FACTOID # 20: Statistically, Delaware bears more cost of the US Military than any other state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Tonality" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tonality

Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key "center" or tonic. The term tonalité originated with Alexandre Choron (1810) and was borrowed by François-Joseph Fétis in 1840 (Reti, 1958; Simms 1975, 119; Judd, 1998; Dahlhaus 1990). Although Fétis used it as a general term for a system of musical organization and spoke of types de tonalités rather than a single system, today the term is most often used to refer to Major-Minor tonality (also called diatonic tonality or functional tonality), the system of musical organization of the common practice period and most popular music in much of the world today. Image File history File links Circle-question-red. ... Music is a form of art that involves organized and audible sounds and silence. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , it is derived from -hieros, sacred, and -arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... Pitch is the perceived fundamental frequency of a sound. ... In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ... François-Joseph Fétis (March 25, 1784 — March 26, 1871), Belgian musicologist, composer, critic and teacher. ... In Music theory, the diatonic major scale (also known as the Guido scale), from the Greek diatonikos or to stretch out, is a fundamental building block of the European-influenced musical tradition. ... In music the common practice period is a long period in western musical history spanning from before the classical era proper to today, dated, on the outside, as 1600-1900. ...

Contents

Major/minor tonality

What is now known as tonality originated through centuries of musical practice, during which it was not known by any name, and was defined, and its features compiled, by theorists such as Heinrich Schenker in reaction to music which broke with tradition (nontonal music). Arising from sometimes disparate practices over a large area and period of time, tonality may thus be defined in various ways: Heinrich Schenker Heinrich Schenker (June 19, 1868 - January 13, 1935) was a music theorist, best known for his approach to musical analysis, now usually called Schenkerian analysis. ...

  • By history and geography: The music of a specific time period and location, such as that of the common practice period of European music from after the Renaissance to before Modernism. In this context it generally means major-minor tonality plus the use of additional scales such as the chromatic, pentatonic, and octatonic scales.
  • By characteristics: By extension, the above music and all other music which shares its characteristics (and does not display contrary characteristics), which may include the use of the major scale or minor scale, their triadic chords and diatonic functions, and the compositional techniques, procedures, and materials used. This would include theories of tonality which focus on the thoroughbass rather than on root functions, and alternate systems of tuning such as monotonic.
  • By nature: As music which corresponds to or uses the characteristics of sound, organization or order, and/or perception. Thus tonality is a practice correctly based on physical or psychological constants such as the overtone series or human perception. The case for "nature" offers some citations and verifications as well:
  1. Henry Pleasants, long-time music critic for the International Herald tribune, wrote many books devoted to his disdain of atonal music, writing in a phrase: "Modern music is not modern and is rarely music" (Pleasants 1955, ix). Pleasants was especially partisan to Jazz and other tonal popular music which he counterpoised to atonal music throughout his long career.
  2. Professors Glenn Schellenberg and Sandra Trehub, in their recent study of babies (Schellenberg and Trehub 1996), show their experiments demonstrate similar findings. Babies prefer tonality and consonance, showing, without being coached to do so, that the opposite was a painful experience, as indicated by the results.
  3. Sir James Jeans (1937, 171) (based largely on Helmholtz 1877), wrote: "If we visited another planet, we might expect them employing the same diatonic scale as ourselves." Jeans' prediction has been borne out, by what is almost as good as "another planet" (namely, human prehistory). In recent archaeological finds, there have been several appearances of 7-note and/or diatonic scales, against all odds, considering that prehistoric and ancient developers of these scales knew nothing of acoustics to guide them to produce acoustic or near-acoustic artifacts (mostly flutes. See details below at "Theory of tonal music," last paragraph).
  4. Howard & Lyons, supporters of the modernist revolution in music, wrote, "...as one compares the growth of the art of music and the extension of its basic principles with the laws of acoustics, he finds an interesting parallel between the two...(people finding) most pleasing...tones that bear certain mathematical relationships ... even though (unaware) those relationships existed.... Moreover, the historic order in which these tones have come into the musical vocabulary forms an almost identical pattern with the harmonic series (of overtones)" (Howard & Lyons 1958, 36 & 38). Today the pendulum in science seems to have swung with several new brain cognition studies published in scholarly journals since 2000 which show a hard-wired preference for tonality over all other forms of pitch organization (Janata, et al, 2002, 298, 216, 70. See also: Missing fundamental).
  5. An upated theory claiming the acoustic parallels referred to by Howard & Lyons are identical to all the most widespread scales, pentatonic, major/minor diatonic, and causes tonality, can be found in Fink 1981 on line. That viewpoint claims that influences from the most audible overtones of the three most nearly universal intervals (found across time & cultures, namely, a tone, its 4th and 5th), when their overtones are placed within the range of an octave, can influence an evolution into the most widespread of scales: Pentatonic, major & minor (depending how many of the audible overtones are so placed). The unequal audibile strengths of the influencing overtones served to determine the role & power of each note in a scale (tonic, dominant or subdominant), i.e., causing a tonal scale to emerge.
  6. Based on the hierarchical structure of the overtone series, a definition of tonality can be given. Music is called tonal "if the majority of its adjacent tones, whether simultaneous or consecutive, form single-rooted sets" (Gustin 1969, 78).
  • By contrast: Tonal music may be contrasted with earlier modal music, though this is disputed at length by William Thomson (1990).

One may clarify between "the principle of tonality", "the requirement that all the events in a musical group should be co-ordinated by, and experienced in relation to, a central point of reference," and "tonality" as "the specific language of 'classical tonality,' the major-minor key system of the Classical and Romantic periods" (Samson 1977[citation needed][page number needed]). In music the common practice period is a long period in western musical history spanning from before the classical era proper to today, dated, on the outside, as 1600-1900. ... Raphael was famous for depicting illustrious figures of the Classical past with the features of his Renaissance contemporaries. ... Modernism is a trend of thought which affirms the power of human beings to make, improve and reshape their built and designed environment, with the aid of scientific knowledge, technology and practical experimentation, thus in its essence both progressive and optimistic. ... The chromatic scale is the scale that contains all twelve pitches of the Western tempered scale. ... In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ... In music, a diminished scale (set 8-28) is a scale in which the notes of the scale ascend in alternating intervals of a whole step and a half step. ... In music theory, the major scale (or major mode) is one of the diatonic scales. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ... In music or music theory, a triad is a tonal or diatonic tertian trichord. ... A diatonic function, in tonal music theory, is the specific, recognized roles of notes or chords in relation to the key. ... Musical composition is: an original piece of music the structure of a musical piece the process of creating a new piece of music // A musical composition A piece of music exists in the form of a written composition in musical notation or as a single acoustic event (a live performance... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ... In mathematics, functions between ordered sets are monotonic (or monotone) if they preserve the given order. ... A missing fundamental is a missing fundamental frequency which higher frequencies refer to. ... In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... The era of Romantic music is defined as the period of European classical music that runs roughly from the early 1800s to the first decade of the 20th century, as well as music written according to the norms and styles of that period. ...


