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Encyclopedia > Tom Barry
Tomás de Barra
born 1 July 1897
Place of birth Rosscarbery, County Cork, Ireland
Place of death Cork, Ireland
Allegiance British Army
Irish Republican Army
Irish Defence Forces
Rank Commandant General
Unit Irish Republican Army
Commands Officer Commanding, 3rd (West) Cork Brigade, Irish Republican Army
Chief of Staff, Irish Republican Army
Operations Officer, Southern Command, Irish Defence Forces
Battles/wars World War I
Irish War of Independence
Irish Civil War

Thomas (Tom) Barry (Irish: Tomás de Barra) (July 1, 1897 - July 2, 1980) was one of the most prominent guerrilla leaders in the Irish Republican Army during the Irish War of Independence. A former vaudeville sketch writer and playwright, Tom Barry (1885 - 1931) earned a degree of success as a film writer but struggled a bit with the coming of sound. ... Rosscarbery (Irish: ) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The Irish Defence Forces encompass the army, navy, air force and reserve forces of the Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The Officer Commanding (OC) is the commander of a sub-unit or minor unit (smaller than battalion size) in British and Commonwealth military usage. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The following is the list of those who have served as Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army in the various incarnations of organisations bearing that name. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... The Irish Defence Forces encompass the army, navy, air force and reserve forces of the Republic of Ireland. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Leader redirects here. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...

Contents

Early life

Barry was born in Rosscarbery, County Cork, the son of a former RIC officer who had become a shopkeeper. He was educated for a period at Mungret College, County Limerick. In 1915, during World War I, he enlisted in the British Army and fought in Mesopotamia (then part of the Ottoman Empire, present day Iraq). It was there he first heard of the Easter Rising. Rosscarbery (Irish: ) is a town in County Cork, Ireland. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... The Royal Irish Constabulary (RIC) was one of Irelands two police forces in the early twentieth century, alongside the Dublin Metropolitan Police. ... Mungret College, situated 3 miles west of Limerick, Ireland, near the village of Mungret, was a Jesuit apostolic school and a lay secondary school from 1882 until 1974 when it closed as a school for the last time. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Limerick Code: LK Area: 2,686 km² Population (2006) 183,863 (including Limerick City); 131,303 (without Limerick City) Website: www. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Combatants Irish Volunteers, Irish Citizen Army, Irish Republican Brotherhood British Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Patrick Pearse, James Connolly Brigadier-General Lowe General Sir John Maxwell Strength 1250 in Dublin, c. ...


War of Independence

On his return to Cork he was involved with ex-servicemen's organisations. In 1920, Barry joined the 3rd (West) Cork Brigade of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) which was then engaged in the Irish War of Independence (1919-21). He was involved in brigade council meetings, was brigade-training officer, flying column commander, was consulted by IRA General Headquarters Staff (GHQ), and also participated in the formation of the IRA First Southern Division. The West Cork Brigade became famous for its discipline, efficiency and bravery, and Barry garnered a reputation as the most brilliant field commander of the war. Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... A Flying column, in military organization pre-dating World War I, is an independent corps of troops usually composed of all arms, to which a particular task is assigned. ...

Crossbarry Memorial, Crossbarry, County Cork. On Saturday March 19 1921 104 volunteers of the West Cork Brigade of the Irish Republican Army under the command of General Tom Barry attacked and defeated 1,200 British soldiers, members of the Essex and Hampshire Regiments and the Black and Tans.
Crossbarry Memorial, Crossbarry, County Cork. On Saturday March 19 1921 104 volunteers of the West Cork Brigade of the Irish Republican Army under the command of General Tom Barry attacked and defeated 1,200 British soldiers, members of the Essex and Hampshire Regiments and the Black and Tans.

On November 28, 1920, Barry's unit ambushed and killed almost a whole platoon of British Auxiliaries at Kilmichael, County Cork. In March 1921 at Crossbarry in the same county, Barry and 104 men, divided into seven sections, broke out of an encirclement of 1,200 strong British force from the Essex Regiment. In total, the British Army stationed over 12,500 troops in County Cork during the conflict, while Barry's men numbered no more than 300. Eventually, Barry's tactics made West Cork ungovernable for the British authorities. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 563 KB) my own pic. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 563 KB) my own pic. ... Crossbarry Memorial, Crossbarry, County Cork. ... Statistics Province: Munster County Town: Cork Code: C (CK proposed) Area: 7,457 km² Population (2006) 480,909 (including City of Cork); 361,766 (without Cork City) Website: www. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... For other senses of the term, see Black and tan (disambiguation). ... is the 332nd day of the year (333rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary, generally known as the Auxiliaries or Auxies, was a paramilitary organization within the RIC during the Anglo-Irish War. ... Combatants Irish Republican Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Tom Barry Francis Crake† Strength 36 IRA volunteers of the West Cork Flying column 18 officers of the RIC Auxiliary Division Casualties 3 dead 17 dead 1 wounded The Kilmichael Ambush on November 28, 1920 was a turning point in the Irish... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Crossbarry Memorial, Crossbarry, County Cork. ... The Essex Regiment was an infantry regiment of the British Army. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The United Kingdom is a unitary state and a democratic constitutional monarchy. ...


