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Encyclopedia > Toner
A color toner bottle

Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers to form the text and images on the printed paper. In its early form it was simply carbon powder. Then, to improve the quality of the printout the carbon was blended with a polymer. Toner particles are melted by the heat of the fuser, causing them to bind to the paper. The specific polymer used varies by manufacturer but can be a Styrene Acrylate Copolymer or a Polyester Resin. Toner formulations vary from manufacturer to manufacturer and even from machine to machine. Typically formulation, granule size and melt point vary the most. Image File history File links Toner. ... Image File history File links Toner. ... Powder is a substance that has been crushed into very fine grains. ... 1993 Apple LaserWriter Pro 630 laser printer A laser printer is a common type of computer printer that rapidly produces high quality text and graphics on plain paper. ... A small, much-used Xerox copier in a high school library. ... A blank sheet of paper Paper is a commodity of thin material produced by the amalgamation of fibers, typically vegetable fibers composed of cellulose, which are subsequently held together by hydrogen bonding. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... General Name, Symbol, Number carbon, C, 6 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 14, 2, p Appearance black (graphite) colorless (diamond) Standard atomic weight 12. ... A polymer is a substance composed of molecules with large molecular mass consisting of repeating structural units, or monomers, connected by covalent chemical bonds. ... C8H8 redirects here. ... Acrylate monomers are esters that contain vinyl groups, that is, two carbon atoms double bonded to each other, directly attached to the carbonyl carbon. ... A heteropolymer, also called a copolymer, is a polymer formed when two different types of monomer are linked in the same polymer chain. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... Insect trapped in resin. ...


The original particle size of toner averaged 14-16 micrometres (microns)[1] or greater. To improve image resolution particle size was reduced, eventually reaching about 8-10 microns for 600 dots per inch resolution. Further reductions in particle size producing further improvements in resolution are being developed through the application of new technologies such as Emulsion-Aggregation. [2] Toner manufacturers maintain a quality control standard for particle size distribution in order to produce a powder suitable for use in their printers. A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length equal to one millionth of a metre, or about a tenth of the diameter of a droplet of mist or fog. ... Dots per inch (DPI) is a measure of printing resolution, in particular the number of individual dots of ink a printer or toner can produce within a linear one-inch space. ... In engineering and manufacturing, quality control and quality engineering are involved in developing systems to ensure products or services are designed and produced to meet or exceed customer requirements. ...


Toner has traditionally been made by compounding the ingredients and creating a slab which was broken or pelletized and then turned into a fine powder with a controlled particle size range by air jet milling. This process resulted in toner granules that, if viewed under a microscope, showed varying sizes and jagged shapes. To get a finer print, some companies are using a chemical process to grow toner particles. This results in more uniform size and shapes of toner particles. The resulting smaller uniform shapes permit more accurate color reproduction and more efficient toner use.


In earlier machines toner was poured by the user from a bottle into a reservoir in the machine. Modern machines feed directly from a cartridge. Empty cartridges are often refilled by third party vendors.


As a fine powder, toner can remain suspended in the air for some period, and is considered to have health effects comparable to inert dust. It can be an irritant to people with respiratory conditions such as asthma or bronchitis. Following studies on bacteria in the 1970s that raised concerns about health effects resulting from pyrol, a contaminant created during manufacture of the carbon black used in black toner, manufacturing processes were changed to eliminate pyrol from the finished product. After just three years of use, dust has blocked this laptop heat sink, making the computer unusable Dust is a general name for minute solid particles with diameters less than 500 micrometers (otherwise, please see sand or granulates and, more generally, finely divided matter). ... // In animal physiology, respiration is the transport of oxygen from the ambient air to the tissue cells and the transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction. ... Bronchitis is inflammation of the bronchi (medium-size airways) in the lungs. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ...


Toner can be washed off skin or garments with cold water. Hot or warm water will soften the toner, causing it to fuse to the material it is on. Toner fused to skin will wear off in time, or can be partially removed using abrasive hand cleaners. Toner fused to clothing cannot usually be removed.


References

Look up toner in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • Hewlett-Packard, Material Safety Data Sheet: HP Laserjet Print Cartridge C4127A/X, online, URL Date 25 August 2004
  • Hewlett-Packard, Material Safety Data Sheet: HP Laserjet Print Cartridge Q1338A, online, URL Date 25 August 2004
  • Malvern InstrumentsToner Particles - Monitoring Particle Size Distribution and Particle Shape

  Results from FactBites:
 
Toner - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (385 words)
Toner is a powder used in laser printers and photocopiers which forms the text and images on the printed paper.
Toner manufacturers maintain a quality control standard of these particle sizes in order to produce a powder suitable for use in printer devices; the particle size is not allowed to vary too much from the required dimension.
Some toner is also known to be a carcinogen, but such a large exposure is required that it is generally considered harmless.
ABC Copier Toner Cartridges, Printer Inkjet Cartridges Laser Toner Photocopier Spare Parts (276 words)
ABC's aim is to be your first choice when it comes to buying photocopier toner cartridges, printer ink cartridges and spare parts by supplying a wide-range of original, quality guaranteed compatible and recycled/remanufactured toner cartridges and inkjets.
The popular colour toner range for laser printers and copiers is continually expanding, so if you are looking to buy or already own a colour machine, ABC can help you save £££'s on future toner purchases.
If you can't find the toner cartridge, inkjet cartridge or spare part you are after, please contact us or fill out the enquiry form at the bottom of each manufacturer / product page and we will endeavor to respond quickly with the information you require.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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