Functional tonality, or sometimes narrative tonality, is the use of chords and other features according to their functions or relationship with the tonic (so that they "go somewhere"). "Nonfunctional" tonality such as is the use of tonal characteristics in nontonal successions or without regard to their role (so that they "go nowhere"). Examples include the pandiatonicism of Aaron Copland or Steve Reich which often consists of tonal or tonal added tone chords (trouves or "finds" as Aaron Copland described some of his own nonfunctional tonality). In music pandiatonic chords and successions are those formed freely from all degrees of a diatonic scale without regard for their diatonic function, sometimes to the extent of no single pitch being felt as a tonic. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ...


Extended tonality is "the incorporation of complex harmonic phenomena within a single tonal region, as in much of the music of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries" (Samson 1977[citation needed][page number needed]).


General tonality is the near-universal human behaviour of focus on a single pitch by use of tonal frames (Thomson 1999[citation needed][page number needed]).


Vocabulary of tonal analysis

Many of the terms and symbols necessary to analyze tonal organization follow below.


Scales

Main article: Diatonic scale.

Since the mid-18th century, tonal music has been increasingly composed of a 12-note chromatic scale in a system of equal temperament. Tonal music makes reference to "scales" of notes selected as a series of steps from the chromatic scale. Most of these scales are of 5, 6 or 7 notes with the vast majority of tonal music pitches conforming to one of four specific seven-note scales: major, natural minor, melodic minor, and harmonic minor. In music theory, a diatonic scale (from the Greek diatonikos, to stretch out; also known as the heptatonia prima; set form 7-35) is a seven-note musical scale comprising five whole-tone and two half-tone steps, in which the half tones are maximally separated. ... The chromatic scale is the scale that contains all twelve pitches of the Western tempered scale. ... An equal temperament is a musical temperament, or system of tuning, in which an interval, usually the octave, is divided into a series of equal steps (equal frequency ratios). ... In music, a scale is a set of musical notes that provides material for part or all of a musical work. ... In music theory, the major scale (or major mode) is one of the diatonic scales. ... A minor scale in musical theory can be viewed as the sixth mode of the major scale. ... A minor scale in musical theory can be viewed as the sixth mode of the major scale. ... A minor scale in musical theory can be viewed as the sixth mode of the major scale. ...


C major scale:


C major scale ascending and descending moving over from meta How can one use the same english image in another languages wikipedia??? ( to spare space with the same image archive). ...


A natural minor scale:


A natural minor scale ascending Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x201, 3 KB) a minor, natural scale a-moll, natürliches/reines Moll See also / siehe auch: http://commons. ...


Other scales or modes are often introduced for variety within the context of a major-minor tonal system without disturbing the diatonic nature of the work. The major scale predominates and the melodic minor contains nine pitches (seven with two alterable). The seven basic notes of a scale are notated in the key signature, and whether the piece is in the major or minor key is either stated in the title or implied in the piece (there is a major and minor key for each key signature). While other scales and modes are used in tonal music, particularly after 1890, these two scales are the reference point for most tonal music and its vocabulary. In Music theory, the diatonic major scale (also known as the Guido scale), from the Greek diatonikos or to stretch out, is a fundamental building block of the European-influenced musical tradition. ... In musical notation, a key signature is a series of sharp symbols or flat symbols placed on the staff, designating notes that are to be consistently played one semitone higher or lower than the equivalent natural notes (for example, the white notes on a piano keyboard) unless otherwise altered with...


Other important scales include the other church modes, the blues scale, the whole tone scale used by many Russian composers, pentatonic scale and the chromatic scale. This article is about modes as used in music. ... In music, a pentatonic scale is a notes per octave. ... In music, a whole tone scale (set form 6-35, 02468t) is a scale in which each note is separated from its neighbors by the interval of a whole step. ... In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ... The chromatic scale is the scale that contains all twelve pitches of the Western tempered scale. ...


Tonal music composed in other scale systems is referred to as microtonal, and while microtonal music draws from tonal theory, it is generally treated separately in text books and other works on music. However, within the tonal system, notes "between" the chromatic system are used in various contexts, including quarter tones and various effects such as portamento or glissando, where the instrumentalist moves between established notes of the chromatic scale. These are usually thought of as being for "colour" rather than harmonic function, and do not disturb the fundamental scale being used. Microtonal music is music using microtones -- intervals of less than a semitone, or as Charles Ives put it, the notes between the cracks of the piano. ... A quarter tone is an interval half as wide (aurally, or logarithmically) as a semitone, which is half a whole tone. ... Portamento is a musical term currently used to mean pitch bending or sliding, and in 16th century polyphonic writing refers to a type of musical ornamentation. ... Glissando (plural: glissandi) is a musical term that refers to either a continuous sliding from one pitch to another (a true glissando), or an incidental scale played while moving from one melodic note to another (an effective glissando). ...


Chords are built from notes on a scale or on chromatic notes, which are supposed to be heard as variations of the basic scale. The identity of the scale is important in that the scale's steps number the system of chord relationships. At any given time one scale is heard as the most important, and the chord, almost always the major or minor triad, is heard as the most forceful closure. In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... In music or music theory, a triad is a tonal or diatonic tertian trichord. ...


Roman numerals

Main article: Scale degree.

In notation, each note or degree of the scale is often designated by a Roman numeral, or, less commonly, solfege: In music or music theory a scale degree is an individual note of a scale, both its pitch and its diatonic function. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In music theory, a scale degree is the name of a particular note of a scale in relation to the tonic (the first note in the scale). ... Solfege table in an Irish classroom In music and sight singing solfege or solmization is a way of assigning syllables to degrees or steps of the diatonic scale. ...

Function Roman Numeral Solfege
Tonic I Do/Ut
Supertonic II Re
Mediant III Mi
Sub-Dominant IV Fa
Dominant V Sol
Sub-Mediant VI La
Leading/Subtonic VII Ti/Si

In music or music theory, the supertonic is the second degree of the scale, it is the second note of a diatonic scale. ... For mediant in mathematics, see Mediant (mathematics) In music, the mediant is the third degree of the diatonic scale. ... In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth degree of the scale. ... In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... In music, the submediant is the sixth degree of the scale. ... In music theory, a leading-tone (called the leading-note outside the US) is a note or pitch which resolves or leads to a note one semitone higher or lower, being a lower and upper leading-tone, respectively. ... In music, the subtonic is the lowered seventh degree of the scale, as opposed to the leading tone. ...

Chords

Main article: Chord (music).

These numerals also may indicate chords which are built upon the indicated degree. This degree is then known as the root of that chord. Thus "I" describes the tonic chord, the chord built on the tonic note, at a given time. These chords are generally all triads (having three notes, built from thirds, and having a diatonic function). Fingering for a first position C major chord on a guitar. ... The root (basse fondamentale) of a chord is the note upon which that chord is perceived or labelled as built or centered, the root of a chord in root position or normal form. ... In music or music theory, a triad is a tonal or diatonic tertian trichord. ...


C triad, major chord built on the note C and in root position moving over from meta File links The following pages link to this file: Inversion (music) Chord (music) Categories: Public domain images ineligible for copyright ...


The degree of a scale is both the pitch (frequency) of that note and that pitch's diatonic function (role), which is why chords are named by scale degree. Thus the notes of a chord do not have to be sounded simultaneously, and one to two notes may function as, or imply, a three (or more) note chord. Thus a chord described as "V" is based on the fifth note of the prevailing tonic scale (V-VII-II). In C Major, that would be a triad based on G, and would be the G Major triad (G-B-D). To describe a chord progression, the Roman numerals of the chords are listed. Thus IV-V-I describes a chord progression of a chord based on the fourth note of a scale, then one based on the fifth note of the scale, and then one on the first note of the scale. Simultaneity is the property of two events happening at the same time in at least ONE Reference frame. ...


Chords are then further named according to their quality or makeup, determined by the scale notes which lie a third and fifth (two thirds) above the degree a chord is built upon. Capital Roman numerals refer to the major chord, and lower-case Roman numerals refer to the minor chord. Quality is generally not as important as the chord's root. For the Talib Kweli album Quality (album) Quality can refer to a. ...


This means that in the traditional major scale, the ii, iii and vi are minor chords, where as I, IV, V are major. The chord on the seventh note is a diminished triad and is written vii with a degree sign. Numbers attached to a chord indicate additional notes, and one of the most important chords in tonal harmony is the V7 chord, which is a four note chord that includes the fourth note of the tonic scale. The "7" refers to a note seven diatonic steps up from the fundamental note of the chord, not the seventh note of the tonic scale.


Inversion

Main article: Inversion (music).

A chord's root is determined by which note establishes the chord's relationship to the tonic and not which is in the bass, or the lowest played note. Thus chords are said to be "inverted" when this root note is not sounded as the lowest. For example in C Major C-E-G is the tonic chord. If C is not the lowest note played, it is said to be in "inversion". The first inversion would be E-G-C, and the second inversion would be G-C-E. Since inverted chords are also chords in their own right, in context a chord is sometimes thought to be inverted only when voice leading implies it. In music theory, the word inversion has several meanings. ... In music theory, the word inversion has several meanings. ... In music, voice leading is the continuity between pitches or notes played successively in time. ...


Form

Main article: form.

The traditional form of tonal music begins and ends on the tonic of the piece, and many tonal works move to a closely related key, such as the dominant of the main tonality (for example sonata form). Establishing a tonality is traditionally accomplished through a cadence which is two chords in succession which give a feeling of completion or rest - the most common being V7-I cadence. Other cadences are considered to be less powerful. The cadences determines the form of a tonal piece of music, and the placement of cadences, their preparation and establishment as cadences, as opposed to simply chord progressions, is central to the theory and practice of tonal music. The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other another generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be writeen... The term musical form refers to two related concepts: the type of composition (for example, a musical work can have the form of a symphony, a concerto, or other another generic type -- see Multi-movement forms below) the structure of a particular piece (for example, a piece can be writeen... In music, the dominant is the fifth degree of the scale. ... Sonata form is a musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. ... Look up Cadence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Cadence has the following meanings. ...


Harmony

Main article: Harmony.

Most tonality uses "functional harmony", which is a term used to describe music where changes in the predominate scale or additional notes to chords are explainable by their place in stabilizing or destabilizing a tonality. This is a complex way of saying that it is possible to explain why a particular note was included, and what that note means in relation to the tonic chord. Harmony with a large number of notes which do not have clear structural function is called "nonfunctional" harmony, which is not to imply "dysfunctional", but merely that the additional notes are not to be played or heard as restricting or advancing the harmonic progression. Harmony is the result of polyphony (more than one note being played simultaneously). ...


Consonance and dissonance

Main article: Consonance and dissonance.

In the context of tonal organization a chord or a note is said to be "consonant" when it implies stability, and "dissonant" when it implies instability. This is not the same as the ordinary use of the words consonant and dissonant. A dissonant chord is in tension against the tonic, and implies that the music is distant from that tonic chord. "Resolution" is the process by which the harmonic progression moves from dissonant chords to consonant chords and follows counterpoint or voice leading. Voice leading is a description of the "horizontal" movement of the music, as opposed to chords which are considered the "vertical". In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... In music, counterpoint is a texture involving the simultaneous sounding of separate melodies or lines against each other, as in polyphony. ...


Summary

To summarize, traditional tonal music is described in terms of a scale of notes. On the notes of that scale are built chords. Chords in order form a progression. Progressions establish or deny a particular chord as being the tonic chord. The cadence is held to be the sequence of chords which establishes one chord as being the tonic chord; more powerful cadences create a greater sense of closure and a stronger sense of key. Chords have a function when it can be explained how they lead the music towards or away from a particular tonic chord. When the sense of which tonic chord is changed, the music is said to have "changed key" or "modulated". Roman numerals and numbers are used to describe the relationship of a particular chord to the tonic chord.


The techniques of accomplishing this process, are the subject of tonal music theory and compositional practice. Music theory is a field of study that investigates the nature or mechanics of music. ...


Characteristics

Carl Dahlhaus (1990) lists the characteristic schemata of tonal harmony, "typified in the compositional formulas of the 16th and early 17th centuries," as the "complete cadence" (vollstandige Kadenz), I-IV-V-I, I-IV-I-V-I, or even I-ii-V-I; the circle of fifths progression: I-IV-vii-iii-vi-ii-V-I, and the "major-minor parallelism", minor: v-i-VII-III = major: iii-vi-V-I or minor: III-VII-i-v = major: I-V-vi-iii. Carl Dahlhaus (June 10, 1928- May 1989), a musicologist from Berlin, has been one of the major contributors to the development of musicology as a scholarly discipline during the post-war era. ...


David Cope (1997) considers key, consonance or relaxation and dissonance or tension, and hierarchical relationships to be the three most basic concepts in tonality. David Cope is an author, composer, and professor at UC Santa Cruz. ... In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... In music, a consonance (Latin consonare, sounding together) is a harmony, chord, or interval considered stable, as opposed to a dissonance, which is considered unstable. ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ...


Theory of tonal music

Main article: Tonal theory

Tonality allows for a great range of musical materials, structures, meanings, and understandings. It does this through establishing a tonic, or central chord based on a pitch which is the lowest degree of a scale, and a somewhat flexible network of relations between any pitch or chord and the tonic similar to perspective in painting. This is what is meant by tonality having a hierarchical relationship, one triad, the tonic triad, is the "center of gravity" to which other chords are supposed to lead. Changing which chord is felt to be the tonic triad is referred to as "modulation". As within a musical phrase, interest and tension may be created through the move from consonance to dissonance and back, a larger piece will also create interest by moving away from and back to the tonic and tension by destabilizing and re-establishing the key. Distantly related pitches and chords may be considered dissonant in and of themselves since their resolution to the tonic is implied. Further, temporary secondary tonal centers may be established by cadences or simply passed through in a process called modulation, or simultaneous tonal centers may be established through polytonality. Additionally, the structure of these features and processes may be linear, cyclical, or both. This allows for a huge variety of relations to be expressed through dissonance and consonance, distance or proximity to the tonic, the establishment of temporary or secondary tonal centers, and/or ambiguity as to tonal center. Music notation was created to accommodate tonality and facilitates interpretation. Tonality is the character of music written with hierarchical relationships of pitches, rhythms, and chords to a center or tonic. ... A square in two-point perspective. ... The musical use of more than one key simultaneously is polytonality. ... Look up ambiguity in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The majority of tonal music assumes that notes spaced over several octaves are perceived the same way as if they were played in one octave or octave equivalency. Tonal music also assumes that scales have harmonic implication or diatonic functionality. This is generally held to imply that a note which has different places in a chord will be heard differently, and that therefore there is not enharmonic equivalency. In tonal music chords which are moved to different keys, or played with different root notes are not perceived as being the same, and thus transpositional equivalency and far less still inversional equivalency are not generally held to apply. For the numerical computation software, see GNU Octave. ... In music, an enharmonic is a note which is the equivalent of some other note, but spelled differently. ... In music transposition is moving a note or collection of notes (or pitches) up or down in pitch by a constant interval. ... For non-musical meanings of inversion, see inversion. ...


A successful tonal piece of music, or a successful performance of one, will give the listener a feeling that a particular chord — the tonic chord — is the most stable and final. It will then use musical materials to tell the musician and the listener how far the music is from that tonal center, most commonly, though not always, to heighten the sense of movement and drama as to how the music will resolve the tonic chord. The means for doing this are described by the rules of harmony and counterpoint, though some influential theorists prefer the term "thoroughbass" instead of harmony, the concept is the same. Counterpoint is the study of linear resolutions of music, while harmony encompasses the sequences of chords which form a chord progression. A chord progression (also chord sequence and harmonic progression or sequence), as its name implies, is a series of chords played in an order. ...


Though modulation may occur instantaneously without indication or preparation, the least ambiguous way to establish a new tonal center is through a cadence, a succession of two or more chords which ends a section and/or gives a feeling of closure or finality, or series of cadences. Traditionally cadences act both harmonically to establish tonal centers and formally to articulate the end of sections, just as the tonic triad is harmonically central, a dominant-tonic cadence will be structurally central. The more powerful the cadence, the larger the section of music it can close. The strongest cadence is the perfect authentic cadence, which moves from the dominant to the tonic, most strongly establishes tonal center, and ends the most important sections of tonal pieces, including the final section. This is the basis of the "dominant-tonic" or "tonic-dominant" relationship. Common practice placed a great deal of emphasis on the correct use of cadences to structure music, and cadences were placed precisely to define the sections of a work. However, such strict use of cadences gradually gave way to more complex procedures where whole families of chords were used to imply particular distance from the tonal center. Composers, beginning in the late 18th Century began using chords (such as the Neapolitan, French or Italian Sixth) which temporarily suspended a sense of key, and by freely changing between the major and minor voicing for the tonic chord, thereby making the listener unsure whether the music was major or minor. There was also a gradual increase in the use of notes which were not part of the basic 7 notes, called chromaticism, culminating in post-Wagnerian music such as that by Mahler and Strauss and trends such as impressionism and dodecaphony. Look up Cadence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Cadence has the following meanings. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... In music, chromatic indicates the inclusion of notes not in the prevailing scale and is also used for those notes themselves (Shir-Cliff et al 1965, p. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (May 22, 1813 – February 13, 1883) was an influential German composer, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas. ... This article cites its sources but does not provide page references. ... Richard Strauss Richard Strauss (June 11, 1864 – September 8, 1949) was a German composer of the late Romantic era, particularly noted for his tone poems and operas. ... The Impressionist movement in music is a movement in music loosely set between the late nineteenth century, up to the middle of the twentieth century. ... Twelve-tone technique is a system of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ...


One area of disagreement, going back to the origin of the term tonality, is whether, and to what degree, tonality is "natural" or inherent in acoustical phenomena, and whether, and to what degree, it is inherent in the human nervous system, or a psychological construct and, if the latter, whether it is inborn or learned, or some combination of these possibilities (Meyer 1967, 236). The arguments involved are too complex to summarize, and it is difficult to draw clear lines. There is also a disagreement as to how "natural" the practice of Western tonal harmony is versus other forms of harmony, and what grounds would prove or disprove this hypothesis. See Musical acoustics. Since these arguments are often centered around what kind of music should be performed and taught, they often assume a vehemence or dogmatism which goes beyond the nominal issue of hearing and perception. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A viewpoint held by many theorists since the third quarter of the 19th century holds that tonal scales and tonality arise from natural overtones (Riemann 1872, 1875, 1882, 1893, 1905, 1914–15; Schenker 1906–35; Hindemith 1937–70), following the publication in 1862 of the first edition of Helmholtz's On the Sensation of Tone (Helmholtz 1877). Most of the archaeological evidence regarding musical scales has been found only in the last several decades, and most of it, if not all, supports many earlier claims of the universal or "natural" evolution of the scales most widely found in human music.


There is archaeological evidence of the existence of these scales in ancient times. The oldest, perhaps, is the disputed "neanderthal flute" of 50,000 years ago; Still playable 9,000 year old flutes were found at Jiahu, China, one with 8 notes, including the octave. (Nature Journal, Sept, 1999, 1.) Assyrian cuneiform artifacts, roughly 3,500 years old described a Pythagorean tuning for the diatonic scale, and contain the oldest known written music. (Kilmer, 1976, 15-17. West, 1994.) To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Jiahu (賈湖) was the site of a Neolithic Yellow River culture based in the central plains of ancient China, modern Henan Province. ... First title page, November 4, 1869 Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Pythagorean tuning is a system of musical tuning in which the frequency relationships of all intervals are based on the ratio 3:2. ...


History of the term

Main article: History of tonality

Theories of tonal music are generally dated from Jean-Philippe Rameau's Treatise on Harmony (1722), where he describes music written through chord progressions, cadences and structure. He claims that his work represents "the practice of the last 40 years [1682-1722]", however, this is probably not the case. Rameau's work, initially controversial, was adopted by Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg (1718-1795) in his explanation of the music of Johann Sebastian Bach. The vocabulary of describing notes in relationship to the tonic note, and the use of harmonic progressions and cadences becomes absorbed into the practice of Bach. Essential to this version of tonal theory are the chorales harmonizations of Bach, and the method by which a church melody is given a four part harmony by assigning cadences, and then creating a "natural", meaning in this case the most direct, thoroughbass and then filling in the middle voices. Jean-Philippe Rameau, by Jacques André Joseph Aved, 1728 Jean-Philippe Rameau (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ... Figured bass, or thoroughbass, is a kind of integer musical notation used to indicate intervallic content (the intervals which make up a sonority), later chords, in relation to a bass note. ...


In 1821 Castil-Blaze used tonalité for what he called cordes tonales (today primary triads), the tonic, fourth (subdominant), and fifth (dominant). All other chords were cordes melodiques.[citation needed] Hugo Riemann defined tonality as, "the special meaning [functions] that chords receive through their relationship to a fundamental sonority, the tonic triad."[citation needed] In music or music theory, a triad is a tonal or diatonic tertian trichord. ... Dr. Hugo Riemann (full name: Karl Wilhelm Julius Hugo Riemann) (July 18, 1849 - July 10, 1919) was a German musicologist. ...


Fétis (1844) defined tonality, specifically tonalité moderne as the, "set of relationships, simultaneous or successive, among the tones of the scale," allowing for other types de tonalités among different cultures. Further he considered tonalité moderne as "trans-tonic order" and tonalité ancienne "uni-tonic order", trans-tonic meaning simply that the dominant seventh both establishes the key and allows for modulation to other keys. He described his earliest example of tonalité moderne: "In the passage quoted here from Monteverdi's madrigal [Cruda amarilli, mm.9-19 and 24-30], one sees a tonality determined by the accord parfait [root position major chord] on the tonic, by the sixth chord assigned to the third and seventh degrees, by the optional choice of the accord parfait or the sixth chord on the sixth degree, and finally, by the accord parfait and, above all, by the unprepared seventh chord (with major third) on the dominant." (p.171)


Fétis believed that tonality, tonalité moderne, was entirely cultural, "For the elements of music, nature provides nothing but a multitude of tones differing in pitch, duration, and intensity by the greater or least degree...The conception of the relationships that exist among them is awakened in the intellect, and, by the action of sensitivity on the one hand, and will on the other, the mind coordinates the tones into different series, each of which corresponds to a particular class of emotions, sentiments, and ideas. Hence these series become various types of tonalities." (p.11f) "But one will say, 'What is the principle behind these scales, and what, if not acoustic phenomena and the laws of mathematics, has set the order of their tones?' I respond that this principle is purely metaphysical [anthropological]. We conceive this order and the melodic and harmonic phenomena that spring from it out of our conformation and education." (p.249) In contrast, Hugo Riemann believed tonality, "affinites between tones" or tonverwandtshaften, was entirely natural and, following Moritz Hauptmann (1853), that the major third and perfect fifth where the only "directly intelligible" intervals, and that I, IV, and V, the tonic, subdominant, and dominant where related by the perfect fifths between their roots. (Dahlhaus 1990, p.101-2) Moritz Hauptmann (October 13, 1792 - January 3, 1868), German musical composer and writer. ...


By the 1840s the practice of harmony had expanded to include more chromatic notes, a wider chord vocabulary, particularly the more frequent used of the diminished seventh chord - a four note chord of all minor triads which could lead to any other chord. It is in this era that the word "tonality" becomes more commonly used. At the same time the elaboration of both the fugue and the sonata form in terms of key relationships becomes more rigorous, and the study of harmonic progressions, voice leading and ambiguity of key becomes more precise. In music, a fugue (IPA: ) is a type of contrapuntal composition. ... Sonata form is a musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. ...


Theorists such as Edward Lowinsky, Hugo Riemann, and others pushed the date at which modern tonality began, and the cadence began to be seen as the definitive way that a tonality is established in a work of music (Judd, 1998).


