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Encyclopedia > Tomoyuki Yamashita
Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945
Tomoyuki Yamashita, 1945

General Tomoyuki Yamashita (山下 奉文 Yamashita Tomoyuki,) (November 8, 1885February 23, 1946) was a general of the Japanese Imperial Army during the World War II era. He was most famous for conquering the British colonies of Malaya and Singapore, earning the nickname The Tiger of Malaya. Photo of Yamashita Tomoyuki. ... Photo of Yamashita Tomoyuki. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Imperial Japanese Army (大日本帝国陸軍 Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun) was in existence from the Meiji Reformation to the end of World War II. It was created to replace the traditional Japanese samurai with a modern Western-style conscript army. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The British Empire in 1897, marked in pink, the traditional colour for Imperial British dominions on maps. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ...

Contents

Biography

Yamashita was born the son of a local doctor Osugi Mura, a small village on the Japanese island of Shikoku on 8 November 1885. After graduating from the Cadet Academy in 1905, he attended the Army War College between 1913 and 1916. In the War Ministry, he promoted an unsuccessful military reduction plan. Between 1919 and 1921, then holding the rank of Captain, Yamashita was posted to Berlin and Bern as a military attaché. This article is about the island. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Army War College (Japanese: Rikugun Daigakkō; Short form: 陸大 Rikudai) of the Empire of Japan was founded in 1882 in Minato, Tokyo to modernize and Westernize the Imperial Japanese Army. ... Captain is a rank or title with various meanings. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Location within Switzerland The city of Bern, English traditionally Berne (Bernese German Bärn , German Bern , French Berne , Italian Berna , Romansh Berna ), is the Bundesstadt (administrative capital) of Switzerland, and is the fourth most populous Swiss city (after Zürich, Geneva and Basel). ... An attaché is a person who is assigned to the staff of a diplomatic mission and often has special responsibilities or expertise. ...


Despite his ability, Yamashita fell into disfavour as a result of his involvement with adverse factions during the 1920s and 1930s internal power struggles within the Japanese military. He clashed with the War Minister, Hideki Tojo, a leader in the "Control Faction" and powerful rival to Yamashita's "Imperial Way" group. He also fell into disfavour with the Shōwa Emperor for his appeal for leniency toward the rebel officers involved in the 1936 February 26 Incident. Hideki Tojo (KyÅ«jitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;  ) (December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 40th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 18, 1941 to July 22, 1944. ... Hirohito (裕仁), the Shōwa Emperor (昭和天皇), (April 29, 1901 - January 7, 1989) reigned over Japan from 1926 to 1989. ... The February 26 Incident (二・二六事件 Ni-niroku jiken) was an uprising against the Japanese government that took place in 1936. ...


Early war

Yamashita insisted that Japan should end the conflict with China and keep peaceful relations with the United States and Great Britain, but he was ignored and subsequently assigned to an unimportant post in the Kwantung Army. From 1938 to 1940, he commanded the 4th Infantry Division and saw some action in Northern China against Chinese insurgents fighting the occupying Japanese armies. Combatants China Japan Commanders Chiang Kai-shek, Chen Cheng, Yan Xishan, Feng Yuxiang, Li Zongren, Xue Yue, Bai Chongxi, Mao Zedong, Peng Dehuai Hirohito, Hideki Tojo, Kotohito Kanin, Matsui Iwane, Hajime Sugiyama, Shunroku Hata, Toshizo Nishio, Yasuji Okamura, Umezu Yoshijiro, Fumimaro Konoe Strength 58,600,000 4,100,000... The Kwantung Army or Guandong Army (関東軍 Japanese: Kantōgun) was a unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that originated from a Guandong garrison established in 1906 to defend the Kwantung Leased Territory and the areas adjacent to the South Manchurian Railway. ... ...


In December of 1940, Yamashita was sent on a clandestine military mission to Germany and Italy, where he met Hitler and Mussolini. Look up clandestine in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


Malaya and Singapore

Lt Gen Yamashita (seated, centre) thumps the table with his fist to emphasise his demand for unconditional surrender. Lt Gen Percival sits between his officers, his clenched hand to his mouth (Photo from Imperial War Museum).
Lt Gen Yamashita (seated, centre) thumps the table with his fist to emphasise his demand for unconditional surrender. Lt Gen Percival sits between his officers, his clenched hand to his mouth (Photo from Imperial War Museum).

