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Encyclopedia > Tonnage

Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship. The term derives from the taxation paid on tuns of wine, and was later used in reference to the weight of a ship's cargo; however, in modern maritime usage, "tonnage" specifically refers to a calculation of the volume or cargo volume of a ship. The term is still sometimes incorrectly used to refer to the weight of a loaded or empty vessel. Italian ship-rigged vessel Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large, sea-going watercraft, usually with multiple decks. ...


Measurement of tonnage can be less than straightforward, not least because it is used to assess fees on commercial shipping. One pays a fee as renumeration for services, especially the honorarium paid to a doctor, lawyer or member of a learned profession. ... Commerce is the trading of something of value between two entities. ... Damaged package The Panama canal. ...

Contents


Tonnage measurements

Gross Register Tonnage represents the total internal volume of a vessel, with some exemptions for non-productive spaces such as crew quarters; 1 gross register ton is equal to a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.83 ). This calculation is complex; a hold can, for instance, be assessed for grain (accounting for all the air space in the hold) or for bales (exempting the spaces between structural frames). GRT (gross registered tons) is now an obsolete term. Gross register tonnage was replaced by gross tonnage in 1994, under the Tonnage Measurement convention of 1969.[1][2] Volume, also called capacity, is a quantification of how much space an object occupies. ... The cubic foot (symbols ft³, cu. ... The cubic meter (symbol m³) is the SI derived unit of volume. ... Oats, barley, and some products made from them Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible grains or seeds (actually a fruit called a caryopsis). ... Bale can refer to any of the following: Places Bâle, the French name for the city of Basel The town Bale in Croatia the Bale Province, Burkina Faso in Burkina Faso the former Bale Province, Ethiopia in Ethiopia People Christian Bale, an actor Dr. Edward Turner Bale This is...


Net Register Tonnage is the volume of cargo the vessel can carry; ie. the Gross Register Tonnage less the volume of spaces that will not hold cargo (e.g. engine compartment, helm station, crew spaces, etc., again with differences depending on which port or country is doing the calculations). It represents the volume of the ship available for transporting freight or passengers. It was replaced by net tonnage in 1994, under the Tonnage Measurement convention of 1969. Cargo is a term used to denote goods or produce being transported generally for commercial gain, usually on a ship, plane, train or truck. ... An engine is something that produces some effect from a given input. ... A helm can mean: The steering mechanism of a vessel, from Old English helma, Proto-Germanic *khelman handle (c. ... A crew comprises a body or a class of people who work at a common activity, generally in a structured or hierarchical organization. ... Seaport, a painting by Claude Lorrain, 1638 The Port of Wellington at night. ... Look up country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cargo is a term used to denotes goods or produce being transported generally for commercial gain, usually on a ship, plane, train or lorry. ... A passenger is a person using but not operating an airplane, train, bus or other mode of transport. ...


Gross Tonnage refers to the volume of all ship's enclosed spaces (from keel to funnel) measured to the outside of the hull framing. It is always larger than gross register tonnage, though by how much depends on the vessel design. . It was a measurement of the enclosed spaces within a ship expressed in "tons" – a unit which was actually equivalent to 100 cubic feet.


Tonnage measurements are now governed by an IMO Convention (International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969 (London-Rules)), which applies to all ships built after July 1982. In accordance with the Convention, the correct term to use now is GT, which is a function of the moulded volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship.


It is calculated by using the formula GT = K * V, where V = total volume in m3 and K = a figure from 0.22 up to 0.32, depending on the ship’s size (calculated by K = 0.2 + 0.02log10V). GT is consequently a measure of the overall size of the ship.


The net tonnage (NT) indicates a vessel’s earning space and is a function of the moulded volume of all cargo spaces of the ship.


A commonly defined measurement system is important as a ship’s registration fee, harbour dues, safety and manning rules etc are based on its gross tonnage GT or net tonnage NT.


Net tonnage is based on a calculation of the volume of all cargo spaces of the ship.


The Panama Canal/Universal Measurement System (PC/UMS) is based on net tonnage, modified for Panama Canal purposes. PC/UMS is based on a mathematical formula to calculate a vessel's total volume; a PC/UMS net ton is equivalent to 100 cubic feet of capacity.[3] The cubic foot (symbols ft³, cu. ...


Thames measurement tonnage is another volumetric system, generally used for small vessels such as yachts; it uses a formula based on the vessel's length and beam. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A modern yacht A yacht (From Dutch Jacht meaning hunt(er)) was originally defined as a light, fast sailing vessel used to convey important persons. ...


Many people including those professional people working in maritime industries for many years or even in their lifetime,often confuse "Tonnage" and "Ton" in many countries. Please be noted that "Tonnage" refers to the unit of a ship's volume in measurement for registration and "Ton" refers to the unit of weight. They are totally different in concept.


Weight measurements

While not "tonnage" in the proper sense, the following methods of ship measurement are often incorrectly referred to as such:


Displacement is the actual total weight of the vessel. It is often expressed in long tons or in metric tons, and is calculated simply by multiplying the volume of the hull below the waterline (ie. the volume of water it is displacing) by the density of the water. (Note that the density will depend on whether the vessel is in fresh or salt water, or is in the tropics, where water is warmer and hence less dense.) For example, in sea water, first determine the volume of the submerged portion of the hull as follows: Multiply its length by its breadth and the draft, all in feet. Then multiply the product thereby obtained by the block coefficient of the hull to get the hull volume in cubic feet. Then multiply this figure by 64 (the weight of one cubic foot of seawater) to get the weight of the ship in pounds; or divide by 35 to calculate the weight in long tons. Using the SI or metric system : displacement (in tonnes) is volume (in m3) multiplied by the specific gravity of sea water (1.025 nominally). In fluid mechanics, displacement occurs when an object is immersed in a fluid, pushing it out of the way and taking its place. ... A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ... A tonne (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of weight. ... A hull is the body or frame of a ship or boat. ... A hull is the body of a ship or boat. ... The cubic foot (symbols ft³, cu. ... A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ... Cover of brochure The International System of Units. ... See: International System of Units, colloquially called the Metric System, and also metrication. ...