In response Bernhard Meier instead used a "tonality" and "modality", modern vs ancient, dichotomy, with Renaissance music being modal. The term modality has been criticized by Harold Powers, among others. However, it is widely used to describe music whose harmonic function centers on notes rather than on chords, including some of the music of Bartók, Stravinsky, Vaughan Williams, Charles Ives and composers of minimalist music. This and other modal music is, broadly, often considered tonal. Renaissance music is European classical music written during the Renaissance, approximately 1400 to 1600. ... Béla Bartók in 1927 Bartok redirects here. ... Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer best known for three compositions from his earlier, Russian period: LOiseau de feu (The Firebird) (1910), Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). ... Ralph Vaughan Williams Ralph Vaughan Williams, OM (October 12, 1872 – August 26, 1958) was an influential English composer. ... Charles Edward Ives (October 20, 1874 – May 19, 1954) was an American composer of classical music. ...


In the early 20th century the vocabulary of tonal theory is decisively influenced by two theorists: composer Arnold Schoenberg whose Harmonielehre (Theory of Harmony) describes in detail chords, chord progressions, vagrant chords, creation of tonal areas, voice leading in terms of harmony. To Schoenberg, every note has "structural function" to assert or deny a tonality, based on its tendency to establish or undermine a single tonic triad as central. At the same time Heinrich Schenker was evolving a theory based on expansion of horizontal relationships. To Schenker the background of every successful tonal piece is based on a simple cadence, which is then elaborated and elongated in the middleground and the background. Though adherents of the two theorists argued back and forth, in the mid-century a synthesis of their ideas was widely taught as "tonal theory", most particularly Schenker's use of graphical analysis, and Schoenberg's emphasis on tonal distance. Schoenberg redirects here. ... Heinrich Schenker Heinrich Schenker (June 19, 1868 - January 13, 1935) was a music theorist, best known for his approach to musical analysis, now usually called Schenkerian analysis. ...


The practice of jazz developed its own theory of tonality, stating that while the cadence is not central to establishing a tonality—the presence of the I and V chords and either the IV or ii chord in progression is. This theory emphasized the play of modal elements against tonal elements, in an effort to allow improvisation, and inflection of standard melodies. Among theorists influenced by this view are Meier, Schillinger and the be-bop school of Jazz.


While many regard the works of Schoenberg post 1911 as "atonal," one influential school of thought, to which Schoenberg himself belonged, argued that chromatic composition led to a "new tonality", this view is argued by George Perle in his works on "post diatonic tonality".[verification needed] The central idea of this theory is that music is always perceived as having a center, and even in a fully chromatic work, composers establish and disintegrate centers in a manner analogous to traditional harmony. This view is highly controversial, and remains a topic of intense debate. Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ...


However, tonality may be considered generally with no restrictions as to the date or place at which the music was produced, or (very little) restriction as to the materials and methods used. This definition includes much non-western music and western music before 17th century. In fact, many people, including Anton Webern,[verification needed] consider all music to be tonal in that music is always perceived as having a center. Centric is sometimes used to describe music which is not traditionally tonal but which nevertheless has a relatively strong tonal center. Other terms which have been used in an attempt to clarify are tonical and tonicality, as in "possessing a tonic," and Igor Stravinsky used the term polar.[verification needed] See: pitch center. Anton Webern (December 3, 1883 – September 15, 1945) was an Austrian composer. ... Igor Fyodorovich Stravinsky (Russian: Игорь Фёдорович Стравинский, Igor Fëdorovič Stravinskij) (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a Russian composer best known for three compositions from his earlier, Russian period: LOiseau de feu (The Firebird) (1910), Petrushka (1911), and Le sacre du printemps (The Rite of Spring) (1913). ... The tonic is the first note of a musical scale, and in the tonal method of music composition it is extremely important. ...


In the early 20th century, the definition of tonality which was held to have prevailed since the 1600s was felt to reach a crisis or break down point. The belief was that tonality had "snapped" because of expansion of vocabulary, decreased functionality, increased use of leading tones, alterations, modulations, tonicization, the increased importance of subsidiary key areas, use of non-diatonic hierarchical methods, and/or symmetry in interval cycles. This "crisis" led to a series of responses, many of which were considered irreconcilable with tonal theory or tonality at all. At the same time, other composers and theorists maintained that tonality had been stretched but not broken. This led to more technical vocabularies to describe tonality, including pitch classes, pitch sets, graphical analysis, and describing works in terms, not of their notes, but of their dominant intervals. In music theory, a leading-tone (called the leading-note outside the US) is a note or pitch which resolves or leads to a note one semitone higher or lower, being a lower and upper leading-tone, respectively. ... In music alteration, an example of chromaticism, is the use of a neighboring pitch in the chromatic scale in place of its diatonic neighbor such as in an altered chord. ... In music, modulation is most commonly the act or process of changing from one key (tonic, or tonal center) to another. ... In music, tonicization is the treatment of a pitch other than the overall tonic as a temporary tonic in a composition. ... Sphere symmetry group o. ... In music, interval cycles, unfold a single recurrent interval in a series that closes with a return to the initial pitch class, and are notated by George Perle using the letter C, for cycle, with an interval class integer to distinguish the interval. ...


While tonality is the most common form of organizing Western Music, it is not universal, [citation needed] nor is the seven note scale universal, much folk music and the art music of many cultures focus on a pentatonic, or five note scale, including Beijing Opera, the folk music of Hungary, and the musical traditions of Japan. Western music is a broad category of music that includes all musical genres that use a 12-note chromatic scale, including Western classical music, rock and roll, and many other forms of popular music. ...


Pre-classical concert music was largely modal,Template:Verif needed as is much folk and some popular music.[citation needed] In the early 20th century many techniques were developed and applied to tonal music, such as non-tertian secundal or quartal music.[citation needed] Some, such as Benjamin Boretz,[verification needed] consider tonal theory a specific part of atonal theory or musical set theory, which is in turn part of a more general theory of music.[citation needed] Many composers such as Darius Milhaud and Philip Glass have been interested in bitonality. While at one point in the middle of the 20th century classical composers interested in the twelve tone technique and serialism declared tonality dead,[citation needed] many composers have since returned to tonality,Template:Verif needed including many minimalists and older composers such as George Rochberg. Other composers never abandoned tonality entirely such as Lou Harrison who says he has "always composed both modally and chromatically" (Harrison, 1992)[citation needed] (page#). Much music today that is described as tonal is nonfunctional tonality such as in that of Claude Debussy, Steve Reich, Aaron Copland and many others.[citation needed] In music, a mode is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... In music or music theory, secundal is the quality of a chord made from seconds, and anything related to things constructed from seconds such as counterpoint. ... In music or music theory, quartal is the quality of a chord made from fourths, and other things constructed from fourths, such as counterpoint. ... Benjamin Boretz is a twentieth- and twenty-first-century music theorist and composer. ... Atonality in a general sense describes music that departs from the system of tonal hierarchies that are said to characterized the sound of classical European music from the sixteenth through the nineteenth centuries. ... Musical set theory is an atonal or post-tonal method of musical analysis and composition which is based on explaining and proving musical phenomena, taken as sets and subsets, using mathematical rules and notation and using that information to gain insight to compositions or their creation. ... Darius Milhaud Darius Milhaud (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is an American composer. ... The use of more than two keys simultaneously is known in music as polytonality. ... Twelve-tone technique is a system of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... Serialism is a technique for composing music that uses sets to describe musical elements, and allows the composer manipulations of those sets to create music. ... Minimalism describes movements in various forms of art and design, especially visual art and music, where the work is stripped down to its most fundamental features and core self expression. ... George Rochberg, (July 5, 1918, Paterson, New Jersey – May 29, 2005, Bryn Mawr, Pennsylvania) was an American composer. ... Lou Silver Harrison (May 14, 1917 - February 2, 2003) was an American composer. ...


Effect of tonality

Rudolph Réti differentiates between harmonic tonality, of the traditional homophonic kind, and melodic tonality, as in monophonic. He argues that in the progression I-x-V-I (and all progressions), V-I is the only step "which as such produces the effect of tonality," and that all other chord successions, diatonic or not, though being closer or farther from the tonic-dominant, are "the composer's free invention." He describes melodic tonality as being "entirely different from the classical type," wherein, "the whole line is to be understood as a musical unit mainly through its relationship to this basic note [the tonic]," this note not always being the tonic that would be interpreted according to harmonic tonality. His examples are ancient Jewish and Gregorian chant and other Eastern music, and he points out how these melodies often may be interrupted at any point and returned to the tonic, yet harmonically tonal melodies, such as that from Mozart's The Magic Flute below, are actually "strict harmonic-rhythmic pattern[s]," and include many points "from which it is impossible, that is, illogical, unless we want to destroy the innermost sense of the whole line." (Reti, 1958) Rudolph Réti (November 27, 1885 - February 7, 1957) was a musical analyst, composer and pianist. ... Gregorian chant is also known as plainchant or plainsong and is a form of monophonic, unaccompanied singing, which was developed in the Catholic Church, mainly during the period 800-1000. ...


The tonic feels more or less natural after each note of, for example, Mozart's The Magic Flute Download high resolution version (914x251, 2 KB)PNG version of Mozart-Reti - The Magic Flute. ...

x = return to tonic near inevitable
circled x = possible but not inevitable
circle = impossible
(Reti, 1958)

Compare the following audio examples:

  • Mozart, Magic Flute Example ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • Problems listening to the file? See media help.
  • Return to tonic after first circle. ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • Problems listening to the file? See media help.
  • Return to tonic after second circle.. ( file info) — play in browser (beta)
    • Problems listening to the file? See media help.

Consequently, he argues, melodically tonal melodies resist harmonization and only reemerge in western music after, "harmonic tonality was abandoned," as in the music of Claude Debussy: "melodic tonality plus modulation is [Debussy's] modern tonality." (page 23) Image File history File links Mozart-_Magic_Flute. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links MOZART1. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Image File history File links MOZART2. ... Software development stages In computer programming, development stage terminology expresses how the development of a piece of software has progressed and how much further development it may require. ... Claude Debussy, ca. ...


See also

Music may predate language (and certainly predates the written word) and is found in every known culture, past and present, varying wildly between times and places. ... Trio theory is a theory of the origin and nature of music. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Tonality

Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

References

  • Beswick, Delbert M. The Problem of Tonality in Seventeenth Century Music, p.1-29. ASIN B0006RD33I.
  • Perle, George (1978, reprint 1992). Twelve-Tone Tonality. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-20142-6.
  • Schenker, Heinrich. 1954. Harmony, edited and annotated by Oswald Jonas, translated by Elisabeth Mann Borgese. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Translation of Neue musikalische Theorien und Phantasien, 1. Bd., Harmonielehre. (Reprinted Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1973, ISBN 0-262-69044-6)
  • Schenker, Heinrich. 1987. Counterpoint, translated by John Rothgeb and Jürgen Thym; edited by John Rothgeb. 2 vols. New York: Schirmer Books; London: Collier Macmillan. Translation of Neue musikalische Theorien und Phantasien, 2. Bd., Kontrapunkt. ISBN 0-02-873220-0
  • Schenker, Heinrich. 1979. Free composition, translated and edited by Ernst Oster. New York: Longman, 1979. Translation of Neue musikalische Theorien und Phantasien, 3. Bd., Der freie Satz. ISBN 0-582-28073-7
  • Schoenberg, Arnold. 1978. Theory of Harmony, translated by Roy E. Carter. Berkeley & Los Angeles: University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-03464-3. Reprint ed. 1983, ISBN 0-520-04945-4. Pbk ed. 1983, ISBN 0-520-04944-6.

