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Encyclopedia > Tomb of the Unknowns

Coordinates: 38°52′35″N 77°04′20″W / 38.87638, -77.07217 Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Sailor and woman at the Tomb of the Unknowns, May 1943

The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument in Arlington National Cemetery in the United States dedicated to the American servicemen who have died without their remains being identified. The "Unknown Soldier" of World War I is a recipient of the Medal of Honor, the Victoria Cross, and several other foreign nations' highest service awards. The U.S. Unknown Soldiers who were interred afterwards are also recipients of the Medal of Honor, presented by the U.S. presidents who presided over their funerals.[1][2][3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 771 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (939 × 730 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Sailor and girl at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Washington, D.C. Collier, John, 1913- photographer. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 771 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (939 × 730 pixel, file size: 108 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Sailor and girl at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, Washington, D.C. Collier, John, 1913- photographer. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Description

The World War I unknown is below the marble sarcophagus. Other unknowns are beneath the white slabs on the ground (World War II, left; Korean War, right). A Vietnam War unknown was under the middle slab until 1998, when he was identified.
The World War I unknown is below the marble sarcophagus. Other unknowns are beneath the white slabs on the ground (World War II, left; Korean War, right). A Vietnam War unknown was under the middle slab until 1998, when he was identified.

In late 1920 the United Kingdom had buried one of their unknown warriors in Westminster Abbey. France soon followed with their Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the Arc de Triomphe, and on March 4, 1921, the United States Congress approved the burial of an unidentified American soldier from World War I in the plaza of the new Memorial Amphitheater. The tomb's design was selected in a competition won by architect Lorimer Rich. Download high resolution version (1000x750, 135 KB)Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. ... Download high resolution version (1000x750, 135 KB)Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The British tomb of The Unknown Warrior holds an unidentified British soldier killed on a European battlefield during World War I.[1] He was buried in Westminster Abbey, London on November 11, 1920, the earliest such tomb honouring the unknown dead of World War I. Even the battlefield the Warrior... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... The Landsoldaten (foot soldier) statue in Fredericia, Denmark. ... This article is about the monument in Paris. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political...


The white marble sarcophagus has a flat-faced form and is relieved at the corners and along the sides by neo-classical pilasters, or columns, set into the surface. The stone was quarried in Marble, Colorado. Sculpted into the east panel which faces Washington, D.C., are three Greek figures representing Peace, Victory, and Valor. Inscribed on the western panel of the Tomb are the words: For other uses, see Marble (disambiguation). ... The Etruscan Sarcophagus of the Spouses, at the National Etruscan Museum. ... Blocks of cut marble at the historic quarry in Marble Marble is a town located in Gunnison County, Colorado. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...

HERE RESTS IN
HONORED GLORY
AN AMERICAN
SOLDIER
KNOWN BUT TO GOD


The six wreaths carved into the north and south of the tomb represent six major battles of World War I: Ardenne, Belleau Wood, Chateau-Terrie, Meusse-Argonne, Oisiu-Eiseu and Sommes.


The Tomb sarcophagus was placed above the grave of the Unknown Soldier of World War I. West of the World War I Unknown are the crypts of unknowns from World War II (north) and Korea (south). Between the two lies a crypt which once contained an unknown from Vietnam (middle). His remains were identified in 1998 as First Lieutenant Michael Blassie and removed. Those three graves are marked with white marble slabs flush with the plaza. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Then Cadet Michael Blassie in his Air Force Academy Cadet Uniform. ...


The Unknown of World War I

President George W. Bush lays a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier on Memorial Day.

