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Encyclopedia > Tooth
A tiger's teeth.
A tiger's teeth.

Teeth (singular, tooth) are small white structures found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates that are used to tear, scrape, milk and chew food. Some animals, particularly carnivores, also use teeth for hunting or defense. The roots of teeth are covered by gums. Teeth is a black comedy horror film written and directed by Mitchell Lichtenstein. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1416x2126, 1019 KB) Beschreibung: Gebiss eines sibirischen Tigers Aufnahmedatum: 19. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1416x2126, 1019 KB) Beschreibung: Gebiss eines sibirischen Tigers Aufnahmedatum: 19. ... For other uses, see Tiger (disambiguation). ... Human jaw front view Human jaw left view Human jaw top view The jaw is either of the two opposable structures forming, or near the entrance to, the mouth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... The gingiva (sing. ...


Teeth are among the most distinctive (and long-lasting) features of mammal species. Paleontologists use teeth to identify fossil species and determine their relationships. The shape of an animal's teeth is related to its diet. For example, plant matter is hard to digest, so herbivores have many molars for chewing. Carnivores, on the other hand, need canines to kill and tear meat. Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... For other uses, see Fossil (disambiguation). ... A deer and two fawns feeding on some foliage A herbivore is often defined as any organism that eats only plants[1]. By that definition, many fungi, some bacteria, many animals, about 1% of flowering plants and some protists can be considered herbivores. ... A molar is the fourth kind of tooth in mammals. ... Chewing is the process by which food is torn and/or crushed by teeth. ... Carnivorism redirects here. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Mammals are diphyodont, meaning that they develop two sets of teeth. In humans, the first set (the "baby," "milk," "primary" or "deciduous" set) normally starts to appear at about six months of age, although some babies are born with one or more visible teeth, known as Neonatal teeth. Normal tooth eruption at about six months is known as teething and can be painful. Orders Subclass Monotremata Monotremata Subclass Marsupialia Didelphimorphia Paucituberculata Microbiotheria Dasyuromorphia Peramelemorphia Notoryctemorphia Diprotodontia Subclass Placentalia Xenarthra Dermoptera Desmostylia Scandentia Primates Rodentia Lagomorpha Insectivora Chiroptera Pholidota Carnivora Perissodactyla Artiodactyla Cetacea Afrosoricida Macroscelidea Tubulidentata Hyracoidea Proboscidea Sirenia The mammals are the class of vertebrate animals primarily characterized by the presence of mammary... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... ... The removed bone reveals permanent teeth below the roots of primary teeth. ... Teething is the process during which an infants teeth start to sequentially grow in. ...


Some animals develop only one set of teeth (monophyodont) while others develop many sets (polyphyodont). Sharks, for example, grow a new set of teeth every two weeks to replace worn teeth. Rodent incisors grow and wear away continually through gnawing, maintaining relatively constant length. Some rodent species, such as the sibling vole and the guinea pig, have continuously growing molars in addition to incisors.[1][2] For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... Suborders Sciuromorpha Castorimorpha Myomorpha Anomaluromorpha Hystricomorpha Rodentia is an order of mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must be kept short by gnawing. ...

Contents

Anatomy

A third molar.
A third molar.
Main article: Dental anatomy

Dental anatomy is a field of anatomy dedicated to the study of tooth structures. The development, appearance, and classification of teeth fall within its field of study, though dental occlusion, or contact among teeth, does not. Dental anatomy is also a taxonomical science as it is concerned with the naming of teeth and their structures. This information serves a practical purpose for dentists, enabling them to easily identify teeth and structures during treatment. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x613, 83 KB) The lower wisdom tooth, just structed from me. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (600x613, 83 KB) The lower wisdom tooth, just structed from me. ... Dental anatomy or anatomy of teeth is a field of anatomy dedicated to the study human teeth structures. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Occlusion is the relationship between the maxillary and mandibular teeth that exists when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or at rest. ... For the science of classifying living things, see alpha taxonomy. ...


The anatomic crown of a tooth is the area covered in enamel above the cementoenamel junction (CEJ).[3] The majority of the crown is composed of dentin with the pulp chamber in the center.[4] The crown is within bone before eruption.[5] After eruption, it is almost always visible. The anatomic root is found below the cementoenamel junction and is covered with cementum. As with the crown, dentin composes most of the root, which normally have pulp canals. A tooth may have multiple roots or just one root. Canines and most premolars, except for maxillary (upper) first premolars, usually have one root. Maxillary first premolars and mandibular molars usually have two roots. Maxillary molars usually have three roots. Additional roots are referred to as supernumerary roots. The cementoenamel junction, frequently abbreviated as the CEJ, is an anatomical landmark identified on a tooth. ... The removed bone reveals permanent teeth below the roots of primary teeth. ... Cementum is a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth. ... Supernumerary roots is a condition found in teeth there may be a larger number of roots than expected. ...

Models of human teeth as they exist within the alveolar bone.
Models of human teeth as they exist within the alveolar bone.

Humans usually have 20 primary teeth (also called deciduous, baby, or milk teeth) and 32 permanent teeth. Among primary teeth, 10 are found in the (upper)maxilla and the other 10 in the (lower) mandible. Teeth are classified as incisors, canines, and molars. In the primary set of teeth, there are two types of incisors, centrals and laterals, and two types of molars, first and second. All primary teeth are replaced with permanent counterparts except for molars, which are replaced by permanent premolars. Among permanent teeth, 16 are found in the maxilla with the other 16 in the mandible. The maxillary teeth are the maxillary central incisor, maxillary lateral incisor, maxillary canine, maxillary first premolar, maxillary second premolar, maxillary first molar, maxillary second molar, and maxillary third molar. The mandibular teeth are the mandibular central incisor, mandibular lateral incisor, mandibular canine, mandibular first premolar, mandibular second premolar, mandibular first molar, mandibular second molar, and mandibular third molar. Third molars are commonly called "wisdom teeth" and may never erupt into the mouth or form at all. If any additional teeth form, for example, fourth and fifth molars, which are rare, they are referred to as supernumerary teeth.[6] The alveolar process (processus alveolaris), also referred to as the alveolar bone, is the bone found in the jaws of a mouth containing the socket of teeth. ... The maxilla (plural: maxillae) is a fusion of two bones along the palatal fissure that form the upper jaw. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... The maxillary central incisor is usually the most visible tooth, since it is the top center two teeth in the front of a mouth, and it is located mesial (closer to the midline of the face) to the maxillary lateral incisor. ... The maxillary lateral incisor is the tooth located distally (away from the midline of the face) from both maxillary central incisors of the mouth and mesially (toward the midline of the face) from both maxillary canines. ... The maxillary canine is the tooth located laterally (away from the midline of the face) from both maxillary lateral incisors of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both maxillary first premolars. ... The maxillary first premolar is the tooth located laterally (away from the midline of the face) from both the maxillary canines of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both maxillary second premolars. ... The maxillary second premolar is the tooth located laterally (away from the midline of the face) from both the maxillary first premolars of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both maxillary first molars. ... The maxillary first molar is the tooth located laterally (away from the midline of the face) from both the maxillary second premolars of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both maxillary second molars. ... The maxillary second molar is the tooth located laterally (away from the midline of the face) from both the maxillary first molars of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both maxillary third molars. ... The maxillary third molar is the tooth located laterally (away from the midline of the face) from both the maxillary second molars of the mouth with no tooth posterior to it in permanent teeth. ... The mandibular central incisor is the tooth located adjacent to the midline of the face and is mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both mandibular lateral incisors. ... The mandibular lateral incisor is the tooth located distally (away from the midline of the face) from both mandibular central incisors of the mouth and mesially (toward the midline of the face) from both manibular canines. ... The mandibular canine is the tooth located distally (away from the midline of the face) from both mandibular lateral incisors of the mouth but mesially (toward the midline of the face) from both mandibular first premolars. ... The mandibular first premolar is the tooth located laterally (away from the midline of the face) from both the mandibular canines of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both mandibular second premolars. ... The mandibular second premolar is the tooth located distally (away from the midline of the face) from both the mandibular first premolars of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both mandibular first molars. ... The mandibular first molar is the tooth located distally (away from the midline of the face) from both the mandibular second premolars of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both mandibular second molars. ... The mandibular second molar is the tooth located distally (away from the midline of the face) from both the mandibular first molars of the mouth but mesial (toward the midline of the face) from both mandibular third molars. ... The mandibular third molar is the tooth located distally (away from the midline of the face) from both the mandibular second molars of the mouth with no tooth posterior to it in permanent teeth. ... Wisdom teeth are the third molars that usually appear between the ages of 16 and 24. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Most teeth have identifiable features that distinguish them from others. There are several different notation systems to refer to a specific tooth. The three most commons systems are the FDI World Dental Federation notation, the universal numbering system, and Palmer notation method. The FDI system is used worldwide, and the universal is used widely in the United States. Dentists, in writing or speech, use several different Dental notation systems for associating information to a specific tooth. ... FDI World Dental Federation notation is widely used by dentists internationally to associate information to a specific tooth. ... The Universal numbering system is a dental notation system for associating information to a specific tooth, and is commonly used in the United States. ... Palmer notation is a system used by dentists to associate information to a specific tooth. ...


Parts

Section of a human molar
Section of a human molar

Image File history File links Tooth_Section. ... Image File history File links Tooth_Section. ...

Enamel

Main article: Tooth enamel

Enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body and is one of the four major tissues which make up the tooth, along with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp.[7] It is normally visible and must be supported by underlying dentin. Ninety-six percent of enamel consists of mineral, with water and organic material composing the rest.[8] The normal color of enamel varies from light yellow to grayish white. At the edges of teeth where there is no dentin underlying the enamel, the color sometimes has a slightly blue tone. Since enamel is semitranslucent, the color of dentin and any restorative dental material underneath the enamel strongly affects the appearance of a tooth. Enamel varies in thickness over the surface of the tooth and is often thickest at the cusp, up to 2.5 mm, and thinnest at its border, which is seen clinically as the cementoenamel junction (CEJ).[9] Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body,[1] and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major tissues which make up the tooth. ... Parts of a tooth, including dentin Dentin (BE: dentine) is a calcified tissue of the body, and along with enamel, cementum, and pulp is one of the four major components of teeth. ... Cementum is a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth. ... The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living soft tissue and cells called odontoblasts. ... A cusp is an occlusal or incisal eminance on a tooth. ... The cementoenamel junction, frequently abbreviated as the CEJ, is an anatomical landmark identified on a tooth. ...


Enamel's primary mineral is hydroxyapatite, which is a crystalline calcium phosphate.[10] The large amount of minerals in enamel accounts not only for its strength but also for its brittleness.[11] Dentin, which is less mineralized and less brittle, compensates for enamel and is necessary as a support.[10] Unlike dentin and bone, enamel does not contain collagen. Instead, it has two unique classes of proteins called amelogenins and enamelins. While the role of these proteins is not fully understood, it is believed that they aid in the development of enamel by serving as framework support among other functions.[12] Hydroxylapatite is a naturally occurring form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two molecules. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... Calcium phosphate is the name given to a family of minerals containing calcium ions (Ca2+) together with orthophosphates (PO43-), metaphosphates or pyrophosphates (P2O74-) and occasionally hydrogen or hydroxide ions. ... This article is about the skeletal organs. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Amelogenin is a gene-specific, low-molecular-weight protein found in tooth enamel, and it belongs to a family of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. ... Enamelin is a protein found at low concentration in developing tooth enameltooth enamel. ...


Dentin

Main article: Dentin

Dentin is the substance between enamel or cementum and the pulp chamber. It is secreted by the odontoblasts of the dental pulp.[13] The formation of dentin is known as dentinogenesis. The porous, yellow-hued material is made up of 70% inorganic materials, 20% organic materials, and 10% water by weight.[14] Because it is softer than enamel, it decays more rapidly and is subject to severe cavities if not properly treated, but dentin still acts as a protective layer and supports the crown of the tooth. Parts of a tooth, including dentin Dentin (BE: dentine) is a calcified tissue of the body, and along with enamel, cementum, and pulp is one of the four major components of teeth. ... Dentinogenesis is the creation, of dentin a substance that forms the inside of teeth. ...


Dentin is a mineralized connective tissue with an organic matrix of collagenous proteins. Dentin has microscopic channels, called dentinal tubules, which radiate outward through the dentin from the pulp cavity to the exterior cementum or enamel border.[15] The diameter of these tubules range from 2.5 μm near the pulp, to 1.2 μm in the midportion, and 900 nm near the dentino-enamel junction.[16] Although they may have tiny side-branches, the tubules do not intersect with each other. Their length is dictated by the radius of the tooth. The three dimensional configuration of the dentinal tubules is genetically determined. Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ...


Cementum

Main article: Cementum

Cementum is a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth.[13] It is approximately 45% inorganic material (mainly hydroxyapatite), 33% organic material (mainly collagen) and 22% water. Cementum is excreted by cementoblasts within the root of the tooth and is thickest at the root apex. Its coloration is yellowish and it is softer than either dentin or enamel. The principal role of cementum is to serve as a medium by which the periodontal ligaments can attach to the tooth for stability. At the cementoenamel junction, the cementum is acellular due to its lack of cellular components, and this acellular type covers at least ⅔ of the root.[17] The more permeable form of cementum, cellular cementum, covers about ⅓ of the root apex.[18] Cementum is a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth. ... Hydroxylapatite is a naturally occurring form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), but is usually written Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 to denote that the crystal unit cell comprises two molecules. ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ... A Cementoblast is a biological cell that forms from the follicular cells around the root of a tooth, and whose biological function is cementogenesis, which is the creation of cementum. ... // Headline text The periodontal ligaments are considered part of the periodontium, as they are supporting tissue of a tooth. ...


Pulp

Main article: Pulp (tooth)

The dental pulp is the central part of the tooth filled with soft connective tissue.[14] This tissue contains blood vessels and nerves that enter the tooth from a hole at the apex of the root.[19] Along the border between the dentin and the pulp are odontoblasts, which initiate the formation of dentin.[14] Other cells in the pulp include fibroblasts, preodontoblasts, macrophages and T lymphocytes.[20] The pulp is commonly called "the nerve" of the tooth. The dental pulp is the part in the center of a tooth made up of living soft tissue and cells called odontoblasts and others. ... A macrophage of a mouse stretching its arms to engulf two particles, possibly pathogens Macrophages (Greek: big eaters, from makros large + phagein eat) are cells within the tissues that originate from specific white blood cells called monocytes. ... T cells are a subset of lymphocytes that play a large role in the immune response. ...


Development

Main article: Tooth development
Radiograph of lower right third, second, and first molars in different stages of development.
Radiograph of lower right third, second, and first molars in different stages of development.

Tooth development is the complex process by which teeth form from embryonic cells, grow, and erupt into the mouth. Although many diverse species have teeth, non-human tooth development is largely the same as in humans. For human teeth to have a healthy oral environment, enamel, dentin, cementum, and the periodontium must all develop during appropriate stages of fetal development. Primary (baby) teeth start to form between the sixth and eighth weeks in utero, and permanent teeth begin to form in the twentieth week in utero.[21] If teeth do not start to develop at or near these times, they will not develop at all. Radiograph of lower right (from left to right) third, second, and first molars in different stages of development. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1844x1227, 437 KB) Summary Radiograph of lower right 3rd, 2nd, and 1st molars in an 11 year old child. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1844x1227, 437 KB) Summary Radiograph of lower right 3rd, 2nd, and 1st molars in an 11 year old child. ... For other uses, see Embryo (disambiguation). ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The term cell growth is used in two different ways in biology. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... Tooth enamel is the hardest and most highly mineralized substance of the body,[1] and with dentin, cementum, and dental pulp is one of the four major tissues which make up the tooth. ... Parts of a tooth, including dentin Dentin (BE: dentine) is a calcified tissue of the body, and along with enamel, cementum, and pulp is one of the four major components of teeth. ... Cementum is a specialized bony substance covering the root of a tooth. ... PeBold textriodontium is a word of Medical terminology for the specialized tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. ... Fetal (U.S. English; Foetal UK English) development is the process in which a fetus (U.S. English; Foetus UK English) develops during gestation, from the times of conception until birth. ... ... This article is about female reproductive anatomy. ... Permanent teeth are the second set of teeth formed in humans. ...


A significant amount of research has focused on determining the processes that initiate tooth development. It is widely accepted that there is a factor within the tissues of the first branchial arch that is necessary for the development of teeth.[22] In the development of vertebrate animals, the branchial arches (or pharyngeal arches) develop during the fourth and fifth week in utero as a series of mesodermal outpouchings on the left and right sides of the developing pharynx. ...


Tooth development is commonly divided into the following stages: the bud stage, the cap, the bell, and finally maturation. The staging of tooth development is an attempt to categorize changes that take place along a continuum; frequently it is difficult to decide what stage should be assigned to a particular developing tooth.[22] This determination is further complicated by the varying appearance of different histologic sections of the same developing tooth, which can appear to be different stages.


The tooth bud (sometimes called the tooth germ) is an aggregation of cells that eventually forms a tooth. It is organized into three parts: the enamel organ, the dental papilla and the dental follicle.[23] The enamel organ is composed of the outer enamel epithelium, inner enamel epithelium, stellate reticulum and stratum intermedium.[23] These cells give rise to ameloblasts, which produce enamel and the reduced enamel epithelium. The growth of cervical loop cells into the deeper tissues forms Hertwig's Epithelial Root Sheath, which determines a tooth's root shape. The dental papilla contains cells that develop into odontoblasts, which are dentin-forming cells.[23] Additionally, the junction between the dental papilla and inner enamel epithelium determines the crown shape of a tooth.[24] The dental follicle gives rise to three important entities: cementoblasts, osteoblasts, and fibroblasts. Cementoblasts form the cementum of a tooth. Osteoblasts give rise to the alveolar bone around the roots of teeth. Fibroblasts develop the periodontal ligaments which connect teeth to the alveolar bone through cementum.[25] Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The enamel organ, also known as dental organ, is a cellular aggregation seen in histologic sections of a developing tooth. ... The dental papilla is a condensation of ectomesenchymal cells called odontoblasts, seen in histologic sections of a developing tooth. ... The dental follicle is a sac containing the developing tooth and its odontogenic organ. ... The outer enamel epithelium, also known as the external enamel epithelium, is a layer of cuboidal cells located on the periphery of the enamel organ in a developing tooth. ... The inner enamel epithelium, also known as the internal enamel epithelium, is a layer of cells located on the rim nearest the dental papilla of the enamel organ in a developing tooth. ... The stellate reticulum is a group of cells located in the center of the enamel organ of a developing tooth. ... The stratum intermedium in a developing tooth is a layer of cells between the inner enamel epithelium and the newly forming cells of the stellate reticulum. ... Ameloblast is the blast that synthezises enamel proteins that later mineralise to form enamel on teeth. ... The reduced enamel epithelium, sometimes called reduced dental epithelium, overlies a developing tooth and is formed by two layers: a layer of ameloblast cells and the adjacent layer of cuboidal cells from the dental lamina. ... The Hertwigs epithelial root sheath (frequently abbreviated as HERS) is a proliferation of epithelial cells located at the cervical loop of the enamel organ in a developing tooth. ... An odontoblast is a biological cell of neural crest origin that is part of the outer surface of the dental pulp, and whose biological function is dentinogenesis, which is the creation of dentin, the substance under the tooth enamel. ... A Cementoblast is a biological cell that forms from the follicular cells around the root of a tooth, and whose biological function is cementogenesis, which is the creation of cementum. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and germ or embryonic) is a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. ... NIH/3T3 Fibroblasts A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes and maintains the extracellular matrix of many animal tissues. ... The alveolar process is the thickened ridge of bone that contains the tooth sockets on bones that bear teeth. ... // Headline text The periodontal ligaments are considered part of the periodontium, as they are supporting tissue of a tooth. ...


