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Encyclopedia > Tonsillitis
Tonsillitis
Classification & external resources
Tonsils showing tonsillitis
ICD-10 J03., J35.0
ICD-9 463
DiseasesDB 13165
eMedicine ent/314 
MeSH D014069

Tonsillitis is an inflammation of the tonsils in the mouth and will often, but not necessarily, cause a sore throat and fever. Symptoms may also include pain in the tonsil area and inability to swallow and/or painful swallowing. White spots may also appear on the tonsils. These white spots may be raised and they cannot be scraped off. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1279x975, 321 KB) Taken by me, no usage restrictions. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... // J00-J99 - Diseases of the respiratory system (J00-J06) Acute upper respiratory infections (J00) Acute nasopharyngitis (common cold) (J01) Acute sinusitis (J02) Acute pharyngitis (J03) Acute tonsillitis (J04) Acute laryngitis and tracheitis (J05) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) and epiglottitis (J050) Acute obstructive laryngitis (croup) (J051) Acute epiglottitis (J06) Acute upper... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... eMedicine is an online clinical medical knowledge base that was founded in 1996. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... An abscess on the skin, showing the redness and swelling characteristic of inflammation. ... This article or section contains too much jargon and may need simplification or further explanation. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Contents

Types

There are 3 main types of tonsillitis: acute, subacute and chronic. Acute tonsillitis can either be bacterial or viral in origin. Subacute tonsillitis (which can last between 3 weeks and 3 months) is caused by the bacterium Actinomyces. Chronic tonsillitis, which can last for long periods if not treated, is almost always bacterial. In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... In medicine, an acute disease is a disease with either or both of: a rapid onset; a short course (as opposed to a chronic course). ... In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria is also the fictional name of a warring nation under Benzino Napaloni as dictator, in the 1940 film The Great Dictator... vaghhyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyyy viral vaghela (shrewsbury, massachusetts) also know as vagh is the hot sexy lover of kinjal shah (houston, texas) ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Species A. naeslundii Actinomyces is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ...


Causes

Bacterial tonsillitis may be caused by Group A streptococcal bacteria,[1] resulting in strep throat.[2] Viral tonsillitis may be caused by numerous viruses[3] such as the Epstein-Barr virus[4] (the cause of infectious mononucleosis)[5] or the Adenovirus.[6] The group A streptococcus bacterium (Streptococcus pyogenes, or GAS) is a form of Streptococcus bacteria responsible for most cases of streptococcal illness. ... Strep throat (or Streptococcal pharyngitis, or Streptococcal Sore Throat) is a form of Group A streptococcal infection that affects the pharynx. ... The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), also called Human herpesvirus 4 (HHV-4), is a virus of the herpes family (which includes Herpes simplex virus and Cytomegalovirus), and is one of the most common viruses in humans. ... Genera Mastadenovirus Aviadenovirus Atadenovirus Siadenovirus Adenoviruses are viruses of the family Adenoviridae. ...


Sometimes, tonsillitis is caused by a superinfection of spirochaeta and treponema, in this case called Vincent's angina or Plaut-Vincent angina.[7] In virology, superinfection describes the process by which a cell that has previously been infected by one virus gets coinfected with another virus at a later point in time. ... Families Brachyspiraceae Leptospiraceae Spirochaetaceae The spirochaetes are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Binomial name Treponema pallidum Schaudinn & Hoffmann, 1905 Treponema pallidum is a gram-negative spirochaete bacterium and is considered to be metabolically crippled. ... Trench mouth is a polymicrobial infection of the gums leading to inflammation, bleeding, deep ulceration and necrotic gum tissue, there may also be fever. ...


Treatment

Treatments of tonsillitis consist of pain management medications[8] and lozenges.[9] If the tonsillitis is caused by bacteria,[10] then antibiotics are prescribed.[11] Penicillin is the most commonly used antibiotic.[12] Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... For the Japanese rock band, see Penicillin (band). ...


In many cases of tonsillitis, the pain caused by the inflamed tonsils warrants the prescription of topical anesthetics for temporary relief. Viscous lidocaine solutions are often prescribed for this purpose. Anesthesia (AE), also anaesthesia (BE), is the process of blocking the perception of pain and other sensations. ... Lidocaine (INN) (IPA: ) or lignocaine (former BAN) (IPA: ) is a common local anesthetic and antiarrhythmic drug. ...


Ibuprofen or other analgesic can help to decrease the edema and inflammation which will ease the pain and allow the patient to swallow liquids sooner.[13] Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Nurofen and since under various trademarks including Act-3, Advil, Brufen, Dorival, Herron Blue, Panafen, Motrin, Nuprin and Ipren or Ibumetin (Sweden), Ibuprom (Poland), IbuHEXAL, Moment (Italy... An analgesic (colloquially known as a painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain (achieve analgesia). ... This page is about the condition called edema. ...


When tonsillitis is caused by a virus, the length of illness depends on which virus is involved. Usually, a complete recovery is made within one week, however some rare infections may last for up to two weeks.


Chronic cases may indicate tonsillectomy (surgical removal of tonsils) as a choice for treatment.[14] In medicine, a chronic disease is a disease that is long-lasting or recurrent. ... Throat after tonsillectomy A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which the tonsils are removed. ...


Complications

An abscess may develop lateral to the tonsil during an infection, typically several days after the onset of tonsillitis. This is termed a peritonsillar abscess (or quinsy). Rarely, the infection may spread beyond the tonsil resulting in inflammation and infection of the internal jugular vein giving rise to a spreading septicaemia infection (Lemierre's syndrome). For the death metal band, see Abscess (band). ... Peritonsillar abscess, also called PTA or Quinsy is a common infection of the peritonsillar space. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... Lemierres syndrome (or Lemierres disease) is a disease usually caused by the bacterium Fusobacterium necrophorum, and occasionally by other members of the genus Fusobacterium ( etc. ...


In chronic/recurrent cases (generally defined as seven episodes of tonsillitis in the preceding year, five episodes in each of the preceding two years or three episodes in each of the preceding three years),[15][16][17] or in acute cases where the palatine tonsils become so swollen that swallowing is impaired, a tonsillectomy can be performed to remove the tonsils. Patients whose tonsils have been removed are certainly still protected from infection by the rest of their immune system. Throat after tonsillectomy A tonsillectomy is a surgical procedure in which the tonsils are removed. ...


Bacteria feeding on mucus which accumulates in pits (referred to as 'crypts') in the tonsils, produce whitish-yellow deposits known as a tonsilloliths. These "tonsil stones" emit a very pungent odour due to the presence of volatile sulphur compounds. Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body. ... A tonsillolith (or tonsil stone) is a ball-like accumulation of food particles, bacteria, leukocytes, and dried mucus in the folds of tonsils. ... The ability of a liquid to evaporate quickly and at relatively low temperatures. ... For the chemical element see: sulfur. ...


Tonsilloliths which occur in the crypts of the tonsils can only be completely cured by tonsillectomy or by resurfacing the tonsil by laser, but practicing good oral hygiene and use of a water pick may help lessen the symptoms. A tonsillolith (or tonsil stone) is a ball-like accumulation of food particles, bacteria, leukocytes, and dried mucus in the folds of tonsils. ... Look up Water pick in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Hypertrophy of the tonsils can result in snoring, mouth breathing, disturbed sleep, and obstructive sleep apnea, during which the patient stops breathing and experiences a drop in the oxygen content in the bloodstream. A tonsillectomy can be curative. Bodybuilder Markus Rühl has marked hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


In very rare cases, diseases like rheumatic fever or glomerulonephritis can occur. These complications are extremely rare in developed nations but remain a significant problem in poorer nations.[citation needed] Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease which may develop after a Group A streptococcal infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever) and can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain. ... Glomerulonephritis, also known as glomerular nephritis and abbreviated GN, is a primary or secondary immune-mediated renal disease characterized by inflammation of the glomeruli, or small blood vessels in the kidneys. ...