Jim Samson (1977) suggests the following discussions of tonality as defined by Fétis, Helmhotz, Riemann, D'Indy, Adler, Yasser, and others:

Sources

  • Choron, Alexandre. 1810. "Sommaire de l'histoire de la musique." In vol. 1 of François Fayolle and Alexandre Choron, Dictionnaire historique de musiciens. 2 vols. Paris: Valade et Lenormant, 1810–11.
  • Cope, David (1997). Techniques of the Contemporary Composer, p.12. New York, New York: Schirmer Books. ISBN 0-02-864737-8.
  • Dahlhaus, Carl. Gjerdingen, Robert O. trans. (1990). Studies in the Origin of Harmonic Tonality. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-09135-8.
    • Castile-Blaze, (1821). Dictionnaire de musique moderne. Paris: Au magazin de musique de la Lyre moderne.
    • Fétis, Joseph (1722). Traité complet de la théorie et de la pratique de l'harmonie contenant la doctrine de la science et de l'art, 2d ed., p.166. Brussels and Paris.
    • Hauptmann, Moritz (1853). Die Natur der Harmonik und der Metrik, p.21. Leipzig.
    • Rameau, Jean-Philippe (1737). Génération harmonique, ou Traité de musique théorique et pratique. Paris.
    • Riemann, Hugo; cited in Gurlitt, W. (1950). "Hugo Riemann (1849-1919)".
  • Fink, Bob, On the Origin of Music—Essays & Readings, ISBN 0-912424-14-1.
  • Gustin, Molly (1969). Tonality. Philosophical Library, LCC#68-18735.
  • Harrison, Lou (1992). "Entune." Contemporary Music Review 6 (2), 9-10
  • Helmholtz, Hermann von. 1877. Die Lehre von den Tonempfindungen als physiologische Grundlage für die Theorie der Musik. Fourth edition. Braunschweig: F. Vieweg. English, as On the Sensations of Tone as a Physiological Basis for the Theory of Music. 2d English ed. translated, thoroughly rev. and corrected, rendered conformal to the 4th (and last) German ed. of 1877, with numerous additional notes and a new additional appendix bringing down information to 1885, and especially adapted to the use of music students, by Alexander J. Ellis. With a new introd. (1954) by Henry Margenau. New York, Dover Publications, 1954.
  • Hindemith, Paul. Unterweisung im Tonsatz. 3 vols. Mainz, B. Schott's Söhne, 1937–70. First two volumes in English, as The Craft of Musical Composition, translated by Arthur Mendel and Otto Ortmann. New York: Associated Music Publishers; London: Schott & Co., 1941-42.
  • Janata P, Birk J, Van Horn J, Leman M, Tillmann B, & Bharucha J. 2002. The cortical topography of tonal structures underlying Western music. Science, Dec. 13, 2002.
  • Judd, Cristle Collins (1998). "Introduction: Analyzing Early Music", Tonal Structures of Early Music (ed. Judd). New York: Garland Publishing. ISBN 0-8153-2388-3.
  • Kilmer et al, 1976 Sounds from Silence, Recent Discoveries in Ancient Near Eastern Music, Bit Enki Publ., LCC#76-16729
  • Meyer, Leonard B. 1967. Music, the Arts, and Ideas: Patterns and Predictions in Twentieth-Century Culture. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.
  • Pleasants, Henry. 1955 The Agony of Modern Music, Simon & Shuster, N.Y., LCC#54-12361.
  • Rameau, Jean-Phillipe. 1722. Traité de l’harmonie réduite à ses principes naturels. Paris: Ballard.
  • ———. 1726. Nouveau Systême de Musique Theorique, où l'on découvre le Principe de toutes les Regles necessaires à la Pratique, Pour servir d'Introduction au Traité de l'Harmonie. Paris: L'Imprimerie de Jean-Baptiste-Christophe Ballard.
  • ———. 1737. Génération harmonique, ou Traité de musique théorique et pratique. Paris: Prault fils.
  • ———. 1750. Démonstration du Principe de L'Harmonie, Servant de base à tout l'Art Musical théorique et pratique. Paris: Durand et Pissot.
  • Reti, Rudolph (1958). Tonality, Atonality, Pantonality: A Study of Some Trends in Twentieth Century Music. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-20478-0.
  • Riemann, Hugo. 1872. "Über Tonalität." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 68.
  • ———. 1875. “Die objective Existenz der Untertöne in der Schallwelle.” Allgemeine Musikzeitung 2:205–6, 213–15.
  • ———. 1882. Die Natur der Harmonik. Sammlung musikalischer Vorträge 40, ed. Paul Graf Waldersee. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel.
  • ———. 1893. Vereinfachte Harmonielehre oder die Lehre von den tonalen Funktionen der Akkorde. London & New York: Augener & Co. (2d ed. 1903.) Translated 1895 as Harmony Simplified, or the Theory of the Tonal Functions of Chords. London: Augener & Co.
  • ———. 1905. "Das Problem des harmonischen Dualismus." Neue Zeitschrift für Musik 101:3–5, 23–26, 43–46, 67–70.
  • ———. 1914–15. "Ideen zu einer 'Lehre von den Tonvorstellungen'." Jahrbuch der Musikbibliothek Peters 1914–15: 1–26.
  • Samson, Jim (1977). Music in Transition: A Study of Tonal Expansion and Atonality, 1900-1920. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-02193-9.
  • Schellenberg, E. Glenn, and Sandra E. Trehub. 1996. “Natural Musical Intervals: Evidence from Infant Listeners”. Psychological Science 7, no. 5 (September): 272–77.
  • Schenker, Heinrich. 1906–35. Neue musikalische Theorien und Phantasien. 3 vols. in 4. Vienna and Leipzig: Universal Edition.
  • Simms, Bryan. 1975. "Choron, Fétis, and the Theory of Tonality." Journal of Music Theory 19, no. 1 (Spring): 112–38.
  • Thomson, William (1999). Tonality in music: a general theory. Everett Books. ISBN 0-940459-19-1.
  • West, M. L. The Babylonian Musical Notation and the Hurrian Melodic Texts. Music & Letters, Vol. 75, no. 2. May, 1994. pp. 161-179.

  Results from FactBites:
 
William Parker presents "Universal Tonality" (1260 words)
This was the scene for the premier of "Universal Tonality", an original work composed by William Parker and performed by his 15-piece Organic Orchestra on Saturday, December 14th.
The framing of "Universal Tonality" as a piece of High Art is reaffirmed in "Leaves Gathering" as a recording of Arabic drum chants is played while the musicians and audience sit silently.
This is the final climax of the work, which dwindles to a sonic coda in which a few sweet notes by Parker on the shakuhachi bring the piece to a quiet, meditative close.
tonality - Search Results - MSN Encarta (146 words)
Tonality, broadly, the organization of music around a given note, the tonic note, that serves as a focal point.
Bach, Johann Sebastian : characteristics of compositions: tonality
Toward the end of the 17th century, the system of harmonic relationships called tonality began to dominate music.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m