On Memorial Day, 1921, four unknowns were exhumed from four World War I American cemeteries in France. U.S. Army Sgt. Edward F. Younger, who was wounded in combat, highly decorated for valor and received the Distinguished Service Medal in "The Great War, the war to end all wars," selected the Unknown Soldier of World War I from four identical caskets at the city hall in Châlons-en-Champagne, France, on October 24, 1921. President George W. Bush visits Arlington National Cemetery on Memorial Day and lays a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. ... President George W. Bush visits Arlington National Cemetery on Memorial Day and lays a wreath at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. ... Memorial Day is a United States federal holiday that is observed on the last Monday of May (observed this year on 2007-05-28). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Edward F. Younger (died August 6th, 1942) was the American U.S. Army soldier selected to choose the body to be used as Americas Unknown Soldier representing those lost by the U.S. during World War I. On Memorial Day 1921, four unknowns (U.S. soldiers killed in combat... The Distinguished Service Medal is a military award of the United States Army which is presented to any person who, while serving in any capacity with the United States military, has distinguished himself or herself by exceptionally meritorious service to the Government in a duty of great responsibility. ... Châlons-en-Champagne is a city and commune in France. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Younger selected the unknown by placing a spray of white roses on one of the caskets. He chose the third casket from the left. The chosen unknown soldier was transported to the United States aboard USS Olympia. Those remaining were interred in the Meuse Argonne Cemetery, France. USS Olympia (C-6) is a protected cruiser in the United States Navy during the Spanish-American War. ... The Meuse-Argonne American Cemetery and Memorial is a 130. ...


The Unknown Soldier lay in state in the Capitol Rotunda from his arrival in the United States until Armistice Day, 1921. On November 11, 1921, President Warren G. Harding officiated at the interment ceremonies at the Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery. During the ceremony, the Unknown Soldier was awarded the Victoria Cross by Admiral of the Fleet Lord Beatty, on behalf of King George V of the United Kingdom[4]. (The Victoria Cross being the highest award for valour issued in the UK, on par with the Medal Of Honor. Earlier, on October 17, 1921, the British Unknown Warrior was conferred the U.S. Medal of Honor by General John Pershing.) In 1928, the Unknown Soldier was presented the Silver Buffalo Award for distinguished service to America's youth by the Boy Scouts of America.[5] Armistice Day Celebrations in Toronto, Canada - 1918 Armistice Day is the anniversary of the official end of World War I, November 11, 1918. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ... For other uses, see Victoria Cross (disambiguation). ... Royal Navy Insignia Shoulder board The flag of an Admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals flags. ... David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty David Beatty, 1st Earl Beatty (17 January 1871- 11 March 1936), was an admiral in the Royal Navy. ... George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert; 3 June 1865 – 20 January 1936) was the first British monarch belonging to the House of Windsor, which he created from the British branch of the German House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The British tomb of The Unknown Warrior holds an unidentified British soldier killed on a European battlefield during World War I. He was buried in Westminster Abbey, London on November 11, 1920, the earliest such tomb honoring the unknown dead of World War I. Even the battlefield the Warrior came... John Joseph Black Jack Pershing (September 13, 1860 – July 15, 1948) was an officer in the United States Army. ... The Silver Buffalo Award is the highest service award of the Boy Scouts of America. ... For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ...

Preceded by
George Dewey
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

November 9, 1921November 11, 1921
Succeeded by
Warren G. Harding

George Dewey (December 26, 1837 – January 16, 1917) was an admiral of the United States Navy, best known for his victory (without the loss of a single life of his own forces due to combat; one man died of a heart attack) at the Battle of Manila Bay during the... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Warren Gamaliel Harding (November 2, 1865 – August 2, 1923) was an American politician and the twenty-ninth President of the United States, from 1921 to 1923, when he became the sixth president to die in office. ...

The Unknowns of World War II and Korea

The unknown soldier from Korea joins the two candidates from World War II aboard the USS Canberra
The unknown soldier from Korea joins the two candidates from World War II aboard the USS Canberra

On August 3, 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed a bill to select and pay tribute to the unknowns of World War II and the Korean War. The selection ceremonies and the interment of these unknowns took place in 1958. The World War II Unknown was selected from remains exhumed from cemeteries in Europe, Africa, Hawaii, and the Philippines. Download high resolution version (740x615, 118 KB) Hospitalman William R. Charette, who recieved the Medal of Honor for Korean War heroism, selects the Unknown Serviceman of World War II, during ceremonies on board USS Canberra (CAG-2), 26 May 1958. ... Download high resolution version (740x615, 118 KB) Hospitalman William R. Charette, who recieved the Medal of Honor for Korean War heroism, selects the Unknown Serviceman of World War II, during ceremonies on board USS Canberra (CAG-2), 26 May 1958. ... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sign can denote any of the following: Within a writing system, a sign is a basic unit. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants  United Nations:  Republic of Korea  Australia  Belgium  Canada  Colombia  Ethiopia  France Greece  Luxembourg  Netherlands  New Zealand  Philippines South Africa  Thailand  Turkey  United Kingdom  United States Medical staff:  Denmark  Italy  Norway  Sweden Communist: Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea  Peoples Republic of China  Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Jan. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ...


Two unknowns from World War II, one from the European Theater and one from the Pacific Theater, were placed in identical caskets and taken aboard the USS Canberra, a guided-missile cruiser resting off the Virginia capes. Navy Hospitalman 1st Class William R. Charette, then the U.S. Navy's only active-duty Medal of Honor recipient, selected the Unknown Soldier of World War II. The remaining casket received a solemn burial at sea. The European Theater of Operations, or ETO, was the term used by the United States in World War II to refer to most United States military activity in Europe north of the Mediterranean coast. ... A map of the Pacific Theater. ... USS Canberra (CA-70, ex-CAG-2, ex-CA-70) was a Baltimore class heavy cruiser laid down by the Bethlehem Steel Company Fore River Shipyard at Quincy in Massachusetts on 3 September 1941, launched on 19 April 1943 by Lady Alice C. Dixon and commissioned on 14 October 1943. ... William R. Charette is a Medal of Honor recipient for his actions during the Korean War. ... The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The Medal of Honor is the highest military decoration awarded by the United States. ... Burial at Sea for two victims of a Japanese submarine attack on the US aircraft carrier Liscome Bay, November 1943 Burial at sea describes the procedure of disposing of human remains in the ocean. ...


Four unknown Americans who died in the Korean War were disinterred from the National Cemetery of the Pacific in Hawaii. Army Master Sgt. Ned Lyle made the final selection. Both caskets arrived in Washington on May 28, 1958, where they lay in the Capitol Rotunda until May 30. is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


That morning, they were carried on caissons to Arlington National Cemetery. President Eisenhower awarded each the Medal of Honor, and the Unknowns were interred in the plaza beside their World War I comrade. In military context, caisson is a carrier of artillery ammunition. ...

Preceded by
Robert Taft
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

May 28, 195830 May 1958
Succeeded by
John F. Kennedy

For the former Governor of Ohio and Robert Tafts grandson, see Bob Taft. ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jan. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ...

The Unknown of Vietnam

The designation of the unknown soldier from Vietnam has proven to be extremely difficult. With improvements in DNA testing it is possible, but extremely unlikely, that every unknown soldier killed in the Vietnam War will eventually be identified. Genetic fingerprinting or DNA testing is a technique to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Sir Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

The presidential wreath was brought forward toward President Reagan during the interment ceremony for the Unknown Serviceman of the Vietnam Era at the Tomb of the Unknowns on May 28, 1984.

The Unknown service member from the Vietnam War was designated by Medal of Honor recipient U.S. Marine Corps Sgt. Maj. Allan Jay Kellogg, Jr., during a ceremony at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, May 17, 1984. The presidential wreath is brought forward toward President Reagan during the interment ceremony for the Unknown Serviceman of the Vietnam Era at the Tomb of the Unknowns, Arlington National Cemetery, May 28, 1984. ... The presidential wreath is brought forward toward President Reagan during the interment ceremony for the Unknown Serviceman of the Vietnam Era at the Tomb of the Unknowns, Arlington National Cemetery, May 28, 1984. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... This article is about a military rank and position. ... Sergeant Major Allan Jay Kellogg, Jr. ... This article is about the harbor in Hawaii. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


The Vietnam Unknown was transported aboard the USS Brewton to Alameda Naval Base, Calif. The remains were sent to Travis Air Force Base, Calif., May 24. The Vietnam Unknown arrived at Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, the next day. The USS Brewton (FF-1086) was a Knox class frigate. ... Travis Air Force Base (IATA: SUU, ICAO: KSUU) is a United States Air Force air base in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Emblem of the AFDW Andrews Air Force Base (ICAO code KADW) is a United States Air Force base near Washington, DC and the home base of the U.S. presidential aircraft, Air Force One. ...


Many Vietnam veterans and President and Mrs. Ronald Reagan visited the Vietnam Unknown in the U.S. Capitol. An Army caisson carried the Vietnam Unknown from the Capitol to the Memorial Amphitheater at Arlington National Cemetery on Memorial Day, May 28, 1984. Reagan redirects here. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


President Reagan presided over the funeral, and presented the Medal of Honor to the Vietnam Unknown.


The President also acted as next of kin by accepting the interment flag at the end of the ceremony. The interment flags of all Unknowns at the Tomb of the Unknowns are on view in the Memorial Display Room.


The remains of the Vietnam Unknown were exhumed May 14, 1998. Based on mitochondrial DNA testing, Department of Defense scientists identified the remains as those of Air Force 1st Lt. Michael Joseph Blassie, who was shot down near An Loc, Vietnam, in 1972. The identification was announced on June 30, 1998 and on July 10 Blassie's remains arrived home to his family in St. Louis, Missouri; he was reinterred at Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery. May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... Then Cadet Michael Blassie in his Air Force Academy Cadet Uniform. ... An Loc is a small town in South Vietnam, located approximately 90 km north of Saigon (Ho Chi Minh City). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Jefferson Barracks National Cemetery, is an American military cemetery located in Saint Louis County, Missouri, just on the banks of the Mississippi River. ...


The crypt, which once held the remains of the Vietnam Unknown, has been replaced. The original inscription of "Vietnam" and the dates of the conflict has been changed to "Honoring and Keeping Faith with America's Missing Servicemen." as a reminder of the commitment of the Armed Forces to fullest possible accounting of missing service members.

Preceded by
Hubert Humphrey
Persons who have lain in state or honor
in the United States Capitol rotunda

May 25, 1984May 28, 1984
Succeeded by
Claude Pepper

For other uses, see Hubert Humphrey (disambiguation). ... Lying-in-state is the term used during a major funeral procession when the coffin is placed on public view to allow members of the public to pay their respects to the deceased. ... Capitol dome The rotunda is the central rotunda and dome of the United States Capitol. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Claude Denson Pepper (September 8, 1900 – May 30, 1989) was an American politician of the Democratic Party, and a spokesman for liberalism and the elderly. ...

The Tomb Guards

Guard at the Tomb of the Unknowns

It is considered one of the highest honors to serve as a sentinel at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Less than 20% of all volunteers are accepted for training and of those only a fraction pass training to become full-fledged Tomb Guards. The sentinels do not wear rank insignia on their uniforms so that they do not outrank the Unknowns, whatever their rank may have been. Soldiers serving in other roles, like Relief Commander and Assistant Relief Commander, do wear insignia of their rank when changing the guard although they are only allowed to "walk the mat", or post as a guard, with a uniform that has no rank. Department of Defense photo, found at http://www. ... Department of Defense photo, found at http://www. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ...


Walking the Mat

There is a meticulous ritual the guard follows when watching over the graves:

  1. The soldier walks twenty one steps across the Tomb. This alludes to the 21-gun salute, which is the highest honor given to any military or foreign dignitary. His weapon is always on the shoulder opposite the Tomb (i.e., on the side of the gallery watching the ritual).
  2. On the 21st step, the soldier turns and faces the Tomb for 21 seconds.
  3. The soldier then turns to face the other way across the Tomb and changes his or her weapon to the outside shoulder.
  4. After 21 seconds, the first step is repeated.

This is repeated until the soldier is relieved of duty at the Changing of the Guard. A gun salute being fired by members of the The 21-gun salute is a ceremonial military honour performed when 21 rounds are fired from a cannon, rifle, or other form of firearm. ... Contents // Categories: Stub | London attractions ...


The mat is usually replaced twice per year, before Memorial Day and before Veteran's Day. This is required due to the wear on the rubber mat by the special shoes worn by Tomb Guards. The guards have metal plates built into the soles and inner parts of their shoes to allow for a more rugged sole and to give the signature click of the heel during maneuvers. The guards are issued sunglasses, which are formed to their faces, due to the bright reflection from the marble surrounding the Tomb and the Memorial Amphitheater.


