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Encyclopedia > Tongue
Tongue
A human tongue
Latin lingua
Gray's subject #242 1125
Vein lingual
Nerve lingual nerve
Dorlands/Elsevier l_11/{{{DorlandsSuf}}}

The tongue is the large bundle of skeletal muscles on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing (deglutition). It is the primary organ of taste. Much of the surface of the tongue is covered in taste buds. The tongue, with its wide variety of possible movements, assists in forming the sounds of speech. It is sensitive and kept moist by saliva, and is richly supplied with nerves and blood vessels to help it move.[1] Tongue can refer to: tongue, the anatomical organ A shoe part that covers the foot underneath the laces. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (564x645, 193 KB) One of a series of common objects I photographed in the summer of 2005 to illustrate simple:Basic English picture wordlist. ... This article is about modern humans. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... In the circulatory system, a vein is a blood vessel that carries blood toward the heart. ... The Lingual Veins begin on the dorsum, sides, and under surface of the tongue, and, passing backward along the course of the lingual artery, end in the internal jugular vein. ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... The Lingual Nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve from the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve (CN V3), that supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. ... Elseviers logo. ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ... For other uses, see Mouth (disambiguation). ... Chewing is the process by which food is torn and/or crushed by teeth. ... Taste (or, more formally, gustation) is a form of direct chemoreception and is one of the traditional five senses. ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... Bold text This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ...

Contents

Etymology

The word tongue can be used as a metonymy for language, as in the phrase mother tongue. In fact, Albanian (gjuha), Catalan (llengua), Portuguese (língua), French (langue), Maltese, (ilsien), Arabic (لسان lisān), Romanian (limba), Russian (язык yazyk), Bulgarian (ezik), Persian (zabaan), Greek (γλώσσα), Spanish (lengua), Polish, Slovak, Czech, Slovene, Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian (jezik), Armenian (լեզու), Finnish (kieli), Estonian (keel), Irish, Italian (lingua), Latin (lingua), Urdu (zabaan), Aramaic (ܠܫܢܐ/לשנא lišānā), Hungarian (nyelv), Hebrew (לָשׁוֹן lashon), Turkish (dil), and Danish (tunge), all have the same word for "tongue" and "language". In rhetoric, metonymy is the substitution of one word for another word with which it is associated. ... First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia, and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...


Figures of speech

A common temporary failure in word retrieval from memory is referred to as the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. The expression tongue in cheek refers to a statement that is not to be taken entirely seriously; something said or done with subtle ironic humour. "Tongue twisted" is a term used to described being unable to pronounce a word or phrase correctly. A tongue twister is a phrase made specifically to be very difficult to pronounce. "Tongue-tied" means being unable to say what you want to due to confusion or restriction. The phrase "cat got your tongue" refers to when a person is speechless. Recollection is the retrieval of memory. ... For other uses, see Memory (disambiguation). ... The tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon is an instance of knowing something that cannot immediately be recalled. ... For other uses, see Phenomena (disambiguation). ... Sarcasm is the making of remarks intended to mock the person referred to (who is normally the person addressed), a situation or thing. ... A tongue-twister is a phrase in any language that is designed to be difficult to articulate properly. ...


Anatomy

Structure

Drawing of an anterior view of the tongue and oral cavity, with cheeks removed for clarity.
Drawing of an anterior view of the tongue and oral cavity, with cheeks removed for clarity.
Lateral view of the tongue, with extrinsic muscles highlighted.
Lateral view of the tongue, with extrinsic muscles highlighted.

The tongue is made mainly of skeletal muscle. The tongue extends much further than is commonly perceived, past the posterior border of the mouth and into the oropharynx. Image File history File links Gray1014. ... Image File history File links Gray1014. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x606, 85 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 21 Genioglossus Hyoglossus Styloglossus Stylopharyngeus muscle List of images in Grays Anatomy: XI. Splanchnology Chondroglossus ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (600x606, 85 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Wikipedia:Grays Anatomy images with missing articles 21 Genioglossus Hyoglossus Styloglossus Stylopharyngeus muscle List of images in Grays Anatomy: XI. Splanchnology Chondroglossus ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Skeletal muscle is a type of striated muscle, usually attached to the skeleton. ...


The dorsum (upper surface) of the tongue can be divided into two parts:

  • an oral part (anterior two-thirds of the tongue) that lies mostly in the mouth
  • a pharyngeal part (posterior third of the tongue), which faces backward to the oropharynx

The two parts are separated by a V-shaped groove, which marks the sulcus terminalis (or terminal sulcus). The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The dorsum of the tongue is convex and marked by a median sulcus, which divides it into symmetrical halves; this sulcus ends behind, about 2. ...


Since the tongue contains no bony supports for the muscles, the tongue is an example of a muscular hydrostat, similar in concept to an octopus arm. Instead of bony attachments, the extrinsic muscles of the tongue anchor the tongue firmly to surrounding bones and prevent the mythical possibility of 'swallowing' the tongue. A muscular hydrostat is a biological structure, found in animals. ... For other uses, see Octopus (disambiguation). ...


Other divisions of the tongue, are based on the area of the tongue:

normal name anatomical name adjective
tongue tip apex apical
tongue blade lamina laminal
tongue dorsum dorsum (back) dorsal
tongue root radix radical
tongue body corpus corporeal

Muscles of the tongue

The intrinsic muscles lie entirely within the tongue, while the extrinsic muscles attach the tongue to other structures.

3/4 view of a 6.5 cm human tongue.
3/4 view of a 6.5 cm human tongue.

The extrinsic muscles reposition the tongue, while the intrinsic muscles alter the shape of the tongue for talking and swallowing. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ...


Extrinsic muscles

Extrinsic muscles of the tongue by definition originate from structures outside the tongue and insert into the tongue. The four paired extrinsic muscles protrude, retract, depress, and elevate the tongue:

Muscle From Nerve Function
Genioglossus muscle mandible hypoglossal nerve protrudes the tongue as well as depressing its center.
Hyoglossus muscle hyoid bone hypoglossal nerve depresses the tongue.
Styloglossus muscle styloid process hypoglossal nerve elevates and retracts the tongue.
Palatoglossus muscle palatine aponeurosis pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve depresses the soft palate, moves the palatoglossal fold towards the midline, and elevates the back of the tongue.

The genioglossus is a muscle of the human body which runs from the chin to the tongue. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII). ... The Hyoglossus, thin and quadrilateral, arises from the side of the body and from the whole length of the greater cornu of the hyoid bone, and passes almost vertically upward to enter the side of the tongue, between the Styloglossus and Longitudinalis inferior. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII). ... The Styloglossus, the shortest and smallest of the three styloid muscles, arises from the anterior and lateral surfaces of the styloid process, near its apex, and from the stylomandibular ligament. ... In anatomy, the styloid process is any sharp protrusion of a bone. ... The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII). ... The Palatoglossus is a muscle of the human body. ... Attached to the posterior border of the hard palate is a thin, firm fibrous lamella called the Palatine Aponeurosis, which supports the muscles and gives strength to the soft palate. ... The pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve, the principal motor nerve of the pharynx, arises from the upper part of the ganglion nodosum, and consists principally of filaments from the cranial portion of the accessory nerve. ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ...

Intrinsic muscles

Coronal section of tongue, showing intrinsic muscles
Coronal section of tongue, showing intrinsic muscles

Four paired intrinsic muscles of the tongue originate and insert within the tongue, running along its length. These muscles alter the shape of the tongue by: lengthening and shortening it, curling and uncurling its apex and edges, and flattening and rounding its surface.[2] Image File history File links Gray1020. ... Image File history File links Gray1020. ...

The tongue is often cited as the "strongest muscle in the body," a claim that does not correspond to any conventional definition of strength. The Superior longitudinal muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The epiglottis is a lid-like flap of fibrocartilage tissue covered with a mucus membrane, attached to the root of the tongue. ... The hyoid bone (Os Hyoideum; Lingual Bone) is a bone in the human neck, not articulated to any other bone; it is supported by the muscles of the neck and in turn supports the root of the tongue. ... The Longitudinalis linguæ inferior is a narrow band situated on the under surface of the tongue between the Genioglossus and Hyoglossus. ... The Verticalis muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The Transversus muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... For other uses of Muscle, see Muscle (disambiguation). ...


Papillae and taste buds

See also: Taste bud

The oral part of the tongue is covered with small bumpy projections called papillae. There are four types of papillae: Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ...

  • filiform (thread-shape)
  • fungiform (mushroom-shape)
  • circumvallate (ringed-circle)
  • foliate (leaf-shape)

All papillae except the filiform have taste buds on their surface. The fungiform papillae are mushroom shaped papillae (projections) on the tongue. ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ...

Close-up view of a tongue with visible fungiform papillae (large bumps) scattered among filiform papillae (small bumps).

The circumvallate are the largest of the papillae. There are 8 to 14 circumvallate papillae arranged in a V-shape in front of the sulcus terminalis, creating a border between the oral and pharyngeal parts of the tongue. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 1080 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) If someone could place the appropriate tag to match the permission given (distribute and edit non-commercially with no attribution), thatd be kind. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 450 pixelsFull resolution (1920 × 1080 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) If someone could place the appropriate tag to match the permission given (distribute and edit non-commercially with no attribution), thatd be kind. ... The fungiform papillae are mushroom shaped papillae (projections) on the tongue. ... The Filiform papillae cover the anterior two-thirds of the dorsum. ...


There are no lingual papillae on the underside of the tongue. It is covered with a smooth mucous membrane, with a fold (the lingual frenulum) in the center. If the lingual frenulum is too taut or too far forward, it can impede motion of the tongue, a condition called Tongue-tie (Ankyloglossia). The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of mostly endodermal origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... The frenulum linguae (or lingual frenulum) is the frenulum of the tongue. ... Child with ankyloglossia. ...


The upper side of the posterior tongue (pharyngeal part) has no visible taste buds, but it is bumpy because of the lymphatic nodules lying underneath. These follicles are known as the lingual tonsil. Rounded masses of lymphatic tissue that cover the posterior region of the tongue. ...


The human tongue can detect five basic taste components: sweet, sour, salty, bitter and savory[citation needed]. The sense of taste is referred to as a gustatory sense. Contrary to the popular myth and generations of schoolbooks, there are no distinct regions for tasting different tastes. This myth arose because Edwin G. Boring replotted data from one of Wundt's students (Hanig) without labeling the axes, leading some to misinterpret the graph as all or nothing response.[3] The common conception of taste has a significant contribution from olfaction. Look up Sweet in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Sour redirects here. ... The word savory has a number of meanings: Savory for the herb used in some traditional Thanksgiving stuffings. ... Edwin Garrigues Boring (October 23, 1886-July 1, 1968) was an experimental psychologist who later became one of the first historians of psychology. ... Wilhelm Max Wundt (August 16, 1832-August 31, 1920), German physiologist and psychologist, is generally acknowledged as the founder of experimental psychology. ... Olfaction (also known as olfactics) refers to the sense of smell. ...


Innervation of the tongue

Motor innervation of the tongue is complex and involves several cranial nerves. All the muscles of the tongue are innervated by the hypoglossal nerve (cranial nerve XII) with one exception: the palatoglossal muscle is innervated by the pharyngeal branch of vagus nerve (cranial nerve X). The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve (XII). ... The pharyngeal branch of the vagus nerve, the principal motor nerve of the pharynx, arises from the upper part of the ganglion nodosum, and consists principally of filaments from the cranial portion of the accessory nerve. ...


Sensory innervation of the tongue is different for taste sensation and general sensation.

The anterior tongue (or oral part) is the portion of the tongue in front of the terminal sulcus. ... The Lingual Nerve is a branch of the mandibular nerve from the fifth cranial nerve, the trigeminal nerve (CN V3), that supplies the mucous membrane of the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. ... The mandibular nerve is the third branch (V3) of the trigeminal nerve. ... The trigeminal nerve is the fifth (V) cranial nerve, and carries sensory information from most of the face, as well as motor supply to the muscles of mastication (the muscles enabling chewing), tensor tympani (in the middle ear), and other muscles in the floor of the mouth, such as the... The gingiva (sing. ... The chorda tympani are nerves of special sensation given off the facial nerve (VII) inside the skull. ... The submandibular ganglion (or submaxillary ganglion in older texts) is of small size and is fusiform in shape. ... The Posterior tongue, or pharyngeal part, is the part of the tongue behind the terminal sulcus. ... The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ...

Vasculature of the tongue

The underside of a human tongue
The underside of a human tongue

The tongue receives its blood supply primarily from the lingual artery, a branch of the external carotid artery. The floor of the mouth also receives its blood supply from the lingual artery. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,264 × 2,448 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,264 × 2,448 pixels, file size: 1. ... The lingual artery arises from the external carotid between the superior thyroid and facial artery. ... The carotid artery is a major artery of the head and neck. ...


There is also secondary blood supply to the tongue from the tonsillar branch of the facial artery and the ascending pharyngeal artery. Tonsillar branch can refer to: tonsillar branch of the facial artery tonsillar branch of posterior inferior cerebellar artery tonsillar branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve tonsillar branch of the lesser palatine nerves Category: ... The facial artery (external maxillary artery in older texts) is a branch of the external carotid artery that supplies structures of the face. ... The ascending pharyngeal artery, the smallest branch of the external carotid, is a long, slender vessel, deeply seated in the neck, beneath the other branches of the external carotid and under the Stylopharyngeus. ...


Use of tongue in pharmacy

The sublingual region underneath the front of the tongue is a location where the oral mucosa is very thin, and underlain by a plexus of veins. This is an ideal location for introducing certain medications to the body. The sublingual route takes advantage of the highly vascular quality of the oral cavity, and allows for the speedy application of medication into the cardiovascular system, bypassing the gastrointestinal tract. This is the only convenient and efficacious route of administration of nitroglycerin to a patient suffering angina pectoris, chest pain. If the tablet is swallowed, the medication is completely neutralized by the detoxification process of the liver.[citation needed] Sublingual, literally under the tongue, from Latin, refers to a pharmacological route of administration in which certain drugs are entered directly into the bloodstream via absorption under the tongue. ... The mucous membranes (or mucosae; singular: mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, and are involved in absorption and secretion. ... f you all The blood vessels are part of the circulatory system and function to transport blood throughout the body. ... Nitroglycerin (NG), also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ...


Secondary uses

In addition to eating and human vocalization, the human tongue has many secondary uses. These include certain forms of kissing known as "tongue kissing" or sometimes "french kissing" in which the tongue plays a primary role. Generally, use of the tongue (such as licking), or interaction between tongues, appears to be a common gesture of affection, not just in humans but throughout the animal kingdom, and particularly in mammals. For other uses, see French kiss (disambiguation). ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ...


The tongue also has a distinct use in both male and female forms of oral sex, and is typically used to a great extent in foreplay and traditional sexual intercourse as well. Because of its use in both the phenomenon of human sexual interactions, the tongue sometimes is associated with a sensual or erotic connotation. In art the human tongue is often depicted as a seductive instrument, similar to the status of the lips. Oral sex consists of all sexual activities that involve the use of the mouth, which may include use of the tongue, teeth, and throat, to stimulate genitalia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ...

The tongue is also one of the more common parts of the human anatomy to be subject to piercing and body modification, a phenomenon that is sometimes associated with certain subcultures or demographics. Tongue piercing has appeared historically in many ancient cultures, and is an increasingly popular trend in the West today, particularly in youth culture. Pop culture references to tongue piercings are common as well. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 332 pixelsFull resolution (1397 × 580 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 332 pixelsFull resolution (1397 × 580 pixel, file size: 68 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A fully healed plastic tongue piercing from two angles. ... Body piercing is a form of body modification. ... Body modification (or body alteration) is the permanent or semi-permanent deliberate altering of the human body for non-medical reasons, such as spiritual, various social (markings), BDSM edgeplay or aesthetic. ... A fully healed plastic tongue piercing from two angles. ...


Showing tongue (tongue out) is an international emotional gesture used primarily by children, or by adults behaving (deliberately or not) in a childish manner.


The human tongue also plays a valuable role in other acts, such as for blowing bubbles with bubble gum and whistling. Bubblegum is a type of chewing gum that is especially designed for blowing bubbles. ... A metal whistle Human whistling is the production of sound by means of a constant stream of air from the mouth. ...


Injury to the tongue is often very painful. The muscle is vulnerable to various cancers. Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ...


Non-human tongues

An okapi using its tongue to scratch an itch
An okapi using its tongue to scratch an itch

Most multi-cellular animals, that is, members of the subkingdom Metazoa, have tongues or similar organs. Download high resolution version (1204x1204, 1195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1204x1204, 1195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name (P.L. Sclater, 1901) Range map The Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) is a mammal living in the Ituri Rainforest in the north east of the Democratic Republic of the Congo in central Africa. ... Look up scratch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Itch (disambiguation). ... Phyla Radiata Cnidaria Ctenophora - Comb jellies Bilateria Protostomia Acoelomorpha Platyhelminthes - Flatworms Nemertina - Ribbon worms Gastrotricha Gnathostomulida - Jawed worms Micrognathozoa Rotifera - Rotifers Acanthocephala Priapulida Kinorhyncha Loricifera Entoprocta Nematoda - Roundworms Nematomorpha - Horsehair worms Cycliophora Mollusca - Mollusks Sipuncula - Peanut worms Annelida - Segmented worms Tardigrada - Water bears Onychophora - Velvet worms Arthropoda - Insects, etc. ...