The word "displacement" arises from the basic physical law, discovered by Archimedes, that the weight of a floating object equates exactly to that of the water which would otherwise occupy the "hole in the water" displaced by the ship. Archimedes (Greek: Αρχιμήδης ) (c. ...


Lightship measures the actual weight of the ship with no fuel, passengers, cargo, water, etc. on board. Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... Cargo is a term used to denote goods or produce being transported generally for commercial gain, usually on a ship, plane, train or truck. ...


Deadweight is the displacement at any loaded condition minus the lightship weight. It includes the crew, passengers, cargo, fuel, water, and stores. Like Displacement, it is often expressed in long tons or in metric tons.[4] Fuel is any material that is capable of releasing energy when its chemical or physical structure is changed or converted. ... In commerce, a retailer buys goods or products in large quantities from manufacturers or importers, either directly or through a wholesaler, and then sells individual items or small quantities to the general public or end user customers, usually in a shop, also called store. ...


Origins

Historically, tonnage was the tax on tuns (casks) of wine that held approximately 252 wine gallons of wine and weighed approximately 2,240 pounds. This suggests that the unit of weight measurement, long tons (also 2,240 lb) and tonnage both share the same etymology. The confusion between weight based terms (deadweight and displacement) stems from this common source and the eventual decision to assess dues based on a ship's deadweight rather than counting the tuns of wine. In 1720 the Builders Old Measurement Rule was adopted to estimate deadweight from the length of keel and maximum breadth or beam of a ship. This overly simplistic system was replaced by the Moorsom System in 1854 and calculated internal volume, not weight. This system evolved into the current set of internationally accepted rules and regulations. A barrel is a hollow cylindrical container, usually made of wood staves and bound with iron bands. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... The pound is the name of a number of units of mass, all in the range of 300 to 600 grams. ... A long ton is the name used in the US for the unit called the ton in the avoirdupois or Imperial system of measurements, as used (alongside the metric system) in the United Kingdom and to some extent in other Commonwealth countries. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Look up displacement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... A fer is a large beam around which the hull of a ship is built. ... The beam of a ship is its width at the widest point, or a point alongside the ship at the mid-point of its length. ...


When steamships came into being, they could carry less cargo, size for size, than sailing ships. As well as spaces taken up by boilers and steam engines, steamships carried extra fresh water for the boilers as well as coal for the engines. Thus, to move the same volume of cargo as a sailing ship, a steamship would be considerably larger than a sailing ship.


"Harbour Dues" are based on tonnage. In order to prevent steamships operating at a disadvantage, various tonnage calculations were established to minimise the disadvantage that the extra space requirements of steamships presented. Rather than charging by length or displacement etc, charges were calculated on the viable cargo space. As commercial cargo sailing ships are now largly extinct, "Gross Tonnage" is becoming the universal method of calculating ships dues, and is also a more straight-forward and transparent method of assessment.


See also

The word ton or tonne is derived from the Old English tunne, and ultimately from the Old French tonne, and referred originally to a large cask with a capacity of 252 wine gallons, which holds approximately 2100 pounds of water. ...

References

  1. ^ CWP Handbook of Fishery Statistical Standards. Retrieved May 10, 2006.
  2. ^ International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969, International Maritime Organisation. Retrieved May 10, 2006.
  3. ^ Panama Canal Tolls, from the Panama Canal Authority. Retrieved May 10, 2006.
  4. ^ Ton types, by Gregory M. Walsh, Ocean Navigator. Retrieved May 10, 2006.
  • The Oxford Companion To Ships & The Sea, by I. C. B. Dear and Peter Kemp. Oxford University Press, 1979. ISBN 0-19-860616-8
  • Ship Design and Construction, Volume II; Thomas Lamb, Editor. Society of Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, 2004. ISBN 99909-0-620-3

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tonnage - LoveToKnow 1911 (1115 words)
Displacement tonnage is that which is invariably used in respect of warships, and is the actual weight of water displaced by the vessel whose tonnage is being dealt 1 Jowett's translation.
The length for tonnage is measured in a straight line along this deck from the inside of the inner plank at the bow to the inside of the inner plank at the stern, making allowance for the rake, if any, which the midship bow and stern timbers may have in the actual deck.
The tonnage of these spaces is reckoned, not from the tonnage deck, but from the crown of the space; whilst, if it has previously been reckoned in the gross tonnage, there may be an allowance for the space above the crown, if enclosed for the machinery or for the admission of light and air.
Tonnage - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1224 words)
Tonnage is a measure of the size or cargo capacity of a ship.
Gross Register Tonnage represents the total internal volume of a vessel, with some exemptions for non-productive spaces such as crew quarters; 1 gross register ton is equal to a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.83 m³).
Historically, tonnage was the tax on tuns (casks) of wine that held approximately 252 wine gallons of wine and weighed approximately 2,240 pounds.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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