Eruption

Main article: Tooth eruption

Tooth eruption in humans is a process in tooth development in which the teeth enter the mouth and become visible. Current research indicates that the periodontal ligaments play an important role in tooth eruption. Primary teeth erupt into the mouth from around six months until two years of age. These teeth are the only ones in the mouth until a person is about six years old. At that time, the first permanent tooth erupts. This stage, during which a person has a combination of primary and permanent teeth, is known as the mixed stage. The mixed stage lasts until the last primary tooth is lost and the remaining permanent teeth erupt into the mouth. The removed bone reveals permanent teeth below the roots of primary teeth. ...


There have been many theories about the cause of tooth eruption. One theory proposes that the developing root of a tooth pushes it into the mouth.[26] Another, known as the cushioned hammock theory, resulted from microscopic study of teeth, which was thought to show a ligament around the root. It was later discovered that the "ligament" was merely an artifact created in the process of preparing the slide.[27] Currently, the most widely held belief is that the periodontal ligaments provide the main impetus for the process.[28] In anatomy, the term ligament is used to denote three different types of structures:[1] Fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones. ... In natural science and signal processing, an artifact is any perceived distortion or other data error caused by the instrument of observation. ...


The onset of primary tooth loss has been found to correlate strongly with somatic and psychological criteria of school readiness.[29][30]


Supporting structures

Histologic slide of tooth erupting into the mouth. A: tooth B: gingiva C: bone D: periodontal ligaments
Histologic slide of tooth erupting into the mouth.
A: tooth
B: gingiva
C: bone
D: periodontal ligaments

The periodontium is the supporting structure of a tooth, helping to attach the tooth to surrounding tissues and to allow sensations of touch and pressure.[31] It consists of the cementum, periodontal ligaments, alveolar bone, and gingiva. Of these, cementum is the only one that is a part of a tooth. Periodontal ligaments connect the alveolar bone to the cementum. Alveolar bone surrounds the roots of teeth to provide support and creates what is commonly called an alveolus, or "socket". Lying over the bone is the gingiva or gum, which is readily visible in the mouth. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (847x1308, 278 KB) Summary Histologic slide of an erupting tooth with tooth (labeled A), gingiva (labeled B), alveolar bone (labeled C), and periodontal ligaments (labeled D). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (847x1308, 278 KB) Summary Histologic slide of an erupting tooth with tooth (labeled A), gingiva (labeled B), alveolar bone (labeled C), and periodontal ligaments (labeled D). ... PeBold textriodontium is a word of Medical terminology for the specialized tissues surrounding and supporting the teeth. ... The alveolar process (processus alveolaris), also referred to as the alveolar bone, is the bone found in the jaws of a mouth containing the socket of teeth. ... The gingiva (sing. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... The gingiva (sing. ...


Periodontal ligaments

The periodontal ligament is a specialized connective tissue that attaches the cementum of a tooth to the alveolar bone. This tissue covers the root of the tooth within the bone. Each ligament has a width of 0.15 - 0.38 mm, but this size decreases over time.[32] The functions of the periodontal ligaments include attachment of the tooth to the bone, support for the tooth, formation and resorption of bone during tooth movement, sensation, and eruption.[33] The cells of the periodontal ligaments include osteoblasts, osteoclasts, fibroblasts, macrophages, cementoblasts, and epithelial cell rests of Malassez.[34] Consisting of mostly Type I and III collagen, the fibers are grouped in bundles and named according to their location. The groups of fibers are named alveolar crest, horizontal, oblique, periapical, and interradicular fibers.[35] The nerve supply generally enters from the bone apical to the tooth and forms a network around the tooth toward the crest of the gingiva.[36] When pressure is exerted on a tooth, such as during chewing or biting, the tooth moves slightly in its socket and puts tension on the periodontal ligaments. The nerve fibers can then send the information to the central nervous system for interpretation. Connective tissue is one of the four types of tissue in traditional classifications (the others being epithelial, muscle, and nervous tissue. ... Bone resorption is the process by which osteoclasts break down bone and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood. ... Epithelial cell rests of Malassez are remnants of Hertwigs epithelial root sheath . ... Tropocollagen triple helix. ...


Alveolar bone

The alveolar bone is the bone of the jaw which forms the alveolus around teeth.[37] Like any other bone in the human body, alveolar bone is modified throughout life. Osteoblasts create bone and osteoclasts destroy it, especially if force is placed on a tooth.[31] As is the case when movement of teeth is attempted through orthodontics, an area of bone under compressive force from a tooth moving toward it has a high osteoclast level, resulting in bone resorption. An area of bone receiving tension from periodontal ligaments attached to a tooth moving away from it has a high number of osteoblasts, resulting in bone formation. The alveolar process (processus alveolaris), also referred to as the alveolar bone, is the bone found in the jaws of a mouth containing the socket of teeth. ... An osteoblast (from the Greek words for bone and germ or embryonic) is a mononucleate cell that is responsible for bone formation. ... An osteoclast (from the Greek words for bone and broken) is a type of bone cell that removes bone tissue by removing the bones mineralized matrix. ... Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... For other uses, see Force (disambiguation). ... Bone resorption is the process by which osteoclasts break down bone and release the minerals, resulting in a transfer of calcium from bone fluid to the blood. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ...


Gingiva

The gingiva ("gums") is the mucosal tissue that overlays the jaws. There are three different types of epithelium associated with the gingiva: gingival, junctional, and sulcular epithelium. These three types form from a mass of epithelial cells known as the epithelial cuff between the tooth and the mouth.[38] The gingival epithelium is not associated directly with tooth attachment and is visible in the mouth. The junctional epithelium, composed of the basal lamina and hemidesmosomes, forms an attachment to the tooth.[33] The sulcular epithelium is nonkeratinized stratified squamous tissue on the gingiva which touches but is not attached to the tooth.[39] This leaves a small potential space between the gingiva and tooth which can collect bacteria, plaque, and calculus. The gingiva (sing. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... The basal lamina (often erroneously called basement membrane) is a layer on which epithelium sits. ... Hemidesmosomes (HD) are very small stud- or rivet-like structures on the inner basal surface of keratinocytes in the epidermis of skin. ... Cross-section of all skin layers Optical coherence tomography tomogram of fingertip, depicting stratum corneum (~500µm thick) with stratum disjunctum on top and stratum lucidum (connection to stratum spinosum) in the middle. ... Squamous epithelium is one of several types of epithelia. ...