On November 6, 1941, Yamashita was put in command of the Twenty-Fifth Army. On December 8, he launched an invasion of Malaya, from bases in French Indochina. In the campaign, which concluded with the fall of Singapore on February 15, 1942, Yamashita's 30,000 front-line soldiers captured 130,000 British, Indian and Australian troops, the largest surrender of British-led personnel in history. He became known as the "Tiger of Malaya". Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... February 15, 1942. ... February 15, 1942. ... Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival, CB, DSO and Bar, OBE, MC, OStJ, DL (December 26, 1887 - January 31, 1966) was a British Army officer and World War I hero. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The Japanese Twenty-Fifth Army was the Japanese force that invaded and conquered the British colony of Malaya in late 1941 and early 1942. ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1887  - Addition of Laos 1893  - Vietnam Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Disestablished 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km2 289,577 sq mi Currency... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ...


The campaign and the subsequent Japanese occupation of Singapore included war crimes committed against Allied personnel and civilians, such as the Alexandra Hospital and Sook Ching Massacres. Yamashita's culpability for these events remains a matter of controversy, as some argued that he had failed to prevent them, though he personally had the officer who instigated the hospital massacre executed for that act and he made apologies to the surviving patients.[1] The Japanese Occupation of Singapore was to become a major turning point in the history of several nations, including that of the Japanese, who rampaged down the Malay Peninsula with the singular intent of occupying Singapore to gain greater control over her war-time resource gathering efforts, the British, with... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... The Sook Ching massacre (肅清大屠殺) was a systematic extermination of perceived hostile elements among the Chinese in Singapore by the Japanese military during the Japanese Occupation of Singapore, after the British colony surrendered in the Battle of Singapore on 15 February 1942 during World War II. Sook Ching was later extended...


Manchuria

On July 17, 1942, Yamashita was sent from Singapore to far-away Manchuria, again having been given a post in commanding the Japanese First Army, and was effectively sidelined for a major part of the Pacific War. is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Pacific War (disambiguation). ...


It is thought that Prime Minister Tojo was responsible for his banishment, taking advantage of Yamashita's gaffe during a speech made to Singaporean civilian leaders in early 1942, when he referred to the local populace as "citizens of the Empire of Japan". This was considered embarrassing for the Japanese government, who officially did not consider the residents of occupied territories to have the rights or privileges of Japanese citizenship. A prime minister is the most senior minister of a cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... Tojo (東条 east-stripe) can refer to: Towns in Japan: Tojo, Hyogo Tojo, Hiroshima Hideki Tojo - Japanese prime minister during World War II Tojo (The Lion King) - a character from a Danish Lion King comic Tojo can also refer to: a japanes card game Category: ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... Anthem Kimi ga Yo Imperial Reign Capital Tokyo Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1868–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1926 Emperor Taishō  - 1926–1989 Emperor Shōwa Prime Minister (many other Prime Ministers preceded the below list)  - 1916–1918 Count Masatake Terauchi  - 1937-1939, 1940-1941 Prince Fumimaro Konoe  - 1941–1944 Hideki... This does not cite its references or sources. ... “Citizen” redirects here. ...


The Philippines

Main article: Philippines campaign (1944–45)
General Tomoyuki Yamashita (left) with MP-Major Kenworthy in Manila, 1945, after his surrender.
General Tomoyuki Yamashita (left) with MP-Major Kenworthy in Manila, 1945, after his surrender.

In 1944, when the war situation was critical for Japan, General Yamashita assumed the command of the Fourteenth Area Army to defend the Philippines. The U.S. Army landed on Leyte on October 20, only ten days after Yamashita's arrival at Manila. On January 6, 1945 the American Sixth Army landed at Lingayen Bay in Luzon. Combatants United States Australia Commonwealth of the Philippines Mexico[1] Empire of Japan Commanders Douglas MacArthur Tomoyuki Yamashita Casualties 14,000 killed, 48,000 wounded 336,000 killed, 12,000 prisoners The Philippines campaign of 1944–45 was the Allied campaign to defeat Japanese forces occupying The Philippines, during World... Image File history File links Japanese_General_Tomoyuki_Yamashita_01. ... Image File history File links Japanese_General_Tomoyuki_Yamashita_01. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Leyte (pronounced LAY-teh or LAY-tee) is an island in the Visayas group of the Philippines. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... A number of nations have had a Sixth Army: US Sixth Army German Sixth Army This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Yamashita commanded around 262,000 troops in three defensive groups. He tried to rebuild his army but was forced to retreat from Manila to the mountains of northern Luzon. Yamashita ordered all troops, except those tasked with security, out of the city. Nickname: Motto: Linisin Ikarangal Maynila Map of Metro Manila showing the location of Manila Coordinates: 14°35 N 121° E Country Region Districts 1st to 6th districts of Manila Barangays 897 Incorporated (city) June 10, 1574 Government  - Mayor Alfredo Lim (2007-2010; GO)  - Vice Mayor Isko Moreno (AM/PDP-Laban... Map of the Philippines showing the island groups of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. ...