In animals such as dogs and cats the tongue is often used to clean the fur and body. Rough textures of the tongues of these species helps them to use their tongues to remove oils and parasites by licking themselves and each other. Aside from daily uses for eating and drinking, a dog's tongue acts as a heat regulator. As a dog increases its exercise the tongue will increase in size due to greater blood flow. The tongue hangs out of the dog's mouth and the moisture on the tongue will cool down further cooling down the bloodflow.[1][2]


Some animals have prehensile tongues. For example, chameleons, frogs, salamanders and some species of fish use their tongues to catch prey. Many insects have a type of tongue called a proboscis that is used for the same purpose or, in the case of butterflies, to drink nectar [3]. The corresponding organ in ants is called the hypopharynx [4]. Molluscs have a rough tongue called a radula [5], which they use to grind food. Prehensility is the quality of an organ that has adapted for grasping or holding. ... For other uses, see Chameleon (disambiguation). ... Distribution of frogs (in black) Suborders Archaeobatrachia Mesobatrachia Neobatrachia - List of Anuran families The frogness babe is an amphibian in the order Anura (meaning tail-less from Greek an-, without + oura, tail), formerly referred to as Salientia (Latin saltare, to jump). ... For other uses, see Salamander (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... Closeup image of the Cairns Birdwing, showing its large proboscis A syrphid fly using its proboscis to reach the nectar of a flower In general, a proboscis (from Greek pro before and boskein to feed) is an elongated appendage from the head of an animal. ... For other uses of the term butterfly, see butterfly (disambiguation). ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... In human anatomy, the hypopharynx is the bottom part of the pharynx, and is the part of the throat that connects to the esophagus. ... Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ... Transverse view of the buccal cavity with the radula Radula types chart. ...


Tongue rolling

Rolled Tongue
Rolled Tongue

Tongue rolling is the act of rolling the tongue axially into a tube shape. The ability to roll the tongue has been generally believed to depend on genetic inheritance. Tongue rolling was believed to be a dominant trait with simple Mendelian inheritance, and is still commonly used as an example in high school and introductory biology courses. It provided a simple experiment to demonstrate inheritance. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 851 pixels, file size: 167 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,280 × 851 pixels, file size: 167 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Biological inheritance is the process by which an offspring cell or organism acquires or becomes predisposed to characteristics of its parent cell or organism. ... The word dominant has several possible meanings: In music theory, the dominant or dominant note (second most important) of a key is that which is a perfect fifth above the tonic; in just intonation the note whose pitch is 1. ... Mendelian inheritance (or Mendelian genetics or Mendelism) is a set of primary tenets that underlie much of genetics developed by Gregor Mendel in the latter part of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Biology (disambiguation). ...


There is little laboratory evidence, though, for the common belief that tongue rolling is inheritable and dominant. A 1975 twin study found that identical twins (who share all of their genes) were no more likely than fraternal twins (who share an average of half) to both have the same phenotype for tongue rolling.[4][5] Twin studies are one of a family of designs in behavior genetics which aid the study of individual differences by highlighting the role of environmental and genetic causes on behavior. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Individuals in the mollusk species Donax variabilis show diverse coloration and patterning in their phenotypes. ...


Tongue as a food

The tongues of some animals are consumed and sometimes considered delicacies. In America and the United Kingdom, cow tongues are among the more common. Hot tongue sandwiches are frequently found on menus in Kosher delicatessens in America. In the United Kingdom tongue can often be found at the local grocer, where it is often sold in reformed slices of meat after being ground up and set in gelatine. Taco de lengua (lengua being Spanish for tongue) is a taco filled with beef tongue, and is especially popular in Mexican cuisine. Tongue can also be prepared as birria. Duck tongues are sometimes employed in Szechuan dishes, while lamb's tongue is occasionally employed in Continental and contemporary American cooking. Fried cod tongue is a relatively common part of fish meals in Norway and Newfoundland. The circled U indicates that this can of tuna is certified kosher by the Union of Orthodox Congregations. ... This article is about food stores. ... For other uses, see Taco (disambiguation). ... Beef tongue, literally the tongue of a cow. ... A spicy meat stew usually made from lamb or goat. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Oxyurinae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Duck is the common name for a number of species in the Anatidae family of birds. ... Szechuan cuisine, Szechwan cuisine, or Sichuan cuisine (Chinese: ) is a style of Chinese cuisine originating in Sichuan Province of southwestern China which has an international reputation for being hot and numbing (麻辣), because of the common ingredient Sichuan peppercorn (花椒). Although the region Sichuan is now romanized as Sichuan, the cuisine is... An unweaned lamb Legs of lamb in a supermarket cabinet The terms lamb, hoggett or mutton are culinary names for the meat of a domestic sheep. ... COD may refer to many different topics, including: Cash on delivery Completion of discharge, shipping College of DuPage, a public Junior College with campuses in the suburbs of Chicago Call of Duty (series), a series of computer games Canadian Oxford Dictionary Carrier onboard delivery Catastrophic optical damage, a failure mode... This article is about the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador. ...