Tooth decay

Plaque

Main article: Dental plaque

Plaque is a biofilm consisting of large quantities of various bacteria that form on teeth.[40] If not removed regularly, plaque buildup can lead to dental cavities (caries) or periodontal problems such as gingivitis. Given time, plaque can mineralize along the gingiva, forming tartar. The microorganisms that form the biofilm are almost entirely bacteria (mainly streptococcus and anaerobes), with the composition varying by location in the mouth.[41] Streptococcus mutans is the most important bacteria associated with dental caries. Improper removal of plaque caused a build up of calculus (dark yellow colour) near the gums on almost all the teeth. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Tooth decay, or dental caries, is a disease of the teeth resulting in damage to tooth structure. ... Periodontics is the study of clinical aspects of the supporting structures of the teeth, including the gingiva, alveolar (jaw) bone, root cementum, and the periodontal ligament in health and disease. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Calculus (dark yellow colour) can be seen on almost all teeth near the gums In dentistry, calculus or tartar refers to hardened plaque on the teeth, formed by the presence of saliva, debris, and minerals. ... A cluster of Escherichia coli bacteria magnified 10,000 times. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Species S. agalactiae S. bovis S. mutans S. pneumoniae S. pyogenes S. salivarius S. sanguinis S. suis Streptococcus viridans Streptococcus uberis etc. ... Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria can be identified by growning them in liquid culture: 1: Obligate aerobic bacteria gather at the top of the test tube in order to absorb maximal amount of oxygen. ... Binomial name Streptococcus mutans Clarke 1924 Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria commonly found in the human oral cavity and is a significant contributor to tooth decay. ...


Certain bacteria in the mouth live off the remains of foods, especially sugars and starches. In the absence of oxygen they produce lactic acid, which dissolves the calcium and phosphorus in the enamel.[13][42] This process, known as "demineralisation", leads to tooth destruction. Saliva gradually neutralises the acids which cause the pH of the tooth surface to rise above the critical pH. This causes 'remineralisation', the return of the dissolved minerals to the enamel. If there is sufficient time between the intake of foods then the impact is limited and the teeth can repair themselves. Saliva is unable to penetrate through plaque, however, to neutralize the acid produced by the bacteria. Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Solvation is the attraction and association of molecules of a solvent with molecules or ions of a solute. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... In biogeochemistry, remineralisation refers to the transformation of organic molecules to inorganic forms, typically mediated by biological activity. ...


Caries (Cavities)

Tooth decay on a premolar.
Tooth decay on a premolar.
Main article: Dental caries

Dental caries, also described as "tooth decay" or "dental cavities", is an infectious disease which damages the structures of teeth.[43] The disease can lead to pain, tooth loss, infection, and, in severe cases, death. Dental caries has a long history, with evidence showing the disease was present in the Bronze, Iron, and Middle ages but also prior to the neolithic period.[44] The largest increases in the prevalence of caries have been associated with diet changes.[44][45] Today, caries remains one of the most common diseases throughout the world. In the United States, dental caries is the most common chronic childhood disease, being at least five times more common than asthma.[46] Countries that have experienced an overall decrease in cases of tooth decay continue to have a disparity in the distribution of the disease.[47] Among children in the United States and Europe, 60-80% of cases of dental caries occur in 20% of the population.[48] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (312x651, 242 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tooth enamel Dental caries Wikipedia:Graphic Lab/Images to improve ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (312x651, 242 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tooth enamel Dental caries Wikipedia:Graphic Lab/Images to improve ... Look up Pain in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Missing tooth - process of tooth loss. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. ...


Tooth decay is caused by certain types of acid-producing bacteria which cause the most damage in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose.[49][50] The resulting acidic levels in the mouth affect teeth because a tooth's special mineral content causes it to be sensitive to low pH. Depending on the extent of tooth destruction, various treatments can be used to restore teeth to proper form, function, and aesthetics, but there is no known method to regenerate large amounts of tooth structure. Instead, dental health organizations advocate preventative and prophylactic measures, such as regular oral hygiene and dietary modifications, to avoid dental caries.[51] For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... Fructose (also levulose or laevulose) is a simple reducing sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... A dental restoration or dental filling is a dental restorative material used artificially to restore the function, integrity and morphology of missing tooth structure. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... In biology, regeneration is an organisms ability to replace body parts. ... Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ...


Tooth care

Toothbrushes are commonly used to clean teeth.
Toothbrushes are commonly used to clean teeth.
Main article: Oral hygiene

Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean and is a means of preventing dental caries, gingivitis, periodontal disease, bad breath, and other dental disorders. It consists of both professional and personal care. Regular cleanings, usually done by dentists and dental hygienists, remove tartar (mineralized plaque) that may develop even with careful brushing and flossing. Professional cleaning includes tooth scaling, using various instruments or devices to loosen and remove deposits from teeth. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 237 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dental caries Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 237 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Dental caries Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Three toothbrushes The toothbrush is an instrument used to clean teeth, consisting of a small brush on a handle. ... Oral hygiene is the practice of keeping the mouth clean in order to prevent cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, periodontitis, bad breath (halitosis), and other dental disorders. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Periodontitis a disease involving inflammation of the gums (gingiva), often persisting unnoticed for years or decades in a patient, that results in loss of bone around teeth. ... Halitosis, oral malodor (scientific term), breath odor, foul breath, fetor oris, fetor ex ore, or most commonly bad breath are terms used to describe noticeably unpleasant odors exhaled in breathing – whether the smell is from an oral source or not. ... Calculus (dark yellow colour) can be seen on almost all teeth near the gums In dentistry, calculus or tartar refers to hardened plaque on the teeth, formed by the presence of saliva, debris, and minerals. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Dental floss is a thin, nylon string that is used to remove food and plaque from the teeth. ... Dental hygienist scaling a patients teeth Tooth scaling involves the mechanical use of a dental instrument that scrapes away bacterial plaque and calculus from the tooth. ...


The purpose of cleaning teeth is to remove plaque, which consists mostly of bacteria.[52] Healthcare professionals recommend regular brushing twice a day (in the morning and in the evening, or after meals) in order to prevent formation of plaque and tartar.[51] A toothbrush is able to remove most plaque, excepting areas between teeth. As a result, flossing is also considered a necessity to maintain oral hygiene. When used correctly, dental floss removes plaque from between teeth and at the gum line, where periodontal disease often begins and could develop caries. Electric toothbrushes are not considered more effective than manual brushes for most people.[53] The most important advantage of electric toothbrushes is their ability to aid people with dexterity difficulties, such as those associated with rheumatoid arthritis. The gingiva (sing. ... Periodontitis a disease involving inflammation of the gums (gingiva), often persisting unnoticed for years or decades in a patient, that results in loss of bone around teeth. ... Electric toothbrush, made by Braun. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is traditionally considered a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ...


In addition, fluoride therapy is often recommended to protect against dental caries. Water fluoridation and fluoride supplements decrease the incidence of dental caries. Fluoride helps prevent dental decay by binding to the hydroxyapatite crystals in enamel.[54] The incorporated fluoride makes enamel more resistant to demineralization and thus more resistant to decay.[55] Topical fluoride, such as a fluoride toothpaste or mouthwash, is also recommended to protect teeth surfaces. Many dentists include application of topical fluoride solutions as part of routine cleanings. Fluoride therapy is the delivery of fluoride to the teeth topically or systemically, which is designed to prevent tooth decay (dental caries) which results in cavities. ... Water fluoridation is the practice of adding fluoride compounds to water with the intended purpose of reducing tooth decay in the general population. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Modern toothpaste gel Toothpaste is a paste or gel dentifrice used to clean and improve the aesthetic appearance and health of teeth. ... For the Addie Cyr song see Mouthwash (song) For the ska-punk band, see Mouthwash (band) Mouthwash or mouth rinse is a product used for oral hygiene. ...