References

  1. ^ Putto, Anne. "Febrile Exudative Tonsillitis: Viral or Streptococcal?" Pediatrics 80 (1987): 6-12 - Putto studied 110 children treated for febrile exudates tonsillitis. The patients had at least one symptom like fever, pharyngeal edema, or sore throat. Two tests were performed. One method involved cotton tipped swabs that were used to collected specimens when swabbed over the patients tonsils. Second method involved the latex slide agglutination that used rayon tipped swabs to collected specimens. The results showed that 13 out of the 41 patients with bacterial tonsillitis were caused by Group A streptococci
  2. ^ Putto, Anne. "Febrile Exudative Tonsillitis: Viral or Streptococcal?" Pediatrics 80 (1987): 6-12 - Putto studied 110 children treated for febrile exudates tonsillitis. The patients had to a symptom of fever, pharyngeal edema, or sore throat. Two tests were performed. One method involved cotton tipped swabs that were used to collected specimens when swabbed over the patients tonsils. Second method involved the latex slide agglutination that used rayon tipped swabs to collected specimens. The results had 92 patients that had traced of streptococci in their throat
  3. ^ Putto, Anne. "Febrile Exudative Tonsillitis: Viral or Streptococcal?" Pediatrics 80 (1987): 6-12 - Putto studied 110 children treated for febrile exudates tonsillitis. The patients had to a symptom of fever, pharyngeal edema, or sore throat. Two tests were performed. One method involved cotton tipped swabs that were used to collected specimens when swabbed over the patients tonsils. Second method involved the latex slide agglutination that used rayon tipped swabs to collected specimens. The results had 46 of the 110 patients that had viruses like the Adenovirus that caused 21 of the 46 to get tonsillitis. Epstein-Barr virus caused 10 out of the 46 patient to get tonsillitis and Herpes Simplex virus caused 2 out of the 46
  4. ^ Putto, Anne. "Febrile Exudative Tonsillitis: Viral or Streptococcal?" Pediatrics 80 (1987): 6-12 - Putto studied 110 children treated for febrile exudates tonsillitis. The patients had to a symptom of fever, pharyngeal edema, or sore throat. Two tests were performed. One method involved cotton tipped swabs that were used to collected specimens when swabbed over the patients tonsils. Second method involved the latex slide agglutination that used rayon tipped swabs to collected specimens. The results had 46 of the 110 patients that had viruses like the Adenovirus that caused 21 of the 46 to get tonsillitis. Epstein-Barr virus caused 10 out of the 46 patient to get tonsillitis and Herpes Simplex virus caused 2 out of the 46
  5. ^ Renn, Claudia N. and et al. "Amoxicillin-induced exanthema in young adults with infectious mononucleosis: demonstration of drug-specific lymphocyte reactivity." British Journal of Dermatology 147 (2002): 1166-1170 -Renn studied 4 patients who where treated amoxicillin for throat infection and lymphadenopathy. Infectious mononucleosis was present in the patient’s blood due to trace of Epstein-Barr antibodies. The three tests performed where the patched test, intracutaneous test, and lymphocyte transformation test. The results of the patched test that pointed to amoxicillin as the caused of their rash were 1 out of 4 patients. The intracutaneous showed 2 out of 4 patients with positive results that pointed to amoxicillin. The LTT results showed 3 out of 4 that pointed to amoxicillin
  6. ^ Putto, Anne. "Febrile Exudative Tonsillitis: Viral or Streptococcal?." Pediatrics 80 (1987): 6-12 - Putto studied 110 children treated for febrile exudates tonsillitis. The patients had to a symptom of fever, pharyngeal edema, or sore throat. Two tests were performed. One method involved cotton tipped swabs that were used to collected specimens when swabbed over the patients tonsils. Second method involved the latex slide agglutination that used rayon tipped swabs to collected specimens. The results had 46 of the 110 patients that had viruses like the Adenovirus that caused 21 of the 46 to get tonsillitis. Epstein-Barr virus caused 10 out of the 46 patient to get tonsillitis and Herpes Simplex virus caused 2 out of the 46
  7. ^ Van Cauwenberge P (1976). "[Significance of the fusospirillum complex (Plaut-Vincent angina)]". Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg 30 (3): 334-45. PMID 1015288.  - fusospirillum complex (Plaut-Vincent angina) Van Cauwenberge studied the tonsils of 126 patients using direct microscope observation. The results showed that 40% of acute tonsillitis was caused by Vincent’s agina and 27% of chronic tonsillitis was caused by Spirochaeta
  8. ^ Boureau, F. and et al. "Evaluation of Ibuprofen vs Paracetamol Analgesic Activity Using a Sore Throat Pain Model." Clinical Drug Investigation 17 (1999): 1-8. - Boureau studied 113 patients who saw 19 physicians in France. Patients were give Ibuprofen 400mg or Paracetamol 1000mg randomly. Pain intensity, difficulty swallowing, and global pain relief were use to measure in hourly increments until 6 hours after patients first dose. The results showed that Ibuprofen better than Paracetamol in all three categories
  9. ^ Praskash, T. and et al. "Koflet lozenges in the Treatment of Sore Throat." The Antiseptic 98 (2001): 124-127 - The efficacy of Koflet Lozenges was evaluated by symptomatic relief of pain. The 48 patients were examined by the Physicians and given a scale rating from 0-3. 0 stating no signs and symptoms and 3 being the worse. The results showed patients with pharyngitis 95% of the patient with positive feedbacks. Tonsillitis patients and patients with both symptoms gave 100% positive feedbacks