Civil War

During the negotiations that preceded the Truce that ended the war, the British had demanded that Barry be handed over to them before progress could be made on other matters. Michael Collins refused, although he afterwards jokingly told his fellow Corkman that he had been sorely tempted. Barry opposed the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, because, according to him, it betrayed the Irish Republic and partitioned Ireland. He fought on the Republican side in the Irish Civil War (1922-23) and was imprisoned by the Irish Free State after the Battle of Dublin in July 1922. Barry had voiced the opinion that, at the start of the civil war, while the Republican side was stronger, they should have taken over Dublin and the major cities and forced a new confrontation with the British. Michael John (Mick) Collins (Irish: ; 16 October 1890 – 22 August 1922) was an Irish revolutionary leader, Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, Director of Intelligence for the IRA, and member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, both as Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander... Signature page of the Anglo-Irish Treaty The Anglo-Irish Treaty, officially called the Articles of Agreement for a Treaty Between Great Britain and Ireland, was a treaty between the Government of the United Kingdom and representatives of the extra-judicial Irish Republic that concluded the Irish War of Independence. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty on 6 December 1921, the Irish Republican Army in the 26 counties that were to become the Irish Free State split between supporters and opponents of the Treaty. ... The Irish Civil War (June 28, 1922 – May 24, 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... This article is about the prior state. ... Combatants Irish Republican Army Irish Free State Army Commanders Rory OConnor Oscar Traynor Michael Collins Strength 200 in Four Courts c. ...


In September of that year, however, he escaped from an internment camp at Gormanston in north county Dublin and travelled south, to take command of the anti-Treaty IRA Second Southern Division. In November 1922, he led his men in the capture of a string of towns across the south midlands, including Carrick on Suir, Thomastown and Mullinavat, taking the Free State garrison there prisoner. However, due to a shortage of men and equipment, he was unable to hold these places, evacuating them before National Army reinforcements arrived. After this point, Barry increasingly argued with Liam Lynch, the Republican commander in chief, that the civil war should be brought to an end, as there was no hope of victory. In March, Barry proposed to the IRA Army executive that a ceasefire should be called, but he was defeated by 6 votes to 5. The anti-treaty campaign was belatedly called off by Frank Aiken in May, after Lynch had been killed in a skirmish with Free State troops. Barry was arrested shortly before Aiken's order to "dump arms", on May 24, 1923. This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... Gormanston is a town in Tasmania on the slopes of Mount Owen, above the town of Queenstown in Tasmanias West Coast. ... Liam Lynch is the name of more than one person of note. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983) was a senior Irish politician. ...

The Kilmichael Ambush on November 28 1920 was, a turning point of the war as the Auxilaries, previously thought "invincible", were defeated by an IRA column - a fact which had a very negative impact on British morale

. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 536 KB) My own photo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 536 KB) My own photo. ... Combatants Irish Republican Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Tom Barry Francis Crake† Strength 36 IRA volunteers of the West Cork Flying column 18 officers of the RIC Auxiliary Division Casualties 3 dead 17 dead 1 wounded The Kilmichael Ambush on November 28, 1920 was a turning point in the Irish... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... The Auxiliary Division of the Royal Irish Constabulary, generally known as the Auxiliaries or Auxies, was a paramilitary organization within the RIC during the Anglo-Irish War. ...

