FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Tomato" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tomato
Tomato
Full and cross-section of a ripe supermarket tomato
Full and cross-section of a ripe supermarket tomato
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Asteridae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. lycopersicum
Binomial name
Solanum lycopersicum
L.
Synonyms

Lycopersicon lycopersicum
Lycopersicon esculentum Tomato may refer to: Tomato, the plant or its edible brightly-colored (usually red) fruit Tomato (company), an art design collective co-founded at the turn of the 90s Tomato (firmware), free firmware for Broadcom-based wireless routers like the Linksys WRT54G Tomato Head Records, a record label Tomato... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1067 pixel, file size: 235 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A bright red tomato and a cross section of another tomato placed by the side for comparison. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Divisions Non-seed-bearing plants Equisetophyta Lycopodiophyta Psilotophyta Pteridophyta Superdivision Spermatophyta Pinophyta Cycadophyta Ginkgophyta Gnetophyta Magnoliophyta The vascular plants are those plants that have specialized cells for conducting water and sap within their tissues, including the flowering plants, conifers and other gymnosperms, but not mosses, algae, and the like (nonvascular... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Orders See text. ... Asteridae is a botanical subclass of flowering plants in class Dicotyledon or Magnoliopsida. ... Families at least the following: Solanaceae Convolvulaceae and others, varying between classification systems; for details see text The Solanales are an order of flowering plants, included in the asterid group of dicotyledons. ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... In scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different scientific names used for a single taxon. ...

Red tomatoes, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 20 kcal   80 kJ
Carbohydrates     4 g
- Sugars  2.6 g
- Dietary fiber  1 g  
Fat 0.2 g
Protein 1 g
Vitamin C  13 mg 22%
Water 95 g
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.

The tomato (Lycopersicon lycopersicum, syn. Solanum lycopersicum) is an herbaceous, usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family, as are its close cousins tobacco, chili peppers, potato, and eggplant. The tomato is native to Central, South, and southern North America from Mexico to Argentina. Evidence supports the theory that the first domesticated tomato was a little yellow fruit, ancestor of L. cerasiforme, grown by the Aztecs in Mexico who called it ‘xitomatl’ (pronounced zee-toe-má-tel), meaning plump thing with a navel. It is a perennial, often grown outdoors in temperate climates as an annual, typically reaching to 1-3m (3 to 10 ft) in height, with a weak, woody stem that often vines over other plants. The leaves are 10–25 cm long, odd pinnate, with 5–9 leaflets on petioles[1], each leaflet up to 8cm long, with a serrated margin; both the stem and leaves are densely glandular-hairy. The flowers are 1–2cm across, yellow, with five pointed lobes on the corolla; they are borne in a cyme of 3–12 together. The word tomato derives from a word in the Nahuatl language, tomatl. The specific name, lycopersicum, means "wolf-peach" (compare the related species Solanum lycocarpum, whose scientific name means "wolf-fruit", common name "wolf-apple"), as they are a major food of wild canids in South America. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ... Species See text Solanum is a genus of annuals, perennials, sub-shrubs, shrubs and climbers. ... Species See text Nicotiana refers to a genus of short-leafed plants of the nightshade family indigenous to North and South America. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... For other uses, see Potato (disambiguation). ... Aubergine redirects here. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... North American redirects here. ... Red Valerian, a perennial plant. ... Peas are an annual plant. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Cyme can refer to: Cyme, a botanical term a for a class of flower clusters (see inflorescence) characterized by the terminal flower in the cluster blooming first. ... Nahuatl ( [1] is a term applied to a group of related languages and dialects of the Aztecan [2] branch of the Uto-Aztecan language family, indigenous to central Mexico. ... In zoological nomenclature, a specific name is the second part (second name) in the name of a species (a binomen). ... Latin name redirects here. ...

Contents

History and distribution

Early history

A variety of heirloom tomatoes.
A variety of heirloom tomatoes.

According to Andrew F Smith's The Tomato in America[2], the tomato probably originated in the highlands of the west coast of South America. Smith notes there is no evidence the tomato was cultivated or even eaten in Peru before the Spanish arrived, while other researchers have pointed out that many other fruits in continuous cultivation in Peru are not present in the very limited historical record[citation needed]. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1168x1760, 244 KB) A selection of heirloom tomatoes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1168x1760, 244 KB) A selection of heirloom tomatoes. ... map of New Spain in red, with territories claimed but not controlled in orange. ...


There is a competing hypothesis that says the plant, like the word "tomato", originated in Mexico, where one of the two apparently oldest "wild" types grows. It is entirely possible that domestication arose in both regions independently. Diversity data suggests the center of diversity for wild tomatoes is located in Peru, while that of cultivated tomatoes, in Mexico[citation needed]. Thus, it can be hypothesized that wild tomatoes were introduced from Peru to Mexico, where they were domesticated.


In any case, by some means the tomato migrated to Central America. Mayans and other peoples in the region used the fruit in their cooking, and it was being cultivated in southern Mexico and probably other areas by the 16th Century. It is thought that the Pueblo people believed those who witnessed the ingestion of tomato seeds were blessed with powers of divination[citation needed]. The large, lumpy tomato, a mutation from a smoother, smaller fruit, originated and was encouraged in Central America. Smith states this variant is the direct ancestor of some modern cultivated tomatoes. This article is about the contemporary indigenous peoples and cultures who descend from, or remain, speakers of the Mayan languages of southern Mesoamerica. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Pueblo Indians . ... For other uses, see Divination (disambiguation). ...


Two modern tomato cultivar groups, one represented by the Matt's Wild Cherry tomato, the other by currant tomatoes, originate by recent domestication of the wild tomato plants apparently native to eastern Mexico. Binomial name Solanum pimpinellifolium Jusl. ...


Spanish distribution

After the Spanish colonization of the Americas, the Spanish distributed the tomato throughout their colonies in the Caribbean. They also took it to the Philippines, whence it moved to southeast Asia and then the entire Asian continent. The Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. It grew easily in Mediterranean climates, and cultivation began in the 1540s. It was probably eaten shortly after it was introduced, though it was certainly being used as food by the early 1600s in Spain. The earliest discovered cookbook with tomato recipes was published in Naples in 1692, though the author had apparently obtained these recipes from Spanish sources. However, in certain areas of Italy, such as Florence, the fruit was used solely as tabletop decoration before it was ever incorporated into the local cuisine until the late 17th or early 18th century. The Spanish colonization of the Americas was Spains conquest, settlement, and rule over much of the western hemisphere from 1492-1898. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ...


Tomatos in Britain

Tomato plants in the garden
Tomato plants in the garden
Tomato seedling
Tomato seedling
Tomato Sprout growing in window sun light
Tomato Sprout growing in window sun light

The tomato plant was not grown in England until the 1590s, according to Smith. One of the earliest cultivators was John Gerard, a barber-surgeon. Gerard's Herbal, published in 1597 and largely plagiarized from continental sources, is also one of the earliest discussions of the tomato in England. Gerard knew that the tomato was eaten in both Spain and Italy. Nonetheless, he believed that it was poisonous[citation needed] (tomato leaves and stems contain poisonous glycoalkaloids, but the fruit is safe). Gerard's views were influential, and the tomato was considered unfit for eating (though not necessarily poisonous) for many years in Britain and its North American colonies. By the mid-1700s, however, tomatoes were widely eaten in Britain; and before the end of that century, the Encyclopædia Britannica stated that the tomato was "in daily use" in soups, broths, and as a garnish. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 796 KB) Tomato plants in a vegie garden File links The following pages link to this file: Tomato Vegetable ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 796 KB) Tomato plants in a vegie garden File links The following pages link to this file: Tomato Vegetable ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 389 KB) Tomato Seedling File links The following pages link to this file: Tomato ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 389 KB) Tomato Seedling File links The following pages link to this file: Tomato ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... John Gerard John Gerard (1545 in Nantwich – 1611/12 in London) was an English botanist famous for his herbal garden. ... Barbers were often recruited for the job of surgery in earlier military history. ... Glycoalkaloids are a family of poisons commonly found in the plant species Solanum dulcamara (nightshade). ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...


In Victorian times, cultivation reached an industrial scale in glasshouses, most famously in Worthing. Pressure for housing land in the 1930s to 1960s saw the industry move west to Littlehampton, and to the market gardens south of Chichester. The British tomato industry has declined over the past fifteen years or so as more competitive imports from Spain and the Netherlands have reached the supermarkets. For other uses, see Worthing (disambiguation). ... , Littlehampton also known as chavhmpton is a seaside resort town in the Arun District of West Sussex, England. ... Operation Market Garden was an Allied military operation in World War II, which took place in September 1944. ... For the larger local government district, see Chichester (district). ...