Tongues are also used in sausage making. Historically, buffalo tongue was once considered an especially exquisite dish, and is one of the reasons for the American Bison being hunted by humans to the point of near extinction.[citation needed] Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies B. b. ...


Miscellaneous facts

  • Tung was the original Webster spelling of tongue.
  • Stephen Taylor holds the world record for the world's longest tongue. It measures 9.5 centimeters from the tip to the center of his closed top lip. Annika Irmler holds the record for longest female tongue, at 7 centimeters.[6]

The skeleton of a Blue Whale, the largest animal on Earth. ...

See also

The electronic tongue is an instrument that measures and compares tastes. ... Several inheritable traits or congenital conditions in humans are classical examples of Mendelian inheritance: Their presence is controlled by a single gene that can either be of the autosomal-dominant or -recessive type. ... For the band, see Saliva (band). ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... The tip of the tongue (TOT) phenomenon is an instance of knowing something that cannot immediately be recalled. ... Tongue bifurcation, or tongue splitting, is a type of body modification in which the tongue is cut centrally from its tip part of the way towards its base, forking the end. ... A fully healed plastic tongue piercing from two angles. ... A tongue-twister is a phrase in any language that is designed to be difficult to articulate properly. ... Sagittal section of human vocal tract The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ...

References

  1. ^ Maton, Anthea; Jean Hopkins, Charles William McLaughlin, Susan Johnson, Maryanna Quon Warner, David LaHart, Jill D. Wright (1993). Human Biology and Health. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-981176-1. 
  2. ^ Drake, R. et al. Gray's Anatomy for Students, Elsevier, 2005. ISBN 0-443-06612-4
  3. ^ Bartoshuk, L.M. (1989). Taste: Robust across the Age Span? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 561, pp. 65-75.
  4. ^ Discovery Online, The Skinny On... Tongue Rolling
  5. ^ Omim - Tongue Curling, Folding, Or Rolling
  6. ^ 'I've got the world's longest tongue' Retrieved 24 April 2007.

External links

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Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... The human eye is the first element of a sensory system: in this case, vision, for the visual system. ... The gustatory system is the sensory system that uses taste buds (or lingual papillae) on the upper surface of the tongue to provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... The circumvallate papillae (or vallate papillae) are of large size, and vary from eight to twelve in number. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The fungiform papillae are mushroom shaped papillae (projections) on the tongue. ... Taste-buds, the end-organs of the gustatory sense, are scattered over the mucous membrane of the mouth and tongue at irregular intervals. ... Cranial nerves Cranial nerves are nerves that emerge directly from the brain in contrast to spinal nerves which emerge from segments of the spinal cord. ... The facial nerve is the seventh (VII) of twelve paired cranial nerves. ... The glossopharyngeal nerve is the ninth of twelve cranial nerves. ... The vagus nerve (also called pneumogastric nerve or cranial nerve X) is the tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves, and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (within the medulla oblongata) and extends, through the jugular foramen, down below the head, to the abdomen. ... The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI). ... The ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) is a nucleus of the thalamus. ... Sour redirects here. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... For other uses of the word head, see head (disambiguation). ... In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones. ... In human anatomy, the forehead or brow is the bony part of the head above the eyes. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... Teeth redirects here. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... The face is the front part of the head and includes the hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyes, nose, ears, cheeks, mouth, lips, philtrum, teeth, skin, and chin. ... This article is about the anatomical feature. ... This article is about the part of the face. ... Image File history File links Human body features (external) Created by Vsion. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adams apple (disambiguation). ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... This article is about the body part. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... The Tail of Spence (or Spences tail) is an extension of the tissue of the breast which extends into the axilla (armpit). ... Male Chest The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. ... The human rib cage is a part of the human skeleton within the thoracic area. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... For other uses, see Navel (disambiguation). ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of the anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in female mammals. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... In some male mammals the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur which is known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... Bottom commonly refers to the human buttocks but also has other uses. ... A limb (from the Old English lim) is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus tentacles or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or animal body; a large or main branch of a tree; a representative, branch or member of a group or organization. ... This article is about upper limb of an animal. ... For the band, see Elbow (band). ... // The Human Forearm The forearm is the structure on the upper limb, between the elbow and the wrist. ... For the municipality in Germany, see Wrist, Germany. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Finger (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Thumb (disambiguation). ... The second digit of a human hand is also referred to as the index finger, pointer finger, forefinger, trigger finger, digitus secundus, or digitus II. It is located between the first and third digits - that is, between the thumb and the middle finger. ... This article is about the vulgar gesture. ... The ring finger is the fourth digit of the human hand, and the second most ulnar finger, located between the middle finger and the little finger. ... The little finger, often called the pinky in American English and pinkie in Scottish English (from the Dutch word pink, meaning little finger), is the most ulnar and usually smallest finger of the human hand, opposite the thumb, next to the ring finger. ... In common usage, a human leg is the lower limb of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee, and the cnemis. ... Manuel Márquez de León International Airport (IATA: LAP, ICAO: MMLP) is an international airport located at La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. ... In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and buttocks and the knee. ... For other uses, see Knee (disambiguation). ... The calf or gastrosoleus is a pair of muscles—the gastrocnemius and soleus—at the back of the lower human leg. ... For other uses, see Heel (disambiguation). ... For a review of anatomical terms, see Anatomical position and Anatomical terms of location. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body part. ... Toes on foot. ... This article is about the organ. ... This article is about the body feature. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... An MRI scan of the head. ... For other uses, see Head (disambiguation). ... The face is the front part of the head and includes the hair, forehead, eyebrow, eyes, nose, ears, cheeks, mouth, lips, philtrum, teeth, skin, and chin. ... The occipital bone [Fig. ... In human anatomy, the forehead or brow is the bony part of the head above the eyes. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, the orbit is the cavity or socket of the skull in which the eye and its appendages are situated. ... The Trochlea of superior oblique is a pully structure in the eye through which the superior oblique muscle passes. ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... The temple is the side of the head behind the eyes Temple indicates the side of the head behind the eyes. ... This article is about the anatomical feature. ... This article is about the part of the face. ... The scalp is the anatomical area bordered by the face anteriorly and the neck to the sides and posteriorly. ... The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. ... A nostril is one of the two channels of the nose, from the point where they bifurcate to the external opening. ... The nasal septum separates the left and right airways in the nose, dividing the two nostrils. ... The cartilage of the septum (or septal cartilage, or quadrangular cartilage) is somewhat quadrilateral in form, thicker at its margins than at its center, and completes the separation between the nasal cavities in front. ... The greater alar cartilage (lower lateral cartilage) is a thin, flexible plate, situated immediately below the preceding, and bent upon itself in such a manner as to form the medial wall and lateral wall of the naris of its own side. ... The part which forms the lateral wall is curved to correspond with the ala of the nose; it is oval and flattened, narrow behind, where it is connected with the frontal process of the maxilla by a tough fibrous membrane, in which are found three or four small cartilaginous plates... The lateral cartilage (upper lateral cartilage) is situated below the inferior margin of the nasal bone, and is flattened, and triangular in shape. ... The accessory nasal cartilages are small cartilages of the nose connecting the greater alar cartilage and lateral nasal cartilage. ... In the septum close to the nasopalatine recess a minute orifice may be discerned; it leads backward into a blind pouch, the rudimentary vomeronasal organ of Jacobson, which is supported by a strip of cartilage, the vomeronasal cartilage (or Jacobsons cartilage). ... Beneath the epithelium, and extending through the thickness of the mucous membrane, is a layer of tubular, often branched, glands, the olfactory glands (glands of Bowman), identical in structure with serous glands. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Inferior nasal conchae. ... Above the superior concha is a narrow recess, the sphenoethmoidal recess, into which the sphenoidal sinus opens. ... On the lateral wall of the middle meatus is a curved fissure, the hiatus semilunaris, limited below by the edge of the uncinate process of the ethmoid and above by an elevation named the bulla ethmoidalis; the middle ethmoidal cells are contained within this bulla and open on or near... ṇ The inferior meatus, the largest of the three meatuses of the nose, is the space between the inferior concha and the floor of the nasal cavity. ... The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobsons organ is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. ... Paranasal sinuses are air-filled spaces, communicating with the nasal cavity, within the bones of the skull and face. ... The nasopharynx (nasal part of the pharynx) lies behind the nose and above the level of the soft palate: it differs from the oral and laryngeal parts of the pharynx in that its cavity always remains patent (open). ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... Choana (plural: Choanae) latinization from the Greek choanÄ“ meaning funnel is the posterior nasal aperture. ... The base of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube lies directly under the mucous membrane of the nasal part of the pharynx, where it forms an elevation, the torus tubarius or cushion, behind the pharyngeal orifice of the tube. ... Adenoids, or pharyngeal tonsils, are folds of lymphatic tissue covered by ciliated epithelium. ... Behind the ostium of the auditory tube is a deep recess, the pharyngeal recess (fossa of Rosenmüller). ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... The palate is the roof of the mouth in humans and vertebrate animals. ... The hard palate is a thin horizontal bony plate of the skull, otherwise known as the palatine process of the maxilla, located in the roof of the mouth. ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ... The palatine raphe (or median raphe) is a raphe running across the palate, from the palatine uvula to the incisive papilla. ... The incisive papilla is a projection on the palate near the incisors. ... Taste buds are small structures on the upper surface of the tongue, soft palate, and epiglottis that provide information about the taste of food being eaten. ... The dorsum of the tongue is convex and marked by a median sulcus, which divides it into symmetrical halves. ... The dorsum of the tongue is convex and marked by a median sulcus, which divides it into symmetrical halves; this sulcus ends behind, about 2. ... The dorsum of the tongue is convex and marked by a median sulcus, which divides it into symmetrical halves; this sulcus ends behind, about 2. ... The lingual tonsils are rounded masses of lymphatic tissue that cover the posterior region of the tongue. ... On either side lateral to the frenulum is a slight fold of the mucous membrane, the plica fimbriata, the free edge of which occasionally exhibits a series of fringe-like processes. ... The anterior tongue (or oral part) is the portion of the tongue in front of the terminal sulcus. ... The Posterior tongue, or pharyngeal part, is the part of the tongue behind the terminal sulcus. ... The Glossoepiglottic folds are the anterior or lingual surface of the epiglottis is curved forward, and covered on its upper, free part by mucous membrane which is reflected on to the sides and root of the tongue, forming a median and two lateral glossoepiglottic folds; the lateral folds are partly... Teeth redirects here. ... Permanent teeth are the second set of teeth formed in humans. ... Incisors (from Latin incidere, to cut) are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. ... The premolar teeth or bicuspids are transitional teeth located between the canine and molar teeth. ... Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of tooth in most mammals. ... ... The pharynx is the part of the digestive system of many animals immediately behind the mouth and in front of the esophagus. ... The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the neck and throat situated immediately posterior to the mouth and nasal cavity, and cranial, or superior, to the esophagus, larynx, and trachea. ... The fauces (a Latin plural word for throat; the singular faux is rarely found), in anatomy, is the hinder part of the mouth, which leads into the pharynx. ... The palatoglossal arch (glossopalatine arch, anterior pillar of fauces) on either side runs downward, lateralward, and forward to the side of the base of the tongue, and is formed by the projection of the Glossopalatinus with its covering mucous membrane. ... The palatopharyngeal arch (pharyngopalatine arch, posterior pillar of fauces) is larger and projects farther toward the middle line than the anterior; it runs downward, lateralward, and backward to the side of the pharynx, and is formed by the projection of the Pharyngopalatinus, covered by mucous membrane. ... Most commonly, the term tonsils refers to the palatine tonsils that can be seen in the back of the throat. ... Uvula redirects here. ... The salivary glands produce saliva, which keeps the mouth and other parts of the digestive system moist. ... For the toad wart, see parotoid gland. ... The parotid duct is also known as Stensens duct. ... The submandibular gland is one of the salivary glands, responsible for producing saliva. ... The submandibular duct (Whartons duct[1], submaxillary duct) is about 5 cm. ... The sublingual glands are salivary glands in the mouth. ... The excretory ducts of the sublingual gland are from eight to twenty in number. ... For other uses, see Lip (disambiguation). ... Lips (upper and lower) are the red (or pink or brown) and soft edges covering the human mouth. ... The lips of a female Lips are a visible organ at the mouth of humans and many animals. ... For the publishing house, see Philtrum Press. ... The pterygomandibular raphé (pterygomandibular ligament) is a tendinous band of the buccopharyngeal fascia, attached by one extremity to the hamulus of the medial pterygoid plate, and by the other to the posterior end of the mylohyoid line of the mandible. ... Fascia is specialized connective tissue layer which surrounds muscles, bones, and joints, providing support and protection and giving structure to the body. ... Parotideomasseteric Fascia (masseteric fascia). ... The temporal fascia covers the Temporalis muscle. ... The Galea aponeurotica is connective tissue at the back of the head. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tongue in Cheek (1598 words)
My blog's name Tongue in Cheek was given to me by my friend Kristen who writes a wonderful blog called: A French Word A Day.
What she meant was that the antiques I like to collect are nice enough but not too serious or stuffy, they look good but rarely are in perfect condition.
Tongue in Cheek as you know is not just about antiques, nor is just about my living in France.
Tongue - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1446 words)
The tongue is the large bundle of muscles on the floor of the mouth that manipulates food for chewing and swallowing.
The tongue is made mainly of skeletal muscle and attached to the hyoid bone, mandible and the styloid processes of the temporal bone.
The tongue is also one of the more common parts of the human anatomy to be subject to piercing and body modification, a phenomenon that is sometimes associated with certain subcultures or demographics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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