Almost immediately, Rear Admiral Sanji Iwabuchi re-occupied Manila with 16,000 sailors, with the intent of destroying all port facilities and naval storehouses. Once there, Iwabuchi took command of the 3,750 Army security troops, and against Yamashita's specific order, turned the city into a battlefield.[1] The actions of the Japanese garrison resulted in the deaths of more than 100,000 Filipino civilians, in what would be later known as the Manila Massacre, during the fierce street fighting for the capital which raged from February 4 to March 3. The term Rear Admiral originated from the days of Naval Sailing Squadrons, and can trace its origins to the British Royal Navy. ... Combatants United States and Philippines Japan Commanders juan mercado manuel colayco Oscar Griswold Robert S. Beightler Verne D. Mudge Joseph M. Swing Iwabuchi Sanji Strength 989,000 filipino troops 35,000 U.S. troops 3,000 Filipino guerrillas 16,000 Japanese sailors and marines 2,000 Army troops Casualties 100... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Slain children in the ruins of Manila The Manila massacre, February 1945, refers to the atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese troops during World War II. Various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll was at least 100,000 people. ... is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Yamashita used delaying tactics to maintain his army in Kiangan, part of the Ifugao Province of the Philippines, until 2 September 1945, after the surrender of Japan. His forces, numbering less than 50,000 troops, surrendered to Allied Generals Arthur Percival and Jonathan Wainwright. Although he might have been expected to commit suicide prior to this surrender, he reportedly explained his decision not to kill himself by saying that if he did "someone else will have to take the blame."[2] Kiangan is a 4th class municipality in the province of Ifugao, Philippines. ... Ifugao is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Japanese representatives on board USS Missouri during the surrender ceremonies on 2 September 1945. ... Lieutenant-General Arthur Ernest Percival, CB, DSO and Bar, OBE, MC, OStJ, DL (December 26, 1887 - January 31, 1966) was a British Army officer and World War I hero. ... Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV (August 23, 1883 – September 2, 1953), was a United States Army general and the commanding officer of Allied forces in The Philippines, at the time of their surrender to the Empire of Japan during World War II. // Early Life and Training Wainwright was born at Fort... Seppuku (Japanese: 切腹, belly-cutting) is a form of Japanese ritual suicide by disembowelment. ...


Trial and controversy

General Tomoyuki Yamashita at his trial in Manila, November 1945
General Tomoyuki Yamashita at his trial in Manila, November 1945

From October 29 to December 7, 1945, an American military commission tried General Yamashita for war crimes relating to the Manila Massacre and sentenced him to death. This case has become a precedent regarding the command responsibility for war crimes and is known as the Yamashita Standard. Image File history File links Japanese_General_Tomoyuki_Yamashita_02. ... Image File history File links Japanese_General_Tomoyuki_Yamashita_02. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Slain children in the ruins of Manila The Manila massacre, February 1945, refers to the atrocities conducted against Filipino civilians in Manila, Philippines by retreating Japanese troops during World War II. Various credible Western and Eastern sources agree that the death toll was at least 100,000 people. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ...


The legitimacy of the hasty trial has been called into question by many, as considerable evidence pointed to the fact that Yamashita was either not aware of the atrocities that were committed, or was unable to properly control his soldiers due to communication disruption caused by the U.S. Army during their offensive. One of the atrocities in Manila was even carried out by a unit that disobeyed his orders to retreat, and most belonged to the Imperial Japanese Navy not under his command. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... For Combined Fleet, please see that article. ...


During his trial, the defense attorneys who challenged Douglas MacArthur deeply impressed General Yamashita with their dedication to the case, and reaffirmed his respect for his former enemies. American lawyer Harry E. Clarke, Sr., then a U.S. Army colonel, served as chief counsel for the defense, even going so far as to appeal the decision of the military commission to the U.S. Supreme Court, which affirmed the conviction by a vote of 7-2, with Justices Murphy and Rutledge each writing strong dissenting opinions. A lawyer in the United States is technically called an attorney at law or an attorney-at-law. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Look up counsel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...


Death

Following the Supreme Court decision, an appeal for clemency was made to President Truman. The President, however, declined to act and thereby left the matter entirely in the hands of the military. In due time, General MacArthur announced that he had confirmed the sentence of the Commission and on February 23, 1946, at Los Banos Prison Camp, 30 miles south of Manila, Tomoyuki Yamashita was hanged. After climbing the steps leading to the gallows, he was asked if he had a final statement. To this Yamashita replied through a translator: For the victim of Mt. ... See: Los Banos, California, United States Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ...

As I said in the Manila Supreme Court that I have done with my all capacity, so I don't ashame in front of the Gods for what I have done when I have died. But if you say to me `you do not have any ability to command the Japanese Army' I should say nothing for it, because it is my own nature. Now, our war criminal trial going on in Manila Supreme Court, so I wish to be justify under your kindness and right. I know that all your American and American military affairs always has tolerant and rightful judgment. When I have been investigated in Manila court I have had a good treatment, kindful attitude from your good natured officers who all the time protect me. I never forget for what they have done for me even if I had died. I don't blame my executioner. I'll pray the Gods bless them. Please send my thankful word to Col. Clarke and Lt. Col. Feldhaus, Lt. Col. Hendrix, Maj. Guy, Capt. Sandburg, Capt. Reel, at Manila court, and Col. Arnard. I thank you.

Yamashita was an imposing figure, with a prominent part of his uniform being a pair of black riding boots with spurs cast from gold. On the day he was sentenced to death, General Yamashita presented them to his American attorney, Major George F. Guy, as a gift. Riding boots are boots made to be used for horseback riding. ...


His chief of staff in the Philippines, Akira Muto, was executed on December 1948 after having been found guilty of war crimes by the Tokyo tribunal. Akira Muto (1883 – 23 December 1948) was a Japanese army commander. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ...


Personal life

Yamashita married the daughter of Japanese General Nagayama in 1916. They did not have any children.


He enjoyed fishing, music and despite numerous opportunities, decided not to learn how to drive an automobile, preferring to ride instead.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Yamashitas Gold is the name given to loot worth tens of billions of dollars stolen in Southeast Asia by Japanese forces during World War II and hidden in caves, tunnels and underground complexes in The Philippines. ...

References

  1. ^ John Toland, The Rising Sun: The Decline and Fall of the Japanese Empire 1936-1945, Random House, 1970, p. 677
  2. ^ General Tomoyuki Yamashita, page 3, Nat Helms, originally in World War II Magazine, February 1996, verified 2006-09-16
  • CASE NO. 21; TRIAL OF GENERAL TOMOYUKI YAMASHITA; UNITED STATES MILITARY COMMISSION, MANILA, (8TH OCTOBER-7TH DECEMBER, 1945), AND THE SUPREME COURT OF THE UNITED STATES (JUDGMENTS DELIVERED ON 4TH FEBRUARY, 1946). Source: Law Reports of Trials of War Criminals. Selected and Prepared by the United Nations War Crimes Commission. Volume IV. London: HMSO, 1948. Document compiled by Dr S D Stein, Faculty of Humanities, Languages and Social Sciences University of the West of England
  • Aubrey Saint Kenworthy, The Tiger of Malaya: The story of General Tomoyuki Yamashita and "Death March" General Masaharu Homma, Exposition Press, 1951
  • Reel, A. Frank. The Case of General Yamashita. The University of Chicago Press, 1949.
  • Taylor, Lawrence. A Trial of Generals. Icarus Press, Inc, 1981.
  • Yoji, Akashi. 'General Yamashita Tomoyuki: Commander of the 25th Army', in Sixty Years On:The Fall of Singapore Revisited. Eastern Universities Press, 2002.

The University of the West of England (abbrev. ... Masaharu Homma (本間雅晴 Honma Masaharu, 1888 in Sado, Niigata Prefecture, Japan - April 3, 1946 in Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, also known as the Poet General, was the Japanese General in charge of the troops and actions that created the Bataan death march in Philippines during 1942 and the bombing of...

Further reading


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tomoyuki Yamashita Summary (1823 words)
Tomoyuki Yamashita was born on Nov. 8, 1885, in Shikoku, son of a medical doctor, who started the child in a military career.
Yamashita was born in the small village of Osugi Muraon on the Japanese island of Shikoku on 8 November 1885.
Yamashita was an imposing figure, with a prominent part of his uniform being a pair of fl riding boots with spurs cast from gold.
The World at War (265 words)
Yamashita was an able strategist and tactician and was responsible for training the Imperial Army in the arcane arts of jungle warfare and helped to concieve the invasion of Malaya in December, 1941.
Yamashita was tried and convicted of war crimes for which he may not have been responsible and was eventually hanged.
Yamashita was one of the most effective commanders in the Army and inspired strong loyalty and affection of his men with whom he endured the risks of combat, going ashore for example with the first wave during the landings in Malaya.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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