If one looks at the ground not covered by the mat, one can observe a wear pattern in the tile that corresponds to the precise steps taken during the changing of the guard. On the mat itself, footprints worn in by hours and hours of standing guard are also visible.

Changing of the Guard at the Tomb of the Unknowns. Assistant Relief Commander at left, Guard passing orders in center, and Guard receiving orders at right. The tomb is behind the Assistant Relief Commander.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 432 KB) Guard Changing at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, VA. From left to right, the commander facing the two guards, the guard passing on his duties, and the guard receiving his orders. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 432 KB) Guard Changing at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery in Arlington, VA. From left to right, the commander facing the two guards, the guard passing on his duties, and the guard receiving his orders. ...

Hanging of the Guard

During the day in summer months, from March 15 to September 30, the guard is changed every half hour. During the winter months, from October 1 to March 14, the guard is changed every hour. After the cemetery closes to the public (7pm to 8am April through September, and 5pm to 8am October through March), the guard is changed every two hours until the cemetery reopens.[6][7] is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The guard change is very symbolic, but also conducted in accordance with Army regulations. The relief commander or assistant relief commander, along with the oncoming guard, are both required for a guard change to take place. The guard being relieved will say to the oncoming guard, "Post and orders remain as directed." The oncoming guard's response is always, "Orders Acknowledged." Each guard has memorized three general orders and three special orders,[citation needed] which are all enforceable during his shift. A guard change takes approximately 10 minutes. The ceremony can be witnessed by the public whenever Arlington National Cemetery is open.


Dedication

Tomb Guard in full uniform on an August day

The Tomb of the Unknowns has been guarded continuously, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, since July 2, 1937. Inclement weather does not cause the watch to cease. The guards are extremely disciplined—even beyond what one might expect in soldiers—and will not show the effect the weather may have on them. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1056x1408, 217 KB) Photograph of a guard at the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery, taken by RebelAt, August 6th, 2006. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1056x1408, 217 KB) Photograph of a guard at the Tomb of the Unknowns at Arlington National Cemetery, taken by RebelAt, August 6th, 2006. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Tomb Guards, the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard), make personal sacrifices to have the honor of serving. They work on a team rotation of 24 hours on, 24 hours off, for five days, taking the following four days off. A guard takes an average of 6 hours to prepare his uniform (which is solid wool regardless of the time of year) for the next day's work. In addition to preparing the uniform, guards also complete physical training, Tomb Guard training, cut their hair before the next work day, and shave twice per day. Tomb Guards are required to memorize 16 pages of information about Arlington National Cemetery and the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, including the locations of over 100 graves and who is buried in each one. The 3rd US Infantry Regiment is a unit of the United States Army. ...


A special Army decoration, the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Guard Identification Badge is authorized for wear passing a detailed test of 100 questions (from a pool of more than 300), a uniform test with two gigs (errors) or fewer (measured to the 1/64"), and a test on the guard changing sequence. After serving honorably for a period of nine months, and having passed the sequence of tests, a Tomb Guard is permanently awarded the Badge. Since 1959, many men have completed training and been awarded this Badge, as well as three women. A small number of Tomb Guard Identification Badges have also been retroactively awarded to soldiers who served as Guards before 1959. Those numbers make the Badge the rarest award currently issued in the United States Army (the Army Astronaut Badge, which is rarer, is no longer awarded). The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Guard Identification Badge is a military badge of the United States Army which honors those select few soldiers who have been chosen to serve as the Honor Guard to the Tomb of the Unknowns. ... An Astronaut Badge is a military badge of the United States, awarded to military aviation pilots who have completed Astronaut training with NASA and performed a successful space flight. ...


The Tomb Guard Identification Badge is the only badge awarded by the United States Army that can be revoked after a soldier has left the military. The Regimental Commander of the 3rd U.S. Infantry Regiment has the authority to revoke a Badge from any Guard (past or present) for any act that would bring discredit upon the Tomb of the Unknowns.[8][9]


The badge was designed in 1956 and first issued to members of the Honor Guard at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier on February 7, 1958. The badge was first issued only as a temporary wear item, meaning the soldiers could only wear the badge during their tenure as members of the Honor Guard. Upon leaving the duty, the badge was returned and reissued to incoming soldiers. In 1963, a regulation was enacted which allowed the badge to be worn as a permanent part of the military uniform, even after the soldier's completion of duty at the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier.


Damage and repair to the Tomb Monument

The crack can be seen underneath the words "An American" and above the word "Soldier".

Cracking and erosion are causing concerns for the long-term preservation of the Tomb Monument. A November 1963 report first recorded horizontal cracking of the monument's marble die block. Though this was the first time that the damage was documented, the report made it clear that the cracks had become visible some time before that date. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 798 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,832 × 2,128 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 798 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,832 × 2,128 pixels, file size: 1. ...


In 1963-1964, there were two cracks—referred to as "primary" and "secondary"—extending approximately 34 feet around the die block. By 1974, they had extended to 40 feet. They grew another 4.6 feet over the next 15 years. Inspection has determined that the cracks have increased horizontally since 1990. Analysis also indicates that the cracks are not surficial but extend partially through the block and will eventually extend all the way through.


The 1990 report documented deterioration of the marble's surface. As much as 2.85mm of the marble surface has been lost through weathering. The study projects that before 2010, the Tomb Monument will be eroded enough to have a negative effect on the experience of the visitors and concludes the only solutions are to enclose or replace the monument.


Several options have been considered to deal with the damage. Officials at Arlington National Cemetery determined that proper repair can return the Tomb Monument to an acceptable appearance. However, because the cracks will continue to lengthen and widen, continuous grouting, regrouting, touch-up, monitoring, and maintenance would be required. Therefore, a report commissioned by Arlington National Cemetery and published in June 2006 confirmed the Cemetery's conclusion that "replacement of the three pieces of the Tomb Monument is the preferred alternative". A final decision was scheduled to be made on September 30, 2007.[10]


The National Trust for Historic Preservation objects to the plan to replace the authentic Tomb Monument. The Trust expressed concern that Arlington National Cemetery seeks to replace the existing monument with marble from the original quarry, which experts agree is likely eventually to crack.[11] The National Trust for Historic Preservation is an American member-supported organization which was founded in 1949 to support preservation of historic buildings and neighborhoods through a range of programs and activities. ...


The Trust has observed that the Cemetery’s own 1990 report recommended that the monument be repaired and that the Cemetery, in fact, commissioned Oehrlein Architects to repair the stone. In 2007, Mary Oehrlein informed Congressional staff members that: “The existing monument can easily be repaired, as was done 17 years ago, using conventional conservation methods to re-grout the cracks. Once repaired, the fault lines would be virtually invisible from the public viewing areas.”[citation needed]


Since the replacement plans came to light, thousands of people have written key members of Congress and John Metzler, superintendent of Arlington National Cemetery and the public official promoting the replacement project, to implore decision-makers to repair and not discard the historic Tomb of the Unknown Soldiers.[citation needed]


On September 26, 2007 U.S. Senator Daniel Akaka announced that an amendment crafted by him and Senator Jim Webb will be added to the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008 (H.R. 1585) which would require a report on the plans of the Secretary of the Army and the Secretary of Veterans Affairs to replace the monument at the Tomb of the Unknowns. The secretaries would be required to advise Congress on the current efforts to maintain and preserve the monument. Additionally, they would have to provide an assessment on the feasibility and advisability of repairing rather than replacing the Tomb Monument. Finally, if the secretaries choose replacement, they would have to report those plans and detail how they intend to dispose of the current monument. Once the report is provided, the secretaries are prevented from taking action to replace the monument for at least 180 days. The Akaka-Webb amendment was included in the bill, which is under debate, by unanimous consent of the Senate.[12] is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Daniel Kahikina Dan Akaka (Chinese: 阿卡卡 李碩, Hanyu pinyin: akaka lishuo) (born September 11, 1924) is a U.S. Senator from Hawaiʻi and a member of the Democratic Party. ... For other persons named James Webb, see James Webb (disambiguation). ...


See also

The Landsoldaten (foot soldier) statue in Fredericia, Denmark. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.homeofheroes.com/gravesites/unknowns/0_unknowns_story.html
  2. ^ http://www.arlingtoncemetery.org/visitor_information/tomb_of_the_unknowns.html
  3. ^ http://www.medalofhonor.com/WorldWarIUnknown.htm
  4. ^ The Victoria Cross. The British Army 212 (Yorkshire) Field Hospital (volunteers) website. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  5. ^ 2007 Silver Buffalo Awards for Distinguished Service to Youth on a National Level. Scouting magazine. Boy Scouts of America National Council. Retrieved on 2007-07-18.
  6. ^ Frequently Asked Questions. Society of the Honor Guard — Tomb of the Unknown Soldier. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  7. ^ Visiting Arlington National Cemetery. Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  8. ^ Army Regulation 600-8-22 "Military Awards" (11 December 2006), section 8-40f(1).
  9. ^ (210 pages) Army Regulation 600–8–22 — Military Awards (pdf). Department of the Army. Retrieved on 2007-09-23. “
    f. Revocation is as follows:
    (1) When the Commander, 3d U.S. Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard) becomes aware of information about a current or former member of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier who was authorized permanent wear of the Tomb Identification Badge that suggests inappropriate conduct, including, but not limited to, acts of commission or omission for a member of that unit, or the intention to engage in inappropriate conduct, he will notify the Commander, E Company (Honor Guard), 3d U.S. Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard). The Commander, E Company (Honor Guard) will conduct a Commander’s Inquiry to determine if the matter warrants further investigation, or if there is sufficient information to recommend to the Commanding Officer, 3d U.S. Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard) that the Tomb Identification Badge be revoked or that the Soldier be reassigned, or both.
    (2) Nothing stated in this regulation will serve to prevent the Regimental Commander from taking peremptory action as deemed necessary or appropriate to protect the interests of the U.S. Army, the 3d U.S. Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard), or the Soldiers under his command. Authority to revoke the badge remains with Commanding Officer, 3d U.S. Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard). Revocation will be announced in permanent orders.”
  10. ^ Arlington National Cemetery Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Repair or Replacement Project (draft) (pdf) (June 1, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-23.
  11. ^ http://www.nationaltrust.org/advocacy/arlington.html
  12. ^ Akaka-Webb Amendment to Halt Replacement of the Monument at the Tomb of the Unknowns is Approved by Senate (html) (September 26, 2007). Retrieved on 2007-09-28.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The cover of Scouting from May-June 2004. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Society of the Honor Guard - Tomb of the Unknown Soldier
  • Official U.S. Army Tomb Guard and Tomb of the Unknowns website
  • Arlington Cemetery official site
  • Arlington Historical Society
  • Arlington Convention and Visitors Service official website
  • Snopes's article on the Tomb of the Unknowns
  • The Last Salute: Civil and Military Funeral, 1921-1969, CHAPTER I, The Unknown Soldier of World War I, State Funeral, 23 October-11 November 1921 by B. C. Mossman and M. W. Stark

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tomb of the Unknowns - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1704 words)
The Tomb of the Unknowns (also known as the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier, although it has never been officially named) is a monument in Arlington National Cemetery, United States dedicated to the American soldiers who have died without their remains being identified.
France soon followed with their Tomb of the Unknown Soldier beneath the Arc de Triomphe, and on March 4, 1921, the United States Congress approved the burial of an unidentified American soldier from World War I in the plaza of the new Memorial Amphitheater.
During the ceremony, the Unknown Soldier was awarded the Victoria Cross by Admiral of the Fleet Lord Beatty, on behalf of King George V of Britain.
Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Guard Identification Badge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (327 words)
The Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Guard Identification Badge is a military badge of the United States Army which honors those select few soldiers who have been chosen to serve as the Honor Guard to the Tomb of the Unknowns.
In 1963, a regulation was enacted which allowed the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Guard Identification Badge to be worn as a permanent part of a military uniform, even after completion of duty at the Tomb of the Unknowns.
The bestowing authority of the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier Guard Identification Badge is the Commanding Officer, 1st Battalion, 3rd U.S. Infantry.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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