  10. ^ Touw-Otten, Fransje WMM. and Kristen Staehr Johansen. "Diagnosis, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome of Acute Tonsillitis: Report of a WHO Regional Office for Europe Study in 17 European Countries." Family Practice 9 (1992): 255-262 - 17 European Countries had a minimum of 10 physicians each that participated in a studied that involved 4094 patients that they had seen from Nov 1989 to May 1990. Sore throat, redness and swelling of tonsils, pus on tonsils, enlarge regional lymph nodes, or fever. Bacterial and serology test were performed to determined antibiotics usage. Antibiotics results had 2334 out of 3646 patient using penicillin. 343 out of the 3646 used amoxicillin and 554 out of 3646 used macrolides
  11. ^ Touw-Otten, Fransje WMM. and Kristen Staehr Johansen. "Diagnosis, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome of Acute Tonsillitis: Report of a WHO Regional Office for Europe Study in 17 European Countries." Family Practice 9 (1992): 255-262 - 17 European Countries had a minimum of 10 physicians each that participated in a studied that involved 4094 patients that they had seen from Nov 1989 to May 1990. Sore throat, redness and swelling of tonsils, pus on tonsils, enlarge regional lymph nodes, or fever. Bacterial and serology test were performed to determined antibiotics usage. Antibiotics results had 2334 out of 3646 patient using penicillin. 343 out of the 3646 used amoxicillin and 554 out of 3646 used macrolides
  12. ^ Touw-Otten, Fransje WMM. and Kristen Staehr Johansen. "Diagnosis, Antibiotic Treatment and Outcome of Acute Tonsillitis: Report of a WHO Regional Office for Europe Study in 17 European Countries." Family Practice 9 (1992): 255-262 - 17 European Countries had a minimum of 10 physicians each that participated in a studied that involved 4094 patients that they had seen from Nov 1989 to May 1990. Sore throat, redness and swelling of tonsils, pus on tonsils, enlarge regional lymph nodes, or fever. Bacterial and serology test were performed to determined antibiotics usage. Antibiotics results had 2334 out of 3646 patient using penicillin. 343 out of the 3646 used amoxicillin and 554 out of 3646 used macrolides
  13. ^ Boureau, F. and et al. "Evaluation of Ibuprofen vs Paracetamol Analgesic Activity Using a Sore Throat Pain Model." Clinical Drug Investigation 17 (1999): 1-8- Boureau studied 113 patients who saw 19 physicians in France. Patients were give Ibuprofen 400mg or Paracetamol 1000mg randomly. Pain intensity, difficulty swallowing, and global pain relief were use to measure in hourly increments until 6 hours after patients first dose. The results showed that Ibuprofen better than Paracetamol in all three categories
  14. ^ Paradise, JL. and et al. "Efficacy of tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection in severely affected children. Results of parallel randomized and non randomized clinical trials." The New England Journal of Medicine 310 (1984): 674-83 - Paradise studied 187 children with tonsillectomy or tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy. 91 children were randomly put in surgical and non-surgical groups. The other 96 were place by parent’s choice. The results favored the surgical group on reoccurrence of throat infections during their initial and second year follow-up where the data was collected. While non-surgical groups did better in the long run. 13 out of the 95 surgical group encountered surgical complications after their second year follow up
  15. ^ (January 1999) "6.3 Referral Criteria for Tonsillectomy", Management of Sore Throat and Indications for Tonsillectomy. Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. ISBN 1-899893-66-0.  - notes though that these criteria "have been arrived at arbitrarily" from:
    Paradise J, Bluestone C, Bachman R, Colborn D, Bernard B, Taylor F, Rogers K, Schwarzbach R, Stool S, Friday G (1984). "Efficacy of tonsillectomy for recurrent throat infection in severely affected children. Results of parallel randomized and nonrandomized clinical trials.". N Engl J Med 310 (11): 674-83. PMID 6700642. 
  16. ^ Paradise J, Bluestone C, Colborn D, Bernard B, Rockette H, Kurschildren. (2002). "{{{title}}}". Pediatrics 110 (1 Pt 1): 7-15. PMID 12093941.  - this later study by the same team looked at less severely affected children and concluded "modest benefit conferred by tonsillectomy or adenotonsillectomy in children moderately affected with recurrent throat infection seems not to justify the inherent risks, morbidity, and cost of the operations"
  17. ^ Wolfensberger M, Mund M (2004). "[Evidence based indications for tonsillectomy]". Ther Umsch 61 (5): 325-8. PMID 15195718.  - review of literature of the past 25 years concludes "No consensus has yet been reached, however, about the number of annual episodes that justify tonsillectomy"

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tonsillitis, Enlarged Tonsils, Swollen Tonsils, Tonsil Infection (994 words)
Chronic or recurring tonsillitis is a common reason for children and adults to have their tonsils removed, a procedure known as a tonsillectomy.
When tonsillitis is present, tonsil infection and swollen tonsils are the most common symptoms, along with the surrounding throat area often being infected at the same time (pharyngitis).
Tonsil and throat infections may be caused by either a virus or bacteria, and can be spread from one person to the other through coughing, sneezing and nasal fluids.
Tonsil and Adenoid Problems (5106 words)
The sensory supply to the lingual tonsils and the base of the tongue is provided by the lingual branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, although some small contribution may come from the superior laryngeal branch of the vagus nerve.
The pharyngeal tonsil is formed by numerous variable folds of lymphoid tissue within the mucous membrane of the roof and posterior wall of the nasopharynx.
The tonsil is inserted through the fenestra of the instrument and the guillotine blade is closed to amputate the tonsil and its capsule.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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