Restorations

After a tooth has been damaged or destroyed, restoration of the missing structure can be achieved with a variety of treatments. Restorations may be created from a variety of materials, including glass ionomer, amalgam, gold, porcelain, and composite.[56] Small restorations placed inside a tooth are referred to as "intracoronal restorations". These restorations may be formed directly in the mouth or may be cast using the lost-wax technique, such as for some inlays and onlays. When larger portions of a tooth are lost, an "extracoronal restoration" may be fabricated, such as a crown or a veneer, to restore the involved tooth. A dental restoration or dental filling is a dental restorative material used artificially to restore the function, integrity and morphology of missing tooth structure. ... This page is about types of dental restorative materials. ... This article is about mixtures (alloys) of mercury with other elements. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... Porcelain used by a dental technician to create lifelike crowns and bridges for the dentist. ... Dental composites are a group of restorative material used in dentistry. ... Casting is a process by which a material is introduced into a mold while it is liquid, allowed to solidify in the shape inside the mold, and then removed producing a fabricated object, part, or casing. ... In dentistry, an inlay is a filling consisting of a solid substance (as gold or porcelain) fitted to a cavity in a tooth and cemented into place. ... Crown A crown, or full-coverage restoration (sometimes incorrectly called a cap) is a prosthetic tooth designed by a dentist and usually created by a lab technician (or more recently, a CAD-CAM machine). ... In dentistry, a veneer is a thin layer of restorative material placed over a tooth surface, either to improve the aesthetics of a tooth, or to protect a damaged tooth surface. ...

Picture of a restored premolar.
Picture of a restored premolar.

When a tooth is lost, dentures, bridges, or implants may be used as replacements.[57] Dentures are usually the least costly whereas implants are usually the most expensive. Dentures may replace complete arches of the mouth or only a partial number of teeth. Bridges replace smaller spaces of missing teeth and use adjacent teeth to support the restoration. Dental implants may be used to replace a single tooth or a series of teeth. Though implants are the most expensive treatment option, they are often the most desirable restoration because of their esthetics and function. To improve the function of dentures, implants may be used as support.[58] A maxillary denture. ... A dental bridge is a prosthesis used in place of missing teeth and may be removable or permanently attached. ... X-Ray picture of two rectangular dental implants inserted into the jaw. ... Occlusal view of a mandibular partial denure. ...


Abnormalities

Tooth abnormalities may be categorized according to whether they have environmental or developmental causes.[59] While environmental abnormalities may appear to have an obvious cause, there may not appear to be any known cause for some developmental abnormalities. Environmental forces may affect teeth during development, destroy tooth structure after development, discolor teeth at any stage of development, or alter the course of tooth eruption. Developmental abnormalities most commonly affect the number, size, shape, and structure of teeth.


Digestive

Alteration during tooth development

Tooth abnormalities caused by environmental factors during tooth development have long-lasting effects. Enamel and dentin do not regenerate after they mineralize initially. Enamel hypoplasia is a condition in which the amount of enamel formed is inadequate.[60] This results either in pits and grooves in areas of the tooth or in widespread absence of enamel. Diffuse opacities of enamel does not affect the amount of enamel but changes its appearance. Affected enamel has a different translucency than the rest of the tooth. Demarcated opacities of enamel have sharp boundaries where the translucency decreases and manifest a white, cream, yellow, or brown color. All these may be caused by a systemic event, such as an exanthematous fever.[61] Turner's hypoplasia is a portion of missing or diminished enamel on a permanent tooth usually from a prior infection of a nearby primary tooth. Hypoplasia may also result from antineoplastic therapy. Dental fluorosis is condition which results from ingesting excessive amounts of fluoride and leads to teeth which are spotted, yellow, brown, black or sometimes pitted. Enamel hypoplasia resulting from syphilis is frequently referred to as Hutchinson's teeth, which is considered one part of Hutchinson's triad.[62] An exanthem is a widespread rash, usually of viral origin, and usually occurring in children. ... An analogue medical thermometer showing the temperature of 38. ... Turners hypoplasia is an abnormality found in teeth. ... herbs that have the specific action of inhibiting and combating the development of tumors. ... Picture of a mild case of fluorosis. ... Fluoride is the ionic form of fluorine. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Hutchinsons teeth are a sign of congenital syphilis. ... Hutchinson triad is a common pattern of presentation for congenital syphilis, and consists of these three phenomena: interstitial keratitis, Hutchinson incisors, and eighth nerve deafness. ...


Destruction after development

Tooth destruction from processes other than dental caries is considered a normal physiologic process but may become severe enough to become a pathologic condition. Attrition is the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces from opposing teeth.[63] Attrition initially affects the enamel and, if unchecked, may proceed to the underlying dentin. Abrasion is the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces from a foreign element.[64] If this force begins at the cementoenamel junction, then progression of tooth loss can be rapid since enamel is very thin in this region of the tooth. A common source of this type of tooth wear is excessive force when using a toothbrush. Erosion is the loss of tooth structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin.[65][66] Signs of tooth destruction from erosion is a common characteristic in the mouths of people with bulimia since vomiting results in exposure of the teeth to gastric acids. Another important source of erosive acids are from frequent sucking of lemon juice. Abfraction is the loss of tooth structure from flexural forces. As teeth flex under pressure, the arrangement of teeth touching each other, known as occlusion, causes tension on one side of the tooth and compression on the other side of the tooth. This is believed to cause V-shaped depressions on the side under tension and C-shaped depressions on the side under compression. When tooth destruction occurs at the roots of teeth, the process is referred to as internal resorption, when caused by cells within the pulp, or external resorption, when caused by cells in the periodontal ligament. Attrition is the loss of tooth structure due to by mechanical forces from opposing teeth. ... Abrasion is the loss of tooth structure by mechanical forces from a foreign element. ... Erosion is the loss of tooth structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin. ... Bulimia nervosa, more commonly known as bulimia, is a psychological condition in which the subject engages in recurrent binge eating followed by intentionally doing one or more of the following in order to compensate for the intake of the food and prevent weight gain: vomiting inappropriate use of laxatives, enemas... Vomiting (or emesis) is the forceful expulsion of the contents of ones stomach through the mouth. ... Binomial name Citrus X limon {{{author}}} Lemons are the citrus fruit from the tree Citrus X limon. ... Abfraction is the loss of tooth structure from flexural forces. ... This article is about pressure in the physical sciences. ... Occlusion is the relationship between the maxillary and mandibular teeth that exists when they approach each other, as occurs during chewing or at rest. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... Internal resorption is an unusual condition of a tooth when the dentin and pulpal walls begin to resorb centrally within the root canal. ... External resorption is a condition of a tooth where the root surface is lost. ...


