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Encyclopedia > Tolkien fandom
Fantasy Portal

Fantasy media For other meanings see Fantasy (disambiguation) Fantasy is a genre of art, literature, film, television, and music that uses magic and other supernatural forms as a primary element of either plot, theme, setting, or all three. ...

Genre studies Fantastic art is a loosely defined art genre. ... Many anime TV series, movies, and OAVs fall into the fantasy genre. ... Fantasy art is a genre of art that depicts magical or other supernatural themes, ideas, creatures or settings. ... The definition of a fantasy author is somewhat diffuse, and a matter of opinion - Jules Verne considered H. G. Wells to be a fantasy author - and there is considerable overlap with science fiction authors and horror fiction authors. ... Fantasy Comics A number of fantasy comics abound on the web. ... Fantasy fiction magazines Magazines which publish fantasy fiction primarily, as opposed to other sorts of fiction, or fantasy comics or other forms of visual art (though most have published poetry, illustration and other art, and some have published at least some kinds of cartoons. ... In theory fantasy films are films with fantastic themes, usually involving magic or exotic fantasy worlds, as distinct from science fiction films or horror films. ... For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ... A fantasy opera may be defined as an opera whose libretto falls under the rubric of fantasy. ...

Fantasy subculture The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... The modern fantasy genre has spawned many new subgenres with no clear counterparts in the mythology or folklore upon which the tradition of fantasy storytelling is based, although inspiration from mythology and folklore remains a consistent theme. ... There are many elements that show up throughout the fantasy genre in different guises. ... This article is about the word, for other meanings see Quest (disambiguation) A quest is a journey towards a goal with great meaning and is used in mythology and literature as a plot device. ... This article is about artifacts in fantasy and roleplaying. ... Many fantasy stories and worlds call their main sapient humanoid species races rather than species. ... A fantasy world is a type of fictional universe in which magic or other similar powers work. ... For creatures that are wholly fictional creations, see Category:Fictional species. ...

Categories It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lovecraftian horror. ... Tolkienology is a term used by Tolkien fans to describe the study of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien treating Middle-earth as a real world and using academic techniques to determine if chronicler Tolkien has left enough clues to come to some fitting conclusions. ...

  • Fantasy
  • Fantasy television
  • Fantasy subgenres

Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. Fans of Janet Jackson, at Music Music The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1972, in his study at Merton Street (from by H. Carpenter) John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (January 3, 1892 – September 2, 1973) is best known as the author of The Hobbit and its sequel The Lord of the Rings. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... A legendarium is a book or series of books consisting of a collection of legends. ... The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy saga by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, his most popular work and a sequel to his popular fantasy novel The Hobbit. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher R. Tolkien, with assistance from fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ...


There are heavily contrasted internal divisions within the current "movement", which have racked the fandom up to the present day and show no signs of reconciliation at any point in the future. Written preference for any one of a pair of two diametrically opposed internal factions can be met with swift reprisal, although the differences are not necessarily or in all cases divisive. A faction is a group of people connected by a shared belief or opinion within a larger group. ...

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Middle-earth portal

Contents

Image File history File links Arda. ...


Terminology

A Ringer is recent coinage for a fan of The Lord of the Rings — somewhat in the same line as fanboys, fangirls, otaku, and Trekkies, but markedly different. One of the differences is that, whereas nearly every Star Trek fan is willing to be called a Trekker or Trekkie, not all Lord of the Rings fans agree on the designation of the group. Many people who consider themselves fans of Lord of the Rings do not find the posthumously published works of Tolkien like The Silmarillion or The History of Middle-earth to be interesting. Therefore, in some cases Ringer might apply to someone who is a fan of the Lord of the Rings books or movies, but not of Tolkien's extended work. Also, many Tolkien fans do not necessarily call or consider themselves "Ringers", but simply "Tolkien fans". Fans of Janet Jackson, at Music Music The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ... Fans of Janet Jackson, at Music Music The word fan refers to someone who has an intense, occasionally overwhelming liking of a person, group of persons, work of art, idea, or trend. ... Overweight, unshaven, wearing glasses and a ponytail, and fantasizing with an anime girl doll - a popular stereotype of an otaku. ... Trekkie (or Trekker) is a term that in recent decades has been used to describe a fan of the Star Trek science fiction franchise. ... Star Trek collectively refers to a science-fiction franchise spanning six unique television series, 726 episodes and ten feature films in addition to hundreds of novels, computer and video games, fan stories and other works of fiction all set within the same fictional universe created by Gene Roddenberry in the... Trekkie (or Trekker) is a term used to describe a fan of the Star Trek science fiction franchise. ... Trekkie (or Trekker) is a term that in recent decades has been used to describe a fan of the Star Trek science fiction franchise. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ...