North America

The earliest reference to tomatoes being grown in British North America is from 1710, when herbalist William Salmon reported seeing them in what is today South Carolina. They may have been introduced from the Caribbean. By the mid-18th century, they were cultivated on some Carolina plantations, and probably in other parts of the Southeast as well. It is possible that some people continued to think tomatoes were poisonous at this time; and in general, they were grown more as ornamental plants than as food. Cultured people like Thomas Jefferson, who ate tomatoes in Paris and sent some seeds home, knew the tomato was edible, but many of the less well-educated did not. British North America consisted of the loyalist colonies and territories (i. ... William Charles Salmon was an American politician and a member of the United States House of Representatives for the 7th congressional district of Tennessee. ... Official language(s) English Capital Columbia Largest city Columbia Largest metro area Columbia Area  Ranked 40th  - Total 34,726 sq mi (82,965 km²)  - Width 200 miles (320 km)  - Length 260 miles (420 km)  - % water 6  - Latitude 32° 2′ N to 35° 13′ N  - Longitude 78° 32′ W to 83... Petunia This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Production trends

125 million tonnes of tomatoes were produced in the world in 2005, with China, the largest producer, accounting for about one-fourth of the global output followed by United States and Turkey.


According to FAOSTAT, the top producers of tomatoes (in tonnes) in 2005 were: The FAO Corporate Statistical Database is an on-line multilingual (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Spanish, Russian) database currently containing over 3 million time-series records from over 210 countries and territories covering statistics on agriculture, nutrition, fisheries, forestry, food aid, land use and population. ... This article is about the metric tonne. ...

Top Tomato Producers — 2005
(million tonnes)
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 31.6
Flag of the United States United States 11.0
Flag of Turkey Turkey 9.7
Flag of India India 7.6
Flag of Egypt Egypt 7.6
World Total 125
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[1]

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and...

Cultivation and uses

Variations in shape, color and price
A selection of tomato cultivars showing the variation in shape and color available
A selection of tomato cultivars showing the variation in shape and color available

The tomato is now grown worldwide for its edible fruits, with thousands of cultivars having been selected with varying fruit types, and for optimum growth in differing growing conditions. Cultivated tomatoes vary in size from cherry tomatoes, about the same 1–2 cm size as the wild tomato, up to beefsteak tomatoes 10 cm or more in diameter. The most widely grown commercial tomatoes tend to be in the 5–6 cm diameter range. Most cultivars produce red fruit; but a number of cultivars with yellow, orange, pink, purple, green, or white fruit are also available. Multicolored and striped fruit can also be quite striking. Tomatoes grown for canning are often elongated, 7–9 cm long and 4–5 cm diameter; they are known as plum tomatoes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2620x1812, 3870 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tomato Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2620x1812, 3870 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Tomato Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 666 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 666 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... A cherry tomato is a smaller garden variety of tomato. ... For other uses, see Canning (disambiguation). ... A plum tomato or paste tomato is a type of tomato bred for sauce and packing purposes. ...


Tomatoes are one of the most common garden fruits in the United States and, along with zucchini, have a reputation for outproducing the needs of the grower. This article is about the fruit. ...


As in most sectors of agriculture, there is increasing demand in developed countries for organic tomatoes, as well as heirloom tomatoes, to make up for flavor and texture faults in commercial tomatoes[citation needed]. Quite a few seed merchants and banks provide a large selection of heirloom seeds. Tomato seeds are occasionally organically produced as well, but only a small percentage of organic crop area is grown with organic seed. World map indicating Human Development Index (as of 2004). ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ... A selection of heirloom tomato cultivars heirloom tomatoes An heirloom tomato is an heirloom plant, an open-pollinated (non-hybrid) cultivar of tomato. ...


Varieties

See List of tomato cultivars
Young tomato plant
Young tomato plant

There are a great many tomato varieties grown for various purposes. Heirloom strains are becoming increasingly popular, particularly among home gardeners and organic producers, since they tend to produce more interesting and flavorful crops at the possible cost of some disease resistance. Hybrid plants remain common, since they tend to be heavier producers and sometimes combine unusual characteristics of heirloom tomatoes with the ruggedness of conventional commercial tomatoes. This is a list of tomato varieties / cultivars / breeds. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 228 KB) Description: Solanum lycopersicum (Södermanland, Sweden). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (768x1024, 228 KB) Description: Solanum lycopersicum (Södermanland, Sweden). ...


Tomato varieties are roughly divided into several categories, based mostly on shape and size. "Slicing" or "globe" tomatoes are the usual tomatoes of commerce; beefsteak are large tomatoes often used for sandwiches and similar applications - their kidney-bean shape makes commercial use impractical along with a thinner skin and being not bred for a long shelf life; globe tomatoes are of the category of canners used for a wide variety of processing and fresh eating; oxheart tomatoes can range in size up to beefsteaks, and are shaped like large strawberries; plum tomatoes, or paste tomatoes which does include pear tomatoes, are bred with a higher solid content for use in tomato sauce and paste and are usually oblong; pear tomatoes are obviously pear shaped and based upon the San Marzano types for a richer gourmet paste; cherry tomatoes are small and round, often sweet tomatoes generally eaten whole in salads; and grape tomatoes which are a more recent introduction are smaller and oblong used in salads. Beefsteak tomatoes are the largest varieties of cultivated tomatoes, sometimes weighing 1 lb (.5 kg) or more. ... A plum tomato or paste tomato is a type of tomato bred for sauce and packing purposes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Tomato paste is a thick paste made from ripened tomatos with skin and seeds removed. ... A cherry tomato is a smaller garden variety of tomato. ...


Tomatoes are also commonly classified as determinate or indeterminate. Determinate, or bush, types bear a full crop all at once and top off at a specific height; they are often good choices for container growing. Determinate types are preferred by commercial growers who wish to harvest a whole field at one time, or home growers interested in canning. Indeterminate varieties develop into vines that never top off and continue producing until killed by frost. They are preferred by home growers and local-market farmers who want ripe fruit throughout the season. As an intermediate form, there are plants sometimes known as "vigorous determinate" or "semi-determinate"; these top off like determinates but produce a second crop after the initial crop. The majority of heirloom tomatoes are indeterminate, although some determinate heirlooms exist. Tomato cultivars are commonly classified as determinate cultivars or indeterminate. ...

A variety of specific cultivars, including Brandywine (biggest red), Black Krim (lower left corner), Green Zebra (top right), et cetera.
A variety of specific cultivars, including Brandywine (biggest red), Black Krim (lower left corner), Green Zebra (top right), et cetera.

Commonly grown varieties include: Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 80 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)These are tomatoes from my own garden. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (600 × 800 pixel, file size: 80 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)These are tomatoes from my own garden. ... Brandywine is a cultivar of tomato, of the beefsteak type. ... This article is about the tomato cultivar. ...

  • 'Beefsteak VFN' (a common hybrid resistant to Verticillium, Fusarium, and Nematodes)
  • 'Big Boy' (a very common determinate hybrid in the United States)
  • 'Black Krim' (a purple-and-red cultivar from the Crimea)
  • 'Brandywine' (a pink, indeterminate beefsteak type with a considerable number of substrains)
  • 'Burpee VF' (an early attempt by W. Atlee Burpee at disease resistance in a commercial tomato)
  • 'Early Girl' (an early maturing globe type)
  • 'Gardener's Delight' (a smaller English variety)
  • 'Juliet' (a grape tomato developed as a substitute for the rare Santa F1)
  • 'Marmande' (a heavily ridged variety from southern France; similar to a small beefsteak and available commercially in the U.S. as UglyRipe)
  • 'Moneymaker' (an English greenhouse strain)
  • Mortgage Lifter (a popular heirloom beefsteak known for gigantic fruit)
  • 'Patio' (bred specifically for container gardens)
  • 'Purple Haze' (large cherry, indeterminate. Derived from Cherokee Purple, Brandywine and Black Cherry)
  • 'Roma VF' (a plum tomato common in supermarkets)
  • 'Rutgers' (a commercial variety but considered an heirloom)
  • 'San Marzano' (a plum tomato popular in Italy)
  • 'Santa F1' (a Chinese grape tomato hybrid popular in the U.S. and parts of southeast Asia)
  • 'Shephard's Sack' (a large variety popular in parts of Wales)
  • 'Sweet 100' (a very prolific, indeterminate cherry tomato)
  • 'Yellow Pear' (a yellow, pear-shaped heirloom cultivar)

Heritage and heirloom varieties with exceptional taste include: Beefsteak tomatoes are the largest varieties of cultivated tomatoes, sometimes weighing 1 lb (.5 kg) or more. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Verticillium lecanii. ... Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... Motto: ÐŸÑ€Ð¾Ñ†Ð²ÐµÑ‚ание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem: ÐÐ¸Ð²Ñ‹ и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ... Brandywine is a cultivar of tomato, of the beefsteak type. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Early Girl tomato is a small globe type tomato popular with home gardeners because of its early fruit ripening. ... This region consists of the southern part of France. ... Mortgage lifter is the name given to a cultivar of tomato developed by M.C. Byles, also known as Radiator Charlie, because he used it to save his house, selling it for a dollar per plant (back in the 1940s, when a dollar meant something) in order to pay off... Container garden on front porch Container gardening is the practice of growing plants exclusively in containers or pots, instead of planting them in the ground. ... Roma Tomato or Roma VF is a plum tomato and commonly found in supermarkets. ... A plum tomato or paste tomato is a type of tomato bred for sauce and packing purposes. ... San Marzano tomatoes, a variety of plum tomatoes, are considered by many chefs to be the best sauce tomatoes in the world. ... A grape tomato is a small, usually oblong tomato that combines the size and flavor of a small cherry tomato with the oblong shape of a plum tomato. ... This article is about the country. ... A European Pear. ...

  • 'Aunt Ruby's German Green' (spicy green beefsteak type)
  • 'Azoykcha' (Russian yellow variety)
  • 'Andrew Rahart Jumbo Red' (red beefsteak)
  • 'Backfield' (deep red indeterminate beefsteak type)
  • 'Black Cherry' (black/brown cherry)
  • 'Box Car Willie' (red beefsteak)
  • 'Brandywine' (red beefsteak, Sudduth strain)
  • 'Cherokee Purple' (purple beefsteak)
  • 'Crnkovic Yugoslavian' (red beefsteak)
  • 'Earl’s Faux' (pink/red beefsteak)
  • 'Elbe' (orange beefsteak)
  • 'German Johnson (sweet beefsteak type)
  • 'Great Divide' (red beefsteak)
  • 'Ispolin' (pink Siberian strain)
  • 'Lucky Cross' (bi-color red/orange)
  • 'Marianna’s Peace' (red beefsteak)
  • 'Mortgage Lifter' (red beefsteak, various strains)
  • 'Red Pear' (pear shaped salad cherry type with beefsteak flavor)
  • 'Rose' (very large sweet Amish beefsteak type)
  • 'Urbikany' (Siberian variety)

An excellent source for additional varieties of heritage cultivars is the Seed Savers Exchange. Brandywine is a cultivar of tomato, of the beefsteak type. ... Home-grown Cherokee purple tomatoes Cherokee purple is the name of a cultivar of tomato, unusual for the deep purple/red hue of its fruit. ... Mortgage lifter is the name given to a cultivar of tomato developed by M.C. Byles, also known as Radiator Charlie, because he used it to save his house, selling it for a dollar per plant (back in the 1940s, when a dollar meant something) in order to pay off... Seed Savers Exchange, or SSE, is a non-profit organization dedicated to preserving various heirloom plant varieties. ...


Most modern tomato cultivars are smooth surfaced but some older tomato cultivars and most modern beefsteaks often show pronounced ribbing, a feature that may have been common to virtually all pre-Columbian cultivars. In addition, some tomato cultivars produce fruit in colors other than red, including yellow, orange, pink, black, brown, and purple, though such fruit is not widely available in grocery stores, nor are their seedlings available in typical nurseries, but must be bought as seed, often via mail-order. Likewise, some less common varieties have fuzzy skin on the fruit, as is the case with the Fuzzy Peach tomato and Red Boar tomato plants. The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences on the American continents. ... For other uses, see Red (disambiguation). ... This article is about the color. ... For the etymology of the word, see orange (word). ... This article is about the color. ... This article is about the color. ... For other uses, see Brown (disambiguation). ... A purple plasma ball. ...


There is also a considerable gap between commercial and home-gardener cultivars; home cultivars are often bred for flavor to the exclusion of all other qualities, while commercial cultivars are bred for such factors as consistent size and shape, disease and pest resistance, and suitability for mechanized picking and shipping.


Diseases and pests

Tomato cultivars vary widely in their resistance to disease. Modern hybrids focus on improving disease resistance over the heirloom plants. One common tomato disease is tobacco mosaic virus, and for this reason smoking or use of tobacco products are discouraged around tomatoes, although there is some scientific debate over whether the virus could possibly survive being burned and converted into smoke.[3] Various forms of mildew and blight are also common tomato afflictions, which is why tomato cultivars are often marked with a combination of letters which refer to specific disease resistance. The most common letters are: V - verticillium wilt, F - fusarium wilt strain I, FF - fusarium wilt strain I & II, N - nematodes, T - tobacco mosaic virus, and A - alternaria. This article is a list of diseases of tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). ... This article is about a biological term. ... Only a few of the many varieties of potato are commercially grown; others are heirlooms. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... Mildew is a grey, mold-like growth caused by one of two different types of micro-organisms. ... Blight is the name for any of a number of diseases affecting many species of plants. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Verticillium lecanii. ... When bacteria or fungi clog a plants water-conducting or vascular system, they can cause permanent wilting and death. ... Fusarium is a large genus of filamentous fungi widely distributed in soil and in association with plants. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Classes Adenophorea    Subclass Enoplia    Subclass Chromadoria Secernentea    Subclass Rhabditia    Subclass Spiruria    Subclass Diplogasteria    Subclass Tylenchia The nematodes or roundworms (Phylum nematoda from Greek (nema): thread + -ode like) are one of the most common phyla of animals, with over 80,000 different described species (over 15,000 are parasitic). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Species Many, see text Alternaria is a genus of ascomycete fungi. ...


Another particularly dreaded disease is curly top, carried by the beet leafhopper, which interrupts the lifecycle, ruining a nightshade plant as a crop. As the name implies, it has the symptom of making the top leaves of the plant wrinkle up and grow abnormally. Curly Top was a 1935 musical starring Shirley Temple, Rochelle Hudson, Jane Darwell, and John Boles. ... Binomial name Circulifer tenellus (Baker, 1896) The beet leafhopper is a species of leafhopper with a longer, thinner build than most. ...


Some common tomato pests are cutworms, tomato hornworms and tobacco hornworms, aphids, cabbage loopers, whiteflies, tomato fruitworms, flea beetles, red spider mite, slugs,[4] and Colorado potato beetles. The term cutworm is used for the larvae of many species of moth. ... Binomial name Manduca quinquemaculata Linnaeus, 1763 The Tomato hornworm (Manduca quinquemaculata L.) is a green caterpillar, the larval form of a moth of the Sphingidae (Sphinx) family common throughout the American continent. ... Binomial name Manduca sexta Linnaeus, 1763 Tobacco hornworms (Manduca sexta) are moths of the Sphingidae family common throughout the American continent. ... Families There are 10 families: Anoeciidae Aphididae Drepanosiphidae Greenideidae Hormaphididae Lachnidae Mindaridae Pemphigidae Phloeomyzidae Thelaxidae Aphids, also known as greenfly or plant lice, are minute plant-feeding insects. ... The term cabbage worm is primarily used for any of three species of Lepidopteran whose larvae feed on cabbages and other cole crops. ... Whitefly Categories: Stub ... Binomial name Helicoverpa zea Boddie, 1850 The larva of the moth Helicoverpa zea is a major agricultural pest for cotton, where it is known as the cotton bollworm, corn, where it is known as the corn earworm, tomatoes, where it is the tomato fruitworm, and many other crops. ... Genera many; see text. ... Binomial name Tetranychus urticae C.L. Koch, 1836 The Red Spider Mite is a predatory mite found in dry environments, generally considered a pest. ... This article is about land slugs. ... Binomial name Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, 1824 The Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata, also known as the Colorado beetle, ten-striped spearman, the ten-lined potato beetle) is an important pest of potato crops. ...


Pollination

The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant.
The flower and leaves are visible in this photo of a tomato plant.

In the wild, original state, tomatoes required cross-pollination; they were much more self-incompatible than domestic cultivars. As a floral device to reduce selfing, the pistils of wild tomatoes extended farther out of the flower than today's cultivars. The stamens were, and remain, entirely within the closed corolla. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x916, 174 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Tomato ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1280x916, 174 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Tomato ... Carpenter bee with pollen collected from Night-blooming cereus Pollination is an important step in the reproduction of seed plants: the transfer of pollen grains (containing the male gametes, sperm) to the plant carpel of flowering plants, the structure that contains the ovule (which in turn houses the female gamete... Self-incompatibility (SI) is one of the most important means to prevent selfing and promote the generation of new genotypes in plants, and it is considered as one of the causes for the spread and success of the angiosperms, on our planet. ... The Pistil is the part of the flower made up of one or more carpels. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ...


As tomatoes were moved from their native areas, their traditional pollinators, (probably a species of halictid bee) did not move with them. The trait of self-fertility (or self-pollenizing) became an advantage and domestic cultivars of tomato have been selected to maximize this trait. A pollinator is the agent that moves pollen from the male anthers of a flower to the female stigma of a flower to accomplish fertilization or syngamy of the female gamete in the ovule of the flower by the male gamete from the pollen grain. ... Subfamilies Halictinae Nomiinae Nomioidinae Rophitinae Halictidae is a cosmopolitan family of the order Hymenoptera consisting of small to midsize bees which are usually dark-colored and often metallic in appearance. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... The words pollenizer (polleniser) and pollinator are often confused. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ...


This is not the same as self-pollination, despite the common claim that tomatoes do so. That tomatoes pollinate themselves poorly without outside aid is clearly shown in greenhouse situations where pollination must be aided by artificial wind, vibration of the plants (one brand of vibrator is a wand called an "electric bee" that is used manually), or more often today, by cultured bumblebees. Self-pollination is the activity that arises when a flower has both stamen and pistils. ... The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... This article is about the flying insect. ...


The anther of a tomato flower is shaped like a hollow tube, with the pollen produced within the structure rather than on the surface, as with most species. The pollen moves through pores in the anther, but very little pollen is shed without some kind of outside motion. Flower of the spider tree (Crateva religiosa) with its numerous conspicuous stamens The stamen is the male organ of a flower. ... SEM image of pollen grains from a variety of common plants: sunflower (Helianthus annuus), morning glory (Ipomoea purpurea), prairie hollyhock (Sidalcea malviflora), oriental lily (Lilium auratum), evening primrose (Oenothera fruticosa), and castor bean (Ricinus communis). ...


The best source of outside motion is a sonicating bee such as a bumblebee or the original wild halictid pollinator. In an outside setting, wind or biological agents provide sufficient motion to produce commercially viable crops. Some flowers are pollinated using buzz pollination. ... A sampling of Bacillus anthracis—Anthrax A biological agent is an infectious disease or toxin that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ...


Hydroponic and greenhouse cultivation

Tomatoes are often grown in greenhouses in cooler climates, and indeed there are cultivars such as the British 'Moneymaker' and a number of cultivars grown in Siberia that are specifically bred for indoor growing. In more temperate climates, it is not uncommon to start seeds in greenhouses during the late winter for future transplant. With the transplanting of tomatoes, there is a process of hardening that the plant must go through before being able to be placed outside in order to have greater survival.[citation needed] The Royal Greenhouses of Laeken. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ...


Hydroponic tomatoes are also available, and the technique is often used in hostile growing environments as well as high-density plantings. Hydroponics is the growing of plants without soil. ...


Picking and ripening

Unripe tomatoes
Unripe tomatoes
Tomato slices
Tomato slices

Tomatoes are often picked unripe (and thus green) and ripened in storage with ethylene. Ethylene is a hydrocarbon gas produced by many fruits that acts as the molecular cue to begin the ripening process. Tomatoes ripened in this way tend to keep longer but have poorer flavor and a mealier, starchier texture than tomatoes ripened on the plant. They may be recognized by their color, which is more pink or orange than the other ripe tomatoes' deep red. Tomato slices from http://www. ... Tomato slices from http://www. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...


In 1994 Calgene introduced a genetically modified tomato called the 'FlavrSavr' which could be vine ripened without compromising shelf life. However, the product was not commercially successful (see main article for details) and was only sold until 1997. Transgenic plants are plants that have been genetically engineered, a breeding approach that uses recombinant DNA techniques to create plants with new characteristics. ... The FlavrSavr® tomato was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a licence for human consumption. ... Shelf-life is the length of time that corresponds to a tolerable loss in quality of a processed food. ...


Recently, stores have begun selling "tomatoes on the vine", which are determinate varieties that are ripened or harvested with the fruits still connected to a piece of vine. These tend to have more flavor than artificially ripened tomatoes (at a price premium), but still may not be the equal of local garden produce.


Slow-ripening cultivars of tomato have been developed by crossing a non-ripening cultivar with ordinary tomato cultivars. Cultivars were selected whose fruits have a long shelf life and at least reasonable flavor.


Modern uses of tomatoes

Tomatoes on a vine
Tomatoes on a vine

Tomatoes which are under-ripened at the end of season are often used for making chutney. Download high resolution version (800x1118, 270 KB)Tomatoes on the bush File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (800x1118, 270 KB)Tomatoes on the bush File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article is about the condiment. ...

Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.
Heirloom tomatoes in Pico de gallo.

Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world, and their consumption is believed to benefit the heart among other things. Lycopene, one of nature's most powerful antioxidants, is present in tomatoes, and, especially when tomatoes are cooked, has been found beneficial in preventing prostate cancer.[5] However, other research contradicts this claim.[6] Tomato extract branded as Lycomato is now also being promoted for treatment of high blood pressure. [7] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Pico de gallo Pico de gallo (Spanish for roosters beak) is the term generally referring to a fresh condiment made from chopped tomato, onion, and chiles (typically serranos or jalapeños). ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... HRPC redirects here. ...


Though it is botanically a berry, a subset of fruit, the tomato is nutritionally categorized as a vegetable (see below). Since "vegetable" is not a botanical term, there is no contradiction in a plant part being a fruit botanically while still being considered a vegetable. This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tomato (disambiguation). ...


Tomatoes are used extensively in Mediterranean and Middle Eastern cuisine, with Italian being the most notable. The tomato has an acidic property that is used to bring out other flavors. This same acidity makes tomatoes especially easy to preserve in home canning as tomato sauce or paste. The first to commercially can tomatoes was Harrison Woodhull Crosby in Jamesburg, New Jersey. Tomato juice is often canned and sold as a beverage. Unripe green tomatoes can also be used to make salsa, be breaded and fried, or pickled. The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Canning (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Harrison Woodhull Crosby of Jamesburg, New Jersey was the first to can tomatos commercially in 1847. ... The James Buckelew Mansion is a historic point of interest in Jamesburg. ... Tomato juice is a juice made from squeezed tomatoes. ... The word drink is primarily a verb, meaning to ingest liquids, see Drinking. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Fried green tomatoes are a traditional side dish of the Southern United States, made from unripe (green) tomatoes coated with meal and deep fried. ...


The town of Buñol, Spain, annually celebrates La Tomatina, a festival centered on an enormous tomato fight. Tomatoes are also a popular "non-lethal" throwing weapon in mass protests; and there was a common tradition of throwing rotten tomatoes at bad performers on a stage during the 19th century; today it is usually referenced as a mere metaphor. Embracing it for this protest connotation, the Dutch Socialist party adopted the tomato as their logo. Buñol is a small-sized (112 km²) industrial and agricultural (Carob trees, almond trees, fruit trees, olive trees and grapes. ... La Tomatina La Tomatina is a food fight festival held on the last Wednesday of August each year in the town of Buñol in the Valencia region of Spain. ... The Socialist Party (SP, Dutch: Socialistische Partij) is a Dutch socialist political party. ...


Known for its tomato growth and production, the Mexican state of Sinaloa takes the tomato as its symbol.[8] Location within Mexico Municipalities of Sinaloa Country Mexico Capital Municipalities 18 Government  - Governor Jesús Aguilar Padilla  - Federal Deputies PRI: 6 PAN: 2  - Federal Senators PRI: 2 PAN: 1 Area Ranked 18th  - Total 58,238 km² (22,485. ...


Culinary uses of tomatoes include:

Unripe tomatoes on a vine, good for pickling
Unripe tomatoes on a vine, good for pickling

Image File history File linksMetadata Unripe_tomatoes. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Unripe_tomatoes. ... Tomato paste is a thick paste made from ripened tomatos with skin and seeds removed. ... Tomato purée is a processed food product, usually consisting of only tomatoes, but can also be found in pre-seasoned form. ... Tomato pie is a pizza-like food that is common in Italian-American populations, usually served at room temperature instead of hot. ... Gazpacho with blended ingredients. ... Andalucian cuisine is rather varied, corresponding to a region that is itself extensive and varied. ... For other uses, see Ketchup (disambiguation). ... Pa amb tomàquet (bread with tomato) is a typical preparation of Catalan cuisine that consists of bread -optionally toasted- with tomato rubbed over and seasoned with olive oil and salt. ... Catalan cuisine refers to the cuisine of Catalonia, the Balearic Islands, and the Comunidad de Valencia in Spain; as well as French Roussillon. ... For other uses, see Pizza (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Italian cuisine as a national cuisine known today has evolved through centuries of social and political change. ... Insalata caprese is an Italian dish from Campania region made from tomatoes, mozzarella, and basil. ... Fried green tomatoes are a traditional side dish of the Southern United States, made from unripe (green) tomatoes coated with meal and deep fried. ... The St. ... Tomato soup is a soup made from tomatoes. ...

Storage

Most tomatoes today are picked before fully ripe. They are bred to continue ripening, but the enzyme that ripens tomatoes stops working when it reaches temperatures below 12.5°C (54.5°F). Once an unripe tomato drops below that temperature, it will not continue to ripen. Once fully ripe, tomatoes can be stored in the refrigerator but are best kept and eaten at room temperature. Tomatoes stored in the refrigerator tend to lose flavor, but will still be edible;[9] thus the "Never Refrigerate" stickers sometimes placed on tomatoes in supermarkets. Fridge redirects here. ... For other uses, see Room temperature (disambiguation). ...


Botanical description

Tomato plants are vines, initially decumbent, typically growing six feet or more above the ground if supported, although erect bush varieties have been bred, generally three feet tall or shorter. Indeterminate types are "tender" perennials, dying annually in temperate climates (they are originally native to tropical highlands), although they can live up to three years in a greenhouse in some cases. Determinate types are annual in all climates.


Tomato plants are dicots, and grow as a series of branching stems, with a terminal bud at the tip that does the actual growing. When that tip eventually stops growing, whether because of pruning or flowering, lateral buds take over and grow into other, fully functional, vines.[10] Orders see text Dicotyledons or dicots are flowering plants whose seed contains two embryonic leaves or cotyledons. ...


Tomato plant vines are typically pubescent, meaning covered with fine short hairs. These hairs facilitate the vining process, turning into roots wherever the plant is in contact with the ground and moisture, especially if there is some issue with the vine's contact to its original root.


Tomato plants generally have compound leaves, known as Regular Leaf (RL) plants. Some cultivars, though, have simple leaves known as potato leaf (PL) style because of their resemblance to that close cousin. Of regular leaves, there are variations, such as rugose leaves, which are deeply grooved, angora leaves, which are pubescent (hairy), and variegated (originating in Ireland), which have additional colors where a genetic mutation causes chlorophyll to be excluded from some portions of the leaves.[11] Image of a brandywine tomato plant, showing the smooth potato-leaves Potato leaf, or PL, is one of two major styles of leaves which various tomato plants may have, the other kind simply being called regular leaf, or RL. Each is broken down into a number of subcategories, but most... Look up rugose in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Angora was the name of the city of Ankara and the surrounding Ankara Province (vilayet) in Turkey and the Ottoman Empire prior to 1930. ... Variegation is the appearance of differently coloured zones in the leaves, and sometimes the stems, of plants. ... Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ...


Their flowers, appearing on the apical meristem, have the anthers fused along the edges, forming a column surrounded by the pistil's style. These tend to be self-fertilizing. This is because they are native to the Americas; all plants from the New World evolved without honeybees (which are native to the old world, only), and have other specific means of fertilization.[12] This, of course, does not take into account pollinators including flies, butterflies, moths and other insects as well as any other external force that would take the pollen from one flower to another that were present in the "new world" and would make it possible for some new world plants to originally require biotic pollination.


Its fruit is classified, botanically, as a berry. As a true fruit, it develops from the ovary of the plant after fertilization, its flesh comprising the pericarp walls. The fruit contains hollow spaces full of seeds and moisture, called locular cavities. These vary, among cultivated species, according to type. Some smaller tomatoes have two cavities, globe-shaped typically have three to five, and beefsteak having a great number of smaller ones, while paste tomatoes have very few, very small cavities. This article is about the fruit. ...


The seeds need to come from a mature fruit, and be dried/fermented before germination.


Nutritional aspects

Tomatoes are rich in vitamin C and contain lycopene as well as small (almost negligible) amounts of nicotine. This article is about the nutrient. ... Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment, a phytochemical found in tomatoes and other red fruits. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ...


Myths of the tomato

There are many legends about the tomato. For example, it has been claimed that tomatoes were not widely eaten in the U.S. until the late 1800s. It has sometimes been claimed that tomatoes were considered aphrodisiacs and so were shunned by the Puritans. Other claims center on the supposed fear that tomatoes were poisonous, based on the fact that they belong to the Solanales Order, or "Nightshade" family, which contains many toxic plants. Many legends also maintain that the tomato was introduced into the U.S. from South America by one particular person; Thomas Jefferson is sometimes mentioned. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about agents which increase sexual desire. ... The Puritans were members of a group of radical Protestants which developed in England after the Reformation. ... Families at least the following: Solanaceae Convolvulaceae and others, varying between classification systems; for details see text The Solanales are an order of flowering plants, included in the asterid group of dicotyledons. ... “Nightshade” redirects here. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


Tomatoes' status as an aphrodisiac may be due to a mistranslation. Legend has it a Frenchman on his travels ate a meal with tomatoes in it and was fascinated with the new taste. He went back to the chef, who was Italian, and asked him what this new ingredient was. The chef said "Pomme de Maure" (Apple of the Moors), but the Frenchman misunderstood and thought he said "Pomme d'amour" (apple of love). The modern Italian word for tomato however is "pomodoro", which means "golden apple". However Spanish importation from the New World may explain the connection to the Moors. For other uses, see moor. ...


In the United States, the most famous legend of this sort was introduced by Joseph S. Sickler in the mid-1900s, and became the subject of a CBS broadcast of You Are There in 1949. The story goes that the lingering doubts about the safety of the tomato in the United States were largely put to rest in 1820, when Colonel Robert Gibbon Johnson announced that at noon on September 26, he would eat a basket of tomatoes in front of the Salem, New Jersey courthouse. Reportedly, a crowd of more than 2,000 persons gathered in front of the courthouse to watch the poor man die after eating the poisonous fruits, and were shocked when he lived. In his book Smith notes that there is little, if any, historical evidence for any of these legends, and that they continue to be repeated largely because they are entertaining stories. is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The City of Salem highlighted in Salem County. ...


It is also said that the tomato became popular in France during the French Revolution, because the revolutionaries' iconic color was red; and at one point it was suggested that they should eat red food as a show of loyalty. Since European royalty was still leery of the nightshade-related tomato, it apparently was the perfect choice. This may also be why the first reported use of the tomato in the U.S. was in New Orleans, Louisiana in 1812, because of the French influence in that region. "Love apples" or tomatoes were also said to have been grown experimentally by Thomas Jefferson at Monticello twenty years prior, however. [13] The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... NOLA redirects here. ...


There is also a story which claims that an agent for Britain attempted to kill General George Washington by feeding him a dish laced with tomatoes during the American Revolution. George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen...


"Tomato" also has been used as a slang word for an attractive woman. This use was most common from the 1920s through the 1940s, and only within the USA. For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ...


Controversies

Botanical classification

In 1753 the tomato was placed in the genus Solanum by Linnaeus as Solanum lycopersicum L. (derivation, 'lyco', wolf, plus 'persicum', peach, i.e., "wolf-peach"). However, in 1768 Philip Miller placed it in its own genus, and he named it Lycopersicon esculentum. This name came into wide use but was in breach of the plant naming rules. Technically, the combination Lycopersicon lycopersicum (L.) H.Karst. would be more correct, but this name (published in 1881) has hardly ever been used (except in seed catalogs, which frequently used it and still do). Therefore, it was decided to conserve the well-known Lycopersicon esculentum, making this the correct name for the tomato when it is placed in the genus Lycopersicon. Species See text. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Wolf Wolf Man Mount Wolf Wolf Prizes Wolf Spider Wolf 424 Wolf 359 Wolf Point Wolf-herring Frank Wolf Friedrich Wolf Friedrich August Wolf Hugo Wolf Johannes Wolf Julius Wolf Max Franz Joseph Cornelius Wolf Maximilian Wolf Rudolf Wolf Thomas Wolf As Name Wolf Breidenbach Wolf Hirshorn Other The call... Binomial name (L.) Batsch Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Philip Miller (1691 - December 18, 1771) was a botanist of Scottish descent. ... The International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (ICBN) is the set of rules that governs plant nomenclature, i. ... Gustav Karl Wilhelm Hermann Karsten (1817 – 1908) was a German botanist and geologist. ... In botanical nomenclature, conservation is a nomenclatural procedure governed by Art. ... In botany, the correct name is the one and only botanical name that is to be used for a particular taxon, when that taxon has a particular taxonomic placement. ...


However, genetic evidence (e.g., Peralta & Spooner 2001) has now shown that Linnaeus was correct in the placement of the tomato in the genus Solanum, making the Linnaean name correct; if Lycopersicon is excluded from Solanum, Solanum is left as a paraphyletic taxon. Despite this, it is likely that the exact taxonomic placement of the tomato will be controversial for some time to come, with both names found in the literature. Two of the major reasons that some still consider the genera separate are the leaf structure (tomato leaves are markedly different from any other Solanum), and the biochemistry (many of the alkaloids common to other Solanum species are conspicuously absent in the tomato). This article is about the general scientific term. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... In phylogenetics, a grouping of organisms is said to be paraphyletic (Greek para = near and phyle = race) if all the members of the group have a common ancestor, but the group does not include all the descendants of the most recent common ancestor of all group members. ...