Discoloration

Discoloration of teeth may result from bacteria stains, tobacco, tea, coffee, foods with an abundance of chlorophyll, restorative materials, and medications.[67] Stains from bacteria may cause colors varying from green to black to orange. Green stains also result from foods with chlorophyll or excessive exposure to copper or nickel. Amalgam, a common dental restorative material, may turn adjacent areas of teeth black or gray. Chlorhexidine, a mouthwash, is associated with causing yellow-brown stains near the gingiva on teeth. Systemic disorders also can cause tooth discoloration. Congenital erythropoietic porphyria causes porphyrins to be deposited in teeth, causing a red-brown coloration. Blue discoloration may occur with alkaptonuria and rarely with Parkinson's disease. Erythroblastosis fetalis and biliary atresia are diseases which may cause teeth to appear green from the deposition of biliverdin. Also, trauma may change a tooth to a pink, yellow, or dark gray color. Pink and red discolorations are also associated in patients with lepromatous leprosy. Some medications, such as tetracycline antibiotics, may become incorporated into the structure of a tooth, causing intrinsic staining of the teeth. Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Chlorhexidine (free base) structure Chlorhexidine Gluconate is an antiseptic used as an active ingredient in mouthwash designed to kill plaque and other oral bacteria. ... The porphyrias are inherited or acquired disorders of certain enzymes in the heme biosynthetic pathway (also called porphyrin pathway). ... Structure of porphine, the simplest porphyrin. ... Alkaptonuria (black urine disease, alcaptonuria or ochronosis) is a rare inherited genetic disorder of tyrosine metabolism. ... Erythroblastosis fetalis, also known as hemolytic disease of the newborn is a condition that develops in a fetus when antibodies produced by the mother attack the fetuss red blood cells. ... Biliary atresia is a rare condition in newborn children in which the biliary tract between the liver and the intestine is blocked or absent. ... Biliverdin is a green pigment formed as a byproduct of hemoglobin breakdown. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see Tzaraath. ... Tetracycline (INN) (IPA: ) is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ...


Alteration of eruption

Tooth eruption may be altered by some environmental factors. When eruption is prematurely stopped, the tooth is said to be impacted. The most common cause of tooth impaction is lack of space in the mouth for the tooth.[68] Other causes may be tumors, cysts, trauma, and thickened bone or soft tissue. Ankylosis of a tooth occurs when the tooth has already erupted into the mouth but the cementum or dentin has fused with the alveolar bone. This may cause a person to retain their primary tooth instead of having it replaced by a permanent one. Wisdom teeth are the third molars that usually appear between the ages of 16 and 24. ... For malignant tumors specifically, see cancer. ... A cyst (soft c, rhymes with list) is a cloed sac having a distinct membrane and division on the nearby tissue. ... Ankylosis, or Anchylosis is a stiffness of a joint, the result of injury or disease. ...


A technique for altering the natural progression of eruption is employed by orthodontists who wish to delay or speed up the eruption of certain teeth for reasons of space maintenance or otherwise preventing crowding and/or spacing. If a primary tooth is extracted prior to the root of its succeeding permanent tooth reaching ⅓ of its total growth, the eruption of the permanent tooth will be delayed. Conversely, if the roots of the permanent tooth are more than ⅔ complete, the eruption of the permanent tooth will be accelerated. Between ⅓ and ⅔, it is unknown exactly what will occur to the speed of eruption. Orthodontics is the specialty in dentistry that studies the alteration of the alignment of crooked teeth. ...


Developmental

Abnormality in number

Anodontia is the total lack of tooth development. Hyperdontia is the presence of a higher-than-normal number of teeth, where as Hypodontia is the lack of some teeth. Usually, hypodontia refers to the lack of development of one or more teeth, and oligodontia may be used to describe the absence of 6 or more teeth. Some systemic disorders which may result in hyperdontia include Apert syndrome, Cleidocranial dysostosis, Crouzon syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Gardner syndrome, and Sturge-Weber syndrome.[69] Some systemic disorders which may result in hypodontia include Crouzon syndrome, Ectodermal dysplasia, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and Gorlin syndrome.[70] In dentistry, anodontia, also called anodontia vera, is a rare genetic disorder characterized by the congenital absence of all primary or permanent teeth. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... In dentistry, hypodontia is the condition of naturally having fewer than the regular number of teeth. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cleidocranial dysostosis or Cleidocranial dysplasia is a hereditary congenital abnormality of humans. ... Crouzon Syndrome is a genetic disorder known as a branchial arch syndrome. ... Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a group of rare genetic disorders affecting humans and domestic animals caused by a defect in collagen synthesis. ... Gardners syndrome is a genetic disorder characterized by the presence of multiple polyps in the colon together with tumors outside the colon. ... // Sturge-Weber syndrome, sometimes referred to as encephalotrigeminal angiomatosis, is an extremely rare congenital neurological and skin disorder. ... Michael Berryman. ... Gorlin syndrome is an inherited condition whereby the person may show the following symptoms: Recurrent jaw cysts(keratocysts), Basal cell carcinoma, pits on the palms or soles of the feet, naevi, unusual height for the familly, cysts in the toes or fingers, deformed ribs, Ectopic calcification, wide set eyes. ...


Abnormality in size

Microdontia is a condition where teeth are smaller than the usual size, and macrodontia is where teeth are larger than the usual size. Microdontia of a single tooth is more likely to occur in a maxillary lateral incisor. The second most likely tooth to have microdontia are third molars. Macrodontia of all the teeth is known to occur in pituitary gigantism and pineal hyperplasia. It may also occur on one side of the face in cases of hemifacial hyperplasia. Microdontia is a condition in which teeth appear smaller than normal. ... Macrodontia is a condition in which the teeth appear larger than normal. ... The maxillary lateral incisor is the tooth located distally (away from the midline of the face) from both maxillary central incisors of the mouth and mesially (toward the midline of the face) from both maxillary canines. ... Wisdom teeth are the third molars that usually appear between the ages of 16 and 24. ... Anna Haining Bates with her parents Greek gigas, gigantus (giant) is a condition characterized by excessive height growth and bigness. ... The pineal gland (also called the pineal body or epiphysis) is a small endocrine gland in the brain. ... Hyperplasia (or hypergenesis) is a general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue beyond that which is ordinarily seen in e. ...


Abnormality in shape

The fusion of two deciduous teeth.
The fusion of two deciduous teeth.

Gemination occurs when a developing tooth incompletely splits into the formation of two teeth. Fusion is the union of two adjacent teeth during development. Concrescence is the fusion of two separate teeth only in their cementum. Accessory cusps are additional cusps on a tooth and may manifest as a Talon cusp, Cusp of Carabelli, or Dens evaginatus. Dens invaginatus, also called Dens in dente, is a deep invagination in a tooth causing the appearance of a tooth within a tooth. Ectopic enamel is enamel found in an unusual location, such as the root of a tooth. Taurodontism is a condition where the body of the tooth and pulp chamber is enlarged, and is associated with Klinefelter syndrome, Tricho-dento-osseous syndrome, Triple X syndrome, and XYY syndrome.[71] Hypercementosis is excessive formation of cementum, which may result from trauma, inflammation, acromegaly, rheumatic fever, and Paget's disease of bone.[71] A dilaceration is a bend in the root which may have been caused by trauma to the tooth during formation. Supernumerary roots is the presence of a greater number of roots on a tooth than expected. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1568 × 1176 pixel, file size: 183 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1568 × 1176 pixel, file size: 183 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Gemination is when, during development, a tooth splits to form what appears to be two teeth. ... In dentistry, tooth fusion is the joining of two teeth, resulting in a single large tooth. ... Concrescence is a condition of teeth where the cementum overlying the roots of at least two teeth join together. ... A cusp is an occlusal or incisal eminance on a tooth. ... A talon cusp, also known as an eagles talon, is an extra cusp on an anterior tooth. ... Carabellis tubercle is a degeneration cusp of upper first molar in the mesial-lingual portion also known as the Cusp of Carabelli. ... Dens envaginatus is a condition found in teeth where the outer surface appears to form an extra bump or cusp. ... Dens invaginatus, also known as dens in dente, is a condition found in teeth where the outer surface folds inward. ... Taurodontism is a condition found in teeth where the body of the tooth and pulp chamber is enlarged. ... XXY karyotype Klinefelters syndrome is a condition caused by a chromosome abnormality in males (specifically, a nondisjunction); sufferers have a pair of X sex chromosomes instead of just one. ... Triple X syndrome is a form of chromosomal variation characterized by the presence of an extra X chromosome in each cell of a human female. ... Not to be confused with XXY syndrome. ... Acromegaly (from Greek akros high and megas large - extremities enlargement) is a hormonal disorder that results when the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormone (hGH). ... Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Bold text X-ray of Pagets disease Pagets disease, otherwise known as osteitis deformans, is a chronic disorder that typically results in enlarged and deformed bones. ... It is a developmental disturbance in shape of teeth. ... Supernumerary roots is a condition found in teeth there may be a larger number of roots than expected. ...


Abnormality in structure

Amelogenesis imperfecta is a condition in which enamel does not form properly or at all.[72] Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a condition in which dentin does not form properly and is sometimes associated with osteogenesis imperfecta.[73] Dentin dysplasia is a disorder in which the roots and pulp of teeth may be affected. Regional odontodysplasia is a disorder affecting enamel, dentin, and pulp and causes the teeth to appear "ghostly" on radiographs.[74] Amelogenesis Imperfecta is an inherited condition that presents abnormal formation of the enamel or external layer of teeth. ... Dentinogenesis imperfecta is a genetic disorder of tooth development. ... Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI and sometimes known as Brittle Bone Disease) is a genetic bone disorder. ... Dentin dysplasia is a genetic disorder of teeth, commonly exhibiting an autosomal dominant inheritance. ... Regional odontodysplasia is a developmental abnormality of teeth, usually localized to a certain area and nonhereditary. ...


In animals

Section through the ivory tusk of a mammoth
Section through the ivory tusk of a mammoth
Main article: Tooth (animal)

Teeth vary greatly among animals. Some animals, such as turtles and tortoises, are toothless. Others, such as sharks, may go through many teeth in their lifetime. Walrus tusks are canine teeth that grow continuously throughout life.[75] Dog teeth are less likely than human teeth to form dental caries because of the very high pH of dog saliva, which prevents enamel from demineralizing.[76] Unlike humans whose ameloblasts die after tooth development, rodents continually produce enamel and must wear down their teeth by gnawing on various materials.[77] Horse teeth include twelve premolars, twelve molars, and twelve incisors. The structure of horse teeth is different from human teeth as the enamel and dentin layers are intertwined.[78] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1814x1814, 424 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ivory Mammoth Tooth Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1814x1814, 424 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ivory Mammoth Tooth Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Section through the ivory tusk of a mammoth Teeth in animals vary greatly. ... For other uses, see Turtle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tortoise (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Shark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Walrus (disambiguation). ... A view of the upper half of a horses mouth. ...


See also

Look up tooth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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teeth

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... This article is about the dental profession. ... Dental Tourism is a type of Medical tourism, where patients travel to low cost countries as for example Mexico, Hungary, Bulgaria, India, the Philippines, or postSoviet countries to reduce the expenses for dentistry on their teeth. ... A dental auxiliary is any of the dentists supporting team who helps with dental treatment. ... Dental assistants help the dental operator (Dentist or other treating Dental auxiliary) provide more efficient dental treatment. ... A Dental hygienist attends to a patient A dental hygienist is a licensed dental auxiliary who specializes in preventive dental care, typically but not limited to focusing on techniques in oral hygiene . ... A dental technician is a member of the dental team who manufactures dental appliances such as removable prothesis, including dentures, and fixed prostheses, such as crowns and bridges. ... Dentists, in writing or speech, use several different Dental notation systems for associating information to a specific tooth. ... In Greek myth, dragons teeth feature prominently in the legends of the Phoenician prince Cadmus and Jasons quest for the Golden Fleece. ... An MRI scan of the head. ... Look up Tooth fairy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sagittal section of human vocal tract The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ... Braces Dental braces (also known as orthodontic braces) are a device used in orthodontics to correct alignment of teeth and their position with regard to bite. ... Tooth painting is a custom practiced by the Si La ethnic group. ...

Lists

References

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External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
ADA.org: Oral Health Topics: Tooth Eruption Charts (223 words)
A tooth is composed of four dental tissues: enamel, dentin and cementum, which are hard or calcified, and pulp, which is soft or noncalcified.
That part of the tooth that is beneath enamel and cementum.
The portion of the pulp cavity inside the root of a tooth; the chamber within the root of the tooth that contains the pulp.
Tooth - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (2379 words)
Adult teeth naturally darken with age as the pulp within the tooth shrinks and dentin is deposited in its place.
In the future, tooth decay may be banished by treatment with a genetically modified bacterium, according to research at the University of Florida.
Tooth, Human teeth, Tooth decay, Plaque, Caries (Cavities), Tooth care, Dentures and "false" teeth, Abnormalities of the dentition, Development of teeth, Facts about teeth in non-human animals, People and characters famous for their teeth, See also, External links, Articles lacking sources from June 2006, All articles lacking sources, Human anatomy, Dentistry and Teeth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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