. Power outputs which create tire slippage will "smoke the tires" and the race is often lost. Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ...


The air/fuel mixture is ignited by two 14 mm spark plugs per cylinder. These plugs are fired by two 44-ampere magnetos. Normal ignition timing is 58-65 degrees BTDC. (This is dramatically greater spark advance than in a gasoline engine as "nitro" and alcohol burn far slower.) Directly after launch the timing is typically decreased by about 25 degrees for a short time as this gives the tires time to reach their correct shape. The ignition system limits the engine speed to 8400 rpm. The ignition system provides initial 50,000 volts and 1.2 amperes. The long duration spark (up to 26 degrees) provides energy of 950 millijoules. The plugs are placed in such a way that they are cooled by the incoming charge. The ignition system is not allowed to respond to real time information (no computer-based spark lead adjustments), so instead a timer-based retard system is used. This article or section should include material from Spark gap A spark plug is an electrical device that fits into the cylinder head of some internal combustion engines and ignites compressed aerosol gasoline by means of an electric spark. ... For other uses, see Ampere (disambiguation). ... A magneto provides pulses of electrical power to the spark plugs in some gasoline-powered internal combustion engines where batteries are not available, most commonly those in 2-stroke and 4-stroke engines used in small motorcycles, lawnmowers and chainsaws. ... Ignition timing in an internal combustion engine is the process of setting the time that a spark will occur in the combustion chamber (during the power stroke) relative to piston position and crankshaft angular velocity. ... Top dead centre (TDC) in a piston engine, is the position of a piston in which it is farthest from the crankshaft. ... The joule (IPA pronunciation: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ...


The engine is fitted with open exhaust pipes, 2.75" in diameter and 18" long. These are made of steel and fitted with thermocouples for measuring of the exhaust temperature. They are called "zoomies" and exhaust gases are directed upward and backwards. Exhaust temperature is about 260 °C at idle and 980 °C by the end of a run. A night run provides visual excitement with slow-burning nitromethane flames many feet above this screaming spectacle of acceleration. A "good run" is over in just 4.5 seconds, the noise ends, and braking parachutes are seen in the distance, after a speed of over 325 miles per hour has been reached. For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... In electronics, thermocouples are a widely used type of temperature sensor and can also be used as a means to convert thermal potential difference into electric potential difference. ...


The engine is warmed up for about 80 seconds. After the warm up the valve covers are taken off, oil is changed and the car is refueled. The run including tire warming is about 100 seconds which results in a "lap" of about three minutes. After each lap, the entire engine is disassembled and examined, and worn or damaged components are replaced. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Performance

Power output of these engines is most likely somewhere between 7000 and 8300 horsepower (approximately 4500-6000 kilowatts). It is often inexplicably stated that no dynamometer exists that can measure the output of a Top Fuel Engine when, in reality, dynamometers capable of measuring tens of thousands of horsepower at relevant shaft speeds are in widespread use. Estimates suggest a torque output of 5100–6750 N·m (3760–4980 lbf·ft) and also a brake mean effective pressure of 80–100 bar (0.8–1.0 MPa). In thermodynamics, motive power is an agency, as water or steam, used to impart motion. ... This article is about a unit of measurement. ... A dynamometer, or dyno for short, is a machine used to measure torque and rotational speed (rpm) from which power produced by an engine, motor or other rotating prime mover can be calculated. ... For other senses of this word, see torque (disambiguation). ... The foot-pound force (symbol: ft·lbf) is an English unit of work or energy. ... The mean effective pressure is an abstraction of the pressure exerted into the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. ...


For the purposes of comparison, a 2008 SSC Ultimate Aero, the world's fastest production automobile, produces 1183 bhp horsepower and 1094 lbf·ft (1483 N·m) torque. The American-built SSC Ultimate Aero TT is a supercar built by Shelby Super Cars (SSC) in order to rival the new Bugatti Veyron with speeds of over 250 mph (400 km/h) and a 0-60 mph time of 2. ...


Engine weight

  • Block with liners 85 kg
  • Heads 18 kg each
  • Crankshaft 37 kg
  • Complete engine 225 kg.

Mandatory safety equipment

Much of organized drag-racing is sanctioned by the National Hot Rod Association. Since 1955, the Association has held regional and national events (typically organized as single elimination tournaments, with the winner of each two car race advancing) and has set rules for safety, with the more powerful cars requiring ever more safety equipment.


Typical safety equipment for contemporary top fuel dragsters: full face helmets with fitted HANS devices; multi-point, quick release safety restraint harness; full body fire suit made of Nomex or similar material, complete with face mask, gloves, socks and shoes, all made of fire-resistant materials; on board fire extinguishers; kevlar or other synthetic "bullet-proof" blankets around the superchargers and clutch assemblies to contain broken parts in the event of failure or explosion; damage resistant fuel tank, lines, and fittings; externally accessible fuel and ignition shut-offs (built to be accessible to rescue staff); braking parachutes; and a host of other equipment, all built to the very highest standards of manufacturing. Any breakthrough or invention that is likely to contribute to driver, staff, and spectator safety is likely to be adopted as a mandated rule for competition. The forty year history of NHRA has provided hundreds of examples of safety upgrades. 2005 and 2006 WTCC Champion Andy Priaulx with a HANS device NASCAR driver Ken Schraders HANS device The HANS device (Head And Neck Support device) is a safety item compulsory in many car racing sports. ... NOMEX® is the brand name of a flame retardant meta-aramid material marketed and first discovered by DuPont in the 1970s. ...


In 2000, the NHRA mandated the maximum concentration of nitromethane in a car's fuel be no more than 90%. In the wake of a Gateway International Raceway fatality in 2004, the fuel ratio was reduced to 85%. Complaints from teams in regards to cost, however, has resulted in the rule being rescinded starting in 2008, when the fuel mixture returns to 90%, as NHRA team owners, crew chiefs, and suppliers complained about mechanical failures that can result in oildowns or more severe crashes caused by the reduced nitromethane mixture. [1] Gateway International Raceway is a race track in Madison, Illinois, USA. It hosts a NASCAR Busch Series event and a NASCAR Craftsman Truck Series race on a 1. ...


The NHRA also mandated that different rear tires be used (in both Top Fuel and Funny Car) to try to prevent them from failing and that a titanium "shield" be attached around the back-half of the roll-cage in Top Fuel Dragsters (although some Funny Car teams adopted this) to prevent any debris from entering the cockpit.


At present, final drive ratios lower than 3.20 (3.2 engine rotations to one rear axle rotation) are prohibited, in an effort to limit top speed potential, thus reducing the perceived level of danger.


References

  1. ^ http://www.nhra.com/content/news/24145.htm
  • "The Top Fuel V8", Race Engine Technology, #009, p60-69
  • "Running The Army Motor", Race Engine Technology, #008, p18-30
  • "Top Fuel by the Numbers, By John Kiewicz, Motor Trend, February 2005
  • "Drag Racing: It's Like Plunging Your Toilet with a Claymore Mine, By John Phillips, Car and Driver, August 2002.

External links


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