A Tolkienist is someone who studies the work of J. R. R. Tolkien: this usually refers to students of the Elvish languages (see Tolkien research). A Tolkienist can also be described as a hard-core fan of Tolkien's work, one who studies the work with the same amount of interest (or more) that others study non-fictional subjects. Many fans prefer this term, as it isn't limited to Lord of the Rings. As with the term Ringer, there is no group consensus on this designation. J. R. R. Tolkien in 1972, in his study at Merton Street (from by H. Carpenter) John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (January 3, 1892 – September 2, 1973) is best known as the author of The Hobbit and its sequel The Lord of the Rings. ... Elvish languages are constructed languages used typically by elves in a fantasy setting. ... The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002...


There are also other, less widely used terms describing Tolkien fans, such as Tolkienite, Tolkienophile or Tolkiendil (an Anglo-Quenya compound). Long-time readers of Tolkien's works have also described themselves as Tolkienians, Tolkien Readers or aficionados of J.R.R.Tolkien. A very early term which was never widely adopted was LotRian. Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


There are large numbers of fans who are bemused by all designations, and simply enjoy reading Tolkien and watching films based on his works.


History

Mainstream and Media Fans

The major divisions can best be explained in a chronological context.


Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (LOTR) was published in 1954 and The Hobbit prelude in 1937, and bootleg paperbacks eventually found their way into colleges in the U.S.A. in the 1960s. The "hippie" following latched onto the book, but a great many did so for possibly misguided reasons; some openly stated that they felt the Dark Lord Sauron represented the United States military draft during the Vietnam War; an impossibility given the fact that the work was written by a World War I veteran during World War II and published over a decade before escalations in Vietnam. This led to "mainstream" groups to label LotR as some sort of "hippie book", which was simply not the case: even Tolkien called them The Deplorable Cultus, stating that "Many American fans enjoy the books in a way which I do not". 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Sauron (disambiguation). ... Conscript redirects here, but may also refer to artificial script. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 1,250,000+ US dead: 58,226 US wounded... Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Romania, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 8 million Full list Military dead: 3 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 6 million Full... Combatants Allies: • Poland, • UK & Commonwealth, • France, • Soviet Union, • United States, • China, ...and others Axis: • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, ...and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total: 50 million Full list Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total: 12 million Full list World War II, also...


Still, many people throughout the world simply fell in love with the book (as it has been translated into numerous languages), and although not everyone agrees that The Lord of the Rings actually created the entire fantasy genre of novels, it was certainly and undeniably a profound influence. It formed almost a "Myth of Er", in that it created a new genre where there was none before. Many fantasy series such as "The Sword of Shannara" and Dennis L. McKiernan's Mithgar series were created by fans of LotR. The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy saga by the British author J. R. R. Tolkien, his most popular work and a sequel to his popular fantasy novel The Hobbit. ... The Myth of Er is an analogy used in Platos Republic. ... This article is about the fantasy novel. ... Dennis L. McKiernan is an American writer best known for his fantasy trilogy The Iron Tower. ...


Then, came what some Tolkien fans like to term the "Dark Times". Based on the hippie youth culture prevalent at the time, in the late 1970s Ralph Bakshi and others developed a series of animated films based on the Lord of the Rings. The problems that serious fans have with this movie cannot be fully listed: Period music and animation was used that didn't fit the work, the Hobbits were portrayed as childlike and in the case of Sam Gamgee, like a troll. Pacing was poor, and the acting was wooden. Worse, it was marketed as children's fantasy, when The Lord of The Rings is meant for an older audience. The series of movies was never finished, as the first one was a critical flop (and was thought by its distributor to be a financial flop as well, although this was not actually true). (It should be noted, however, that fans, hungry for any material related to The Lord of the Rings at all, watched the movie anyway.) The last effect was that the "mainstream" viewed LotR as "hippie-nonsense" even more, and the work that was probably one of the most mature fantasy novels became viewed otherwise. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, inclusive. ... Ralph Bakshi is a director of animated and occasionally live-action films. ... The Lord of the Rings is the title of an animated film produced by Ralph Bakshi, and released to theaters in 1978. ... Hobbits are a subset of the race of Men from J. R. R. Tolkiens Middle-earth, sometimes considered a separate race. ... