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Encyclopedia > Tonalamatl
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The original page 13 of the Codex Borbonicus, showing the 13th trecena of the Aztec sacred calendar. This 13th trecena was under the auspices of the goddess Tlazolteotl, who is shown on the upper left wearing a flayed skin, giving birth to Cinteotl. The 13 day-signs of this trecena, starting with 1 Earthquake, 2 Flint/Knife, 3 Rain, etc., are shown on the bottom row and the column along the right side.

The tonalamatl is a divinatory almanac used in central Mexico in the decades, and perhaps centuries, leading up to the Spanish conquest. It is Nahuatl in origin, meaning "pages of days". A trecena is a subdivision used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican calendars, which divides the 260-day calendar into 20 periods of 13 days each. ... In Aztec mythology, Tlazolteotl was an earth, sex, childbirth and a mother goddess. ... In Aztec mythology, Centeotl (also Centeocihuatl or Cinteotl) was a god of maize (originally a goddess), and a son of Tlazolteotl and husband of Xochiquetzal. ... An almanac (also spelled almanack, especially in Commonwealth English) is an annual publication containing tabular information in a particular field or fields often arranged according to the calendar. ... The Spanish conquest of Mexico was one of the most important campaigns in the Spanish colonization of the Americas. ... Nahuatl is a native language of central Mexico. ...


The tonalamatl was structured around the sacred 260-day year, the tonalpohualli. This 260-day year consisted of 20 trecena of 13 days each. Each page of a tonalamatl represented one trecena, and was adorned with a painting of that trecena's reigning deity and decorated with the 13 day-signs and 13 other glyphs. These day-signs and glyphs were used to cast horoscopes and discern the future. The Tonalpohualli,the day-count in English, is the 260 day sacred calendar of early Mesoamericans. ... A trecena is a subdivision used in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican calendars, which divides the 260-day calendar into 20 periods of 13 days each. ...


The best surviving examples of tonalamatl are the Codex Borbonicus and the Codex Borgia. Quetzalcoatl in human form, using the symbols of Ehecatl, from the Codex Borgia. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
The Electronic Tonalamatl (300 words)
The Tonalamatl is a C program that automatically posts important Mexican historical events associated with the current calendar date.
Tonalamatl is to both commemorate significant events and to generate discussion in the newsgroup soc.culture.mexican.
Dates are given in the header of the Tonalamatl in standard Gregorian format as well as in calendrical systems of the Aztec, Maya, Zapotec, Otomi and Purepecha.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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