The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research began sequencing the tomato genome in 2004 and is creating a database of genomic sequences and information on the tomato and related plants.[14] A draft version of the full genome expected to be published by 2008. The genomes of its organelles (mitochondria and chloroplast) are also expected to be published as part of the project. The Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research is an renown research and education organization currently located on the campus of Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ... In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ...


Fruit or vegetable?

Tomato fruit
Tomato fruit

Botanically, a tomato is the ovary, together with its seeds, of a flowering plant: therefore it is a fruit or, more precisely, a berry. However, the tomato is not as sweet as those foodstuffs usually called fruits and, from a culinary standpoint, it is typically served as part of a salad or main course of a meal, as are vegetables, rather than at dessert in the case of most fruits. As noted above, the term "vegetable" has no botanical meaning and is purely a culinary term. Tomato plant with grass backdrop File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tomato plant with grass backdrop File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Longitudinal section of female flower of squash showing ovary, ovules, pistil, and petals In the flowering plants, an ovary is a part of the female reproductive organ of the flower or gynoecium. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... The main course is the main dish of a multidished meal. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Desert. ...


This argument has had legal implications in the United States. In 1887, U.S. tariff laws that imposed a duty on vegetables but not on fruits caused the tomato's status to become a matter of legal importance. The U.S. Supreme Court settled the controversy in 1893 by declaring that the tomato is a vegetable, based on the popular definition that classifies vegetables by use, that they are generally served with dinner and not dessert (Nix v. Hedden (149 U.S. 304)). The holding of the case applies only to the interpretation of the Tariff Act of March 3, 1883, and the court did not purport to reclassify the tomato for botanical or other purposes other than paying a tax under a tariff act. Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        For other uses of this word, see tariff (disambiguation). ... In economics, a duty is a kind of tax, often associated with customs, a payment due to the revenue of a state, levied by force of law. ... The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS[1]) is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. ... Holding That a tomato is legally a vegetable, not a fruit. ...


The tomato has been designated the state vegetable of New Jersey. Arkansas took both sides by declaring the "South Arkansas Vine Ripe Pink Tomato" to be both the state fruit and the state vegetable in the same law, citing both its culinary and botanical classifications. In 2006, the Ohio House of Representatives passed a law that would have declared the tomato to be the official state fruit, but the bill died when the Ohio Senate failed to act on it. Tomato juice has been the official beverage of Ohio since 1965. A.W. Livingston, of Reynoldsburg, Ohio played a large part in popularizing the tomato in the late 1800s. This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Ohio has a bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly, consisting a House of Representatives and Senate (the Ohio State Senate), based on its constitution of 1851. ... The Ohio Senate is the upper house in Ohios bicameral legislature, the Ohio General Assembly; the lower house is the Ohio House of Representatives. ... Reynoldsburg is a city in Fairfield, Franklin, and Licking counties in Ohio. ...


Due to the scientific definition of a fruit, the tomato remains a fruit when not dealing with US tariffs. Nor is it the only culinary vegetable that is a botanical fruit: eggplants, cucumbers, and squashes of all kinds (such as zucchini and pumpkins) share the same ambiguity. Aubergine redirects here. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Species - hubbard squash, buttercup squash - cushaw squash C. moschata- butternut squash C. pepo- most pumpkins, acorn squash, summer squash References: ITIS 223652002-11-06 Hortus Third Squashes are four species of the genus Cucurbita, also called pumpkins and marrows depending on variety or the nationality of the speaker. ... This article is about the fruit. ... For other uses, see Pumpkin (disambiguation). ...


Pronunciation

Small cherry tomatoes in Korea
Small cherry tomatoes in Korea

The pronunciation of tomato differs in different English-speaking countries; the two most common variants are /təˈmɑːtəʊ/ and /təˈmeɪtoʊ/. Speakers from the British Isles, most of the Commonwealth, and older generations among speakers of Southern American English typically say /təˈmɑːtəʊ/, while most American and Canadian speakers usually say /təˈmeɪtoʊ/. Most or all languages, apart from American English, have a word that corresponds more to the former pronunciation, including the original Nahuatl word "tomatl" from which they are all taken. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 803 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2592 × 1944 pixel, file size: 803 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Differences in pronunciation between American English (AmE) and British English (BrE) can be divided into: differences in accent (i. ... The following is a list of sovereign states and territories where English is an official language, in order of population. ... This article explains the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Southern American English is a group of dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from Southern and Eastern Maryland, West Virginia and Kentucky to the Gulf Coast, and from the Atlantic coast to throughout most of Texas. ... For other uses, see American English (disambiguation). ...


The word's dual pronunciations were immortalized in Ira and George Gershwin's 1937 song "Let's Call the Whole Thing Off" (You like /pəˈteɪtoʊ/ and I like /pəˈtɑːtəʊ/ / You like /təˈmeɪtoʊ/ and I like /təˈmɑːtəʊ/) and have become a symbol for nitpicking pronunciation disputes. In this capacity it has even become an American and British slang term: saying /təˈmeɪtoʊ, təˈmɑːtəʊ/ when presented with two choices can mean "What's the difference?" or "It's all the same to me." Free variation in linguistics is the phenomenon of two (or more) sounds or forms appearing in the same environment without a change in meaning and without being considered incorrect by native speakers. ... Ira Gershwin (6 December 1896 – 17 August 1983) was an American lyricist who collaborated with his younger brother, composer George Gershwin, to create some of the most memorable songs of the 20th century. ... Gershwin redirects here. ... Lets Call the Whole Thing Off is a song written by George Gershwin and Ira Gershwin for the 1937 film Shall We Dance. ... Nitpicking is the sport of finding, often trivial, mistakes in movies and television shows. ...


Safety

A sign posted at a Havelock, North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak.
A sign posted at a Havelock, North Carolina Burger King telling customers that no tomatoes are available due to the salmonella outbreak.

On October 30, 2006 the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announced that tomatoes might be the source of a salmonella outbreak causing 172 illnesses in 18 states [2]. The affected states include Arkansas, Connecticut, Georgia, Indiana, Kentucky, Maine, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, New Hampshire, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, Vermont and Wisconsin. Tomatoes have been linked to seven salmonella outbreaks since 1990 (from the Food Safety Network).[15] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... Species S. bongori S. enterica This article is about the bacteria. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Official language(s) None (English and French de facto) Capital Augusta Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 39th  - Total 33,414 sq mi (86,542 km²)  - Width 210 miles (338 km)  - Length 320 miles (515 km)  - % water 13. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Largest metro area Minneapolis-St. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. state of Tennessee. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the subject of the article does not satisfy the notability guideline or one of the following guidelines for inclusion on Wikipedia: Biographies, Books, Companies, Fiction, Music, Neologisms, Numbers, Web content, or several proposals for new guidelines. ...

Main article: 2008 United States salmonellosis outbreak

Again in the late spring of 2008, a salmonella outbreak caused the removal of tomatoes from stores and restaurants across the United States and parts of Canada (although no actual cases of salmonella poisonings linked to tomatoes or tomato products were reported in Canada).[16] As of June 29, from mid-April, the rare Saintpaul serotype of Salmonella enterica caused at least 851 cases of Salmonellosis food poisoning in 36 states throughout the United States. It is the largest reported Salmonellosis outbreak in the United States since 1985, with the worst outbreaks occurring in Texas (346 reported cases), New Mexico (90), Illinois (91), and Arizona (39). Some other significantly impacted states include Maryland, New York, Virginia, Oklahoma, Massachusetts, Georgia, and Kansas, which have been collectively affected by at least 149 cases. There have been at least 105 reported hospitalizations linked to the outbreak, and it may have contributed to at least one death.[17] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention maintains that "it is likely many more illnesses have occurred than those reported." The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the CDC had maintained that the Salmonella was spread through raw tomatoes, though they have since admitted the possibility that the Salmonella might have been spread through other "food items that are commonly consumed with tomatoes."[18] According to Jim Prevor, Editor of Produce Business, the extended period of new onsets of Salmonellosis precludes the possibility that a specific tomato crop could be solely responsible for the outbreak. According to Doug Powell, Director of the International Food Safety Network, possible suspects aside from tomatoes include salsa, jalapeño peppers, green onions, and cilantro.[19] According to the FDA, types of tomatoes likely affected with Salmonella include red plum, red Roma, and round red tomatoes. The FDA writes that "types of tomatoes not linked to any illnesses are cherry tomatoes, grape tomatoes, and tomatoes with the vine still attached," and the CDC agrees that these types of tomatoes are "not the likely source of this outbreak." The FDA website provides a list of areas from which it has deemed tomato farms not to be the source of the outbreak.[20] The exact sources of the contaminated food are not yet known. According to the FDA, suspected sources of the outbreak are primarily tomato farms in parts of Mexico and Florida, though only one case of food poisoning has actually been reported in Florida - and that case involved a Florida man who had eaten a raw tomato in New York.[21][22] Prevor criticized the FDA for maintaining a list of cleared areas, stating that if tomatoes are contaminated in the repacking process, the FDA's list would be inappropriate and misleading to consumers. Charles Bronson, Agriculture Commissioner of the State of Florida, also indicated that repacking could be responsible for Salmonella contamination. Bronson said that there is a "99.99 percent" chance that the Florida tomato farms are not the source of the Salmonella outbreak. [23] A serovar or serotype is a grouping of microorganisms or viruses based on their cell surface antigens. ... Binomial name (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987 Salmonella enterica is a rod shaped, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


Tomato records

The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot, Lake Buena Vista, Florida.
The tomato tree as seen by guests on the Living with the Land boat ride at Epcot, Lake Buena Vista, Florida.

The heaviest tomato ever was one of 3.51 kg (7 lb 12 oz), of the cultivar 'Delicious', grown by Gordon Graham of Edmond, Oklahoma in 1986.[citation needed] The largest tomato plant grown was of the cultivar 'Sungold' and reached 19.8 m (65 ft) length, grown by Nutriculture Ltd (UK) of Mawdesley, Lancashire, UK, in 2000.[citation needed] A demonstration of non-traditional agriculture in the greenhouse of The Land pavilion, as seen from Living with the Land. ... This article is about the Epcot theme park. ... Lake Buena Vista is a city located in Orange County, Florida, U.S., at the 2000 census the population was 16. ... Gordon Graham is an American journalist. ... Edmond is a rapidly growing suburban city in Oklahoma County, Oklahoma in the central part of the state. ...


The massive "tomato tree" growing inside the Walt Disney World Resort's experimental greenhouses in Lake Buena Vista, Florida may be the largest single tomato plant in the world. The plant has been recognized as a Guinness World Record Holder, with a harvest of more than 32,000 tomatoes and a total weight of 1,151.84 pounds. This one-of-a-kind plant yields thousands of tomatoes at one time from a single vine. Yong Huang, Epcot's manager of agricultural science discovered the unique plant in Beijing, China. Huang brought its seeds to Epcot and created the specialized greenhouse for the fruit to grow. The vine grows golf ball-sized tomatoes which are served at Walt Disney World restaurants. The world record-setting tomato tree can be seen by guests along the Living With the Land boat ride at Epcot. Cinderella Castle is the symbol of the Magic Kingdom. ... Lake Buena Vista is a city located in Orange County, Florida, U.S., at the 2000 census the population was 16. ... This article is about the Epcot theme park. ... A demonstration of non-traditional agriculture in the greenhouse of The Land pavilion, as seen from Living with the Land. ...

Tomatina Festival

On August 30, 2007, 40,000 Spaniards gathered in Buñol to throw 115,000 kilograms of tomatoes at each other in the yearly Tomatina festival. Bare-chested tourists also included hundreds of British, French and Germans.[24] is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Buñol is a small-sized (112 km²) industrial and agricultural (Carob trees, almond trees, fruit trees, olive trees and grapes. ... Binomial name Solanumlycopersicum Linnaeus ref. ... La Tomatina La Tomatina is a food fight festival held on the last Wednesday of August each year in the town of Buñol in the Valencia region of Spain. ... For other uses, see Festival (disambiguation). ...


See also

Lycopene is a bright red carotenoid pigment found in tomatoes and other red fruits, and is the most common carotenoid in the human body. ... Glycemic index (also glycaemic index, GI) is a ranking system for carbohydrates based on their effect on blood glucose levels. ... Canned tomatoes are tomatoes that have generally been peeled and placed in a can, with or without further processing. ... Fried green tomatoes are a traditional side dish of the Southern United States, made from unripe (green) tomatoes coated with meal and deep fried. ... Binomial name Physalis ixocarpa Brot. ... The FlavrSavr® tomato was the first commercially grown genetically engineered food to be granted a license for human consumption. ...

Notes

  • Smith, A. F. (1994). The Tomato in America. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0-252-07009-7.
  • Peralta, I. E. & Spooner, D. M. (2001). Granule-bound starch synthase (Gbssi) gene phylogeny of wild tomatoes (Solanum L. section Lycopersicon Mill. Wettst. Subsection Lycopersicon). American Journal of Botany 88 (10): 1888–1902 (available online).

The University of Illinois Press is a major American university press. ... Mill- is the Latin numerical prefix for 1000. ...

References

  1. ^ Acquaah, G. (2002). Horticulture: Principles and Practices. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
  2. ^ Smith, Andrew F (1994). The tomato in America: early history, culture, and cookery. Columbia, S.C, USA: University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 1-5700-3000-6. 
  3. ^ Tomato-Tobacco Mosaic Virus Disease Extension.umn.edu. URL Accessed June 30, 2006.
  4. ^ Slugs in Home Gardens Extension.umn.edu. URL Accessed July 14, 2006.
  5. ^ Health benefits of tomatoes. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  6. ^ No magic tomato? Study breaks link between lycopene and prostate cancer prevention. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  7. ^ LycoRed satisfies FDA over Lyc-O-Mato safety.
  8. ^ www.sinaloa.gob.mx. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  9. ^ ohioline.osu.edu/hyg-fact/5000/5532.html. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  10. ^ Crop Profiles - Tomato
  11. ^ Are there different types of tomato leaves?
  12. ^ Tomato Anatomy Home
  13. ^ The Heirloom Gardener, 2006.
  14. ^ Tomato genome project gets $1.8M
  15. ^ www.foodsafetynetwork.ca/en/article-details.php?a=3&c=32&sc=419&id=953. Retrieved on 2007-05-24.
  16. ^ http://www.nationalpost.com/news/canada/story.html?id=585498
  17. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/
  18. ^ Salmonella Blog. "CDC's Tauxe Says Salmonella Saintpaul Outbreak Investigation Now Looking Beyond Tomatoes", 2008-06-30. Retrieved on 2008-06-30. 
  19. ^ USA Today. "CDC broadens its investigation of salmonella outbreak", 2008-06-30. Retrieved on 2008-06-30. 
  20. ^ http://www.fda.gov/oc/opacom/hottopics/tomatoes.html
  21. ^ http://www.cdc.gov/salmonella/saintpaul/
  22. ^ Susan Salisbury. "State ag chief urges precise tomato IDs", Palm Beach Post, 2008-06-26. Retrieved on 2008-06-26. 
  23. ^ Susan Salisbury. "State ag chief urges precise tomato IDs", Palm Beach Post, 2008-06-26. Retrieved on 2008-06-26. 
  24. ^ ITN.co.uk, "Spain's tomato fighters see red"

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Find more about Tomato on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • The On-line Tomato Vine (Keith Mueller) - Comprehensive and practical information on growing and breeding tomatoes.
  • "I say tomayto, you say tomahto" (Sam Cox) - Referenced article explaining the legal and cultivation history of tomatoes.
  • Plant Biotechnology: Pest Management - Virus-resistant tomato case study.
  • Tomato Pests (NCSU) - Overview of the entomological threats to tomato cultivation.
  • Tomato Genome Sequencing Project - Sequencing of the twelve tomato chromosomes.
  • Love Apples, Wolf Peaches, Catsup & Ketchup: 500 Years of Silliness - Informative but non-scholarly essay on the history of the tomato.
  • Solanum lycopersicum L. on Solanaceae Source - Images, specimens and a full list of scientific synonyms previously used to refer to the tomato.
  • Solanum lycopersicum at the Encyclopedia of Life
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... , North Carolina State University at Raleigh is a public, coeducational, extensive research university located in Raleigh, North Carolina, United States. ... The Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) is the proposed name for a collaborative bio-encyclopedia, written by experts[1][2], which aims to build an encyclopedia of separate articles for all known species, including video, sound, images, graphics, and text. ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Angelica archangelica L. Garden Angelica (Angelica archangelica) is a biennial plant from the umbelliferous family Apiaceae. ... For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Synonyms Ocimum sanctum L. Ocimum tenuifolium (known as Holy basil in English, and Tulasi in Sanskrit), is a well known aromatic plant in the family Lamiaceae. ... Thai Basil is a cultivar of basil and is a major ingredient in many Thai dishes. ... bay leaves Bay leaf in Greek Daphni (plural bay leaves) is the aromatic leaf of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ... Boldo (Peumus boldus Molina) is a plant native to the coastal region of Chile. ... Binomial name Porophyllum ruderale Bolivian Coriander or Quillquiña (also spelled Quirquiña/Quilquiña) or Killi is an herb plant whose leaves can be used as a seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Borage (Borago officinalis L.), also known as starflower (Ú¯Ù„ گاوزبان in Persian) is an annual herb originating in Syria, but naturalized throughout the Mediterranean region, as well as most of Europe, North Africa, and Iran. ... This article is about the plant genus Cannabis. ... Binomial name Anthriscus cerefolium (L.) Hoffm. ... Binomial name Allium schoenoprasum L. Chives (Allium schoenoprasum), is the smallest species of the onion family[1] Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and North America[2]. They are referred to only in the plural, because they grow in clumps rather than as individual plants. ... Cicely (Myrrhis odorata) is a plant belonging to the Apiaceae, or parsley, family. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Lepidium sativum L. Garden cress (Lepidium sativum) is a fast-growing, edible plant botanically related to watercress and mustard and sharing their peppery, tangy flavor and aroma. ... Binomial name Murraya koenigii (L.) Sprengel The Curry Tree or Curry-leaf Tree (Murraya koenigii; syn. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name L. Epazote, Wormseed, Jesuits Tea, Mexican Tea, or Herba Sancti Mariæ (Chenopodium ambrosioides) is an herb native to Central America, South America, and southern Mexico. ... Binomial name L. Eryngium foetidum (also known as Bhandhanya, Chandon benit, Culantro, Culantro Coyote, (Fitweed, Long coriander, Mexican coriander, Wild coriander, Recao, Shado beni (English-speaking Caribbean), Spiritweed, (Ngò gai (Vietnam), Sawtooth), )Saw-leaf herb, or Cilantro cimarron) is a tropical perennial and annual herb in the family Apiaceae. ... Binomial name Piper auritum Kunth Hoja santa (Piper auritum, synonymous with Piper sanctum[1]) is an aromatic herb with a heart shaped leaf which grows in tropic Mesoamerica. ... Genera See text. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... Binomial name Mill. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 55, see text Cymbopogon (lemon grass, lemongrass, citronella grass or fever grass) is a genus of about 55 species of grasses, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of the Old World. ... Binomial name Aloysia triphylla (LHér. ... Binomial name Limnophila aromatica (Lam. ... Binomial name Levisticum officinale L. Koch. ... Binomial name L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavours. ... “Mint” redirects here. ... Species See text. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ... This article is about the herb. ... Perilla is a genus of annual herb that is a member of the mint family, Lamiaceae. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Ruta graveolens L. The Common Rue (Ruta graveolens), also known as Herb-of-grace, is a species of rue grown as a herb. ... Binomial name L. Painting from Koehlers Medicinal Plants (1887) Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Species About 30, see text Satureja is a genus of aromatic plants of the family Lamiaceae, related to rosemary and thyme. ... Binomial name Rumex acetosa L. The common sorrel, or spinach dock, Ambada bhaji is a perennial herb, which grows abundantly in meadows in most parts of Europe and is cultivated as a leaf vegetable. ... Species About 150 species, including: Stevia eupatoria Stevia ovata Stevia plummerae Stevia rebaudiana Stevia salicifolia Stevia serrata Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. ... This article is about the herb; for the Freedom Call CD see Taragon. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Binomial name Persicaria odorata Lour. ... This article is about a type of plant. ... Ajwain seeds Ajwain (also known as carom seeds or bishops weed), is an uncommon spice except in certain areas of Asia. ... The Aleppo Pepper is a variety of Capsicum annuum named after the town Aleppo in northern Syria. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Species More than 50 species; see listing Mangoes belong to the genus Mangifera, consisting of numerous species of tropical fruiting trees in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Binomial name (Linn. ... Binomial name L. Asafoetida (Ferula assafoetida, family Apiaceae), alternative spelling asafetida (also known as devils dung, stinking gum, asant, food of the gods, hing, and giant fennel) is a species of Ferula native to Iran. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Sieb. ... Categories: | | | | ... This article is about the herbs. ... Binomial name Amomum subulatum Roxb. ... Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ... A large red cayenne The Cayenne is a red, hot chili pepper used to flavor dishes, and for medicinal purposes. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Chili. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... For other uses, see Coriander (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Piper cubeba L. Cubeb (Piper cubeba), or tailed pepper, is a plant in genus Piper, cultivated for its fruit and essential oil. ... Geerah redirects here. ... Binomial name Bunium persicum (Boiss. ... For other uses, see Dill (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Foeniculum vulgare Mill. ... Binomial name L. Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) or menthya (Kannada)or Venthayam (Tamil) belongs to the family Fabaceae. ... Binomial name (L.) Mansf. ... Binomial name Alpinia galanga (L.) Willd. ... This article lacks an appropriate taxobox. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. ... The term Grains of Selim refers to the seeds of a shrubby tree, Xylopia aethiopica, found in Africa. ... Binomial name P.G. Gaertn. ... Juniper berries, here still attached to a branch, are actually modified conifer cones. ... Binomial name L.[1] Synonyms Glycyrrhiza glandulifera Waldst. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Mahlab, Mahleb, or Mahlepi, is an aromatic spice from the puverized pit of the black cherry, Cerasus mahaleb or (Prunus mahaleb). ... Malabathrum, also known as Malabar leaf is the name used in classical and medieval texts for the leaf of the plant Cinnamomum tamala. ... Binomial name Brassica nigra L. Black mustard (Brassica nigra) is an annual weedy plant cultivated for its seeds, which are commonly used as a spice. ... Binomial name Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. ... Binomial name Sinapis alba White mustard (Sinapis alba) is a plant of the family Cruciferae. ... Binomial name L. Nigella sativa is an annual flowering plant, native to southwest Asia. ... For other uses, see Nutmeg (disambiguation). ... Capsicum fruit which comes in various shapes and colours can be used to make paprika. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Piper longum Long pepper (Piper longum), sometimes called Javanese Long Pepper or Indian Long Pepper, is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi Brazilian Pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius; also known as Aroeira or Florida Holly) is a sprawling shrub or small tree 7-10 m tall, native to subtropical and tropical South America, in southeastern Brazil, northern Argentina and Paraguay. ... Binomial name Schinus molle Raddi Peruvian Pepper (Schinus molle, also known as California pepper tree, molle, pepper tree, pepperina, Peruvian mastictree and Peruvian peppertree) is a tree or shrub that grows to between 5 and 18 m tall. ... Binomial name L.[1] Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ... Binomial name L. The Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 5–8 m tall. ... This article is about the plant. ... For other uses, see Saffron (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Killip & Morton Sarsaparilla (Smilax regelii and other closely related species of Smilax) is a plant that comes in vine and, in the case of Aralia nudicaulis L., bush variants that bears roots with many useful properties. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... Binomial name Sesamum indicum L. Sesame (Sesamum indicum) is a flowering plant in the genus Sesamum. ... Sichuan pepper (or Szechuan pepper) is the outer pod of the tiny fruit of a number of species in the genus Zanthoxylum (most commonly Zanthoxylum piperitum, Zanthoxylum simulans, and Zanthoxylum sancho), widely grown and consumed in Asia as a spice. ... Binomial name Hook. ... Species About 250 species; see text Rhus is a genus approximately 250 species of woody shrubs and small trees in the family Anacardiaceae. ... Species (not a complete list) Tasmannia is a genus of woody, evergreen flowering plants of the family Winteraceae. ... Binomial name L. This article refers to the tree. ... The tonka bean is the seed of Dipteryx odorata, a legume tree in the neotropics, of the Fabaceae family. ... Binomial name Linnaeus Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae which is native to tropical South Asia. ... For other uses, see Vanilla (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Matsum. ... Binomial name Curcuma zedoaria (Christm. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Watch Your Garden Grow - Tomato (5145 words)
With tomatoes used fresh, it is usually seen as an advantage to have fruit ripening over an extended season on individual plants, but ripening most of the crop in a short period has been a bonus for paste tomatoes because processing activities are best done in fairly large lots.
Although both potato and tomato plants can be integrated, the "potomato" (sometimes called "topato") commonly advertised is simply a tomato seed inserted into a potato tuber and planted together, producing both a tomato plant and a potato plant in the same hill.
Tomatoes are packed with vitamin C, potassium, fiber and vitamin A in the form of health promoting beta-carotene, which the body converts to vitamin A. Tomatoes are also a source of lycopene, which is the subject of current promising research on the role of plant chemicals that promote health.
Tomato History (4120 words)
Just a few short years later, a tomato importer evaluated the law closely, and decided to challenge it on the botanical grounds that a tomato was in fact technically a fruit, not a vegetable, and should therefore be exempt from said tax.
Tomatoes ripen off the vine in response to the chemical ethylene, which is produced by the fruit as the development of the seeds nears completion.
Tomato soup, slices on a burger and ketchup are all highly integrated uses for the versatile fruit in American culture.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m