Subsequent IRA career

After the defeat of the Anti-Treaty IRA in the Civil War, Barry was released in 1924. In 1925, he proprosed that the IRA surrender their arms and ammunition to the Free State. For this, he was expelled from the IRA and did not re-join until the mid 1930s. He served as general superintendent of Cork Harbour Commission from 1927 to 1965. In 1937, he succeeded Seán MacBride as chief of staff, but resigned in 1938 after he became embroiled in a conflict with the supporters of Seán Russell. Barry claimed that they had sabotaged a planned IRA offensive in Northern Ireland. Barry would assert in later life that he opposed both the 1930s bombing campaign in England and IRA contacts with Nazi Germany. In 1940, Barry was made responsible for Intelligence in the Irish Army's Southern Command, a position he held for the duration of World War II (see The Emergency). In 1941 he was denounced by the IRA for writing for the Irish Army's journal. He was an unsuccessful candidate at the 1946 Cork Borough by-election. In 1949, Barry published his memoirs of the Irish War of Independence, Guerilla Days in Ireland, which became a classic account of the war and an influential guide on guerrilla warfare. Barry was supportive of the Provisional IRA campaign but expressed reservations about many of their tactics, in particular the killing of civilians in England. The split in Sinn Féin and the Irish Republican Army following the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty in 1921 led to the emergence of group of Anti-Treatyites, sometimes referred to as the Irregulars, who continued to use the name Irish Republican Army (IRA) or in Irish Óglaigh... Cork Harbour is the second largest natural harbour in the world by navigational area. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 – 15 January 1988) was a prominent international politician. ... The following is the list of those who have served as Chief of Staff of the Irish Republican Army in the various incarnations of organisations bearing that name. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seán Russell (1893-14 August 1940) was an Irish republican and a chief of staff of the Irish Republican Army (IRA). ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Irish Army (Irish: Arm na hÉireann) is the main branch of the Irish Defence Forces[1] (Óglaigh na hÉireann). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Emergency was an official euphemism used by the Irish Government (of the State now known as the Republic of Ireland) during the 1940s to refer to its position during World War II. The State was officially neutral during World War II and in government media, direct references to the... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the journal as a written medium. ... This is an incomplete list of Irish by-elections, with the names of the incumbent and victor and their respective parties. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Death

He died in a Cork hospital in 1980 and was survived by his wife, Leslie de Barra (née Price), whom he married in 1921 and who was the director of organization for Cumann na mBan and later President of the Irish Red Cross. She died in 1984. Bobby Sands commemorated Barry in his book, Prison Poems thus: This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Cumann na mBan (IPA: ; literally Womens League) was an Irish republican womens paramilitary organisation formed in April 1914 as an auxiliary of the Irish Volunteers (IV). ... Robert Gerard Sands (Irish: [1][2]), commonly known as Bobby Sands, (9 March 1954 – 5 May 1981), was a Provisional Irish Republican Army volunteer and member of the UK parliament who died on hunger strike whilst in HM Prison Maze (also known as Long Kesh) for the possession of firearms. ...


Song about Tom Barry

For Barry’s soul we prayed in hell
Pathetic creatures adorned in pain
And we never heard his requiem bell
But our own — in torture’s livid strain.

Cover of 1968 edition of Barry's memoir

In the southern realms of Munster world
The humble whin bush sway
Shedding yellow tears like child
For a legend passed away.
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


And they blow down lanes of time gone by
O’er Crossbarry and Kilmicheal grave
And resurrect a battle cry
‘With Barry, boys be brave!’


In dusky light, by mist, o’er hills they tread
A column on the run
The ghosts of fighters long since dead
Yet n’er at rest, their guns still slung.


Now Barry leads them in the night
Hardy souls of Cork Brigade
To tramp the glens to morning light
When their ghostly forms shall fade.


And we prayed tonight for Barry’s rest
Would Barry e’er be free
As he tramps across old Munster’s breast
To blind eternity.


And in darkened shadows, ‘neath prison bars
The hags of torture wave
But we hear a voice that is of ours
‘With Barry, boys be brave!’


See also

Combatants Irish Republican Army Royal Irish Constabulary Commanders Tom Barry Francis Crake† Strength 36 IRA volunteers of the West Cork Flying column 18 officers of the RIC Auxiliary Division Casualties 3 dead 17 dead 1 wounded The Kilmichael Ambush on November 28, 1920 was a turning point in the Irish... Crossbarry Memorial, Crossbarry, County Cork. ... This article is about the historical army of the Irish Republic (1919–1922) which fought in the Irish War of Independence 1919–21, and the Irish Civil War 1922–23. ... Combatants Irish Republic United Kingdom Commanders Michael Collins Richard Mulcahy Cathal Brugha Important local IRA leaders Henry Hugh Tudor Strength Irish Republican Army c. ...

Sources

  • Brian Hanley, The IRA. 1926-1936, Dublin (Four Courts Press), 2002. ISBN 1-85182-721-8
  • West Cork Flying Column 1919-21
  • 'War of Words' over battle
  • Tom Barry: IRA Freedom Fighter
  • 62 minute talk to the 1916-21 Club by Meda Ryan, author of 'Tom Barry: IRA Freedom Fighter'
  • Detailed account of the controversial Kilmichael Ambush

  Results from FactBites:
 
tom thinks: Barry (837 words)
Barry eventually moved to Ottawa to teach there (he used to describe himself as a "mathematics teacher" when asked what he did for a living) but realized that the job prospects for mathematicians in the then-current academic climate were slim-to-none.
Barry had fun with the position, too, in his intellectual fashion, once producing an editorial on the constancy of the speed of light.
Barry was particularly well-versed in modern history, and never let his political views stray outside the bounds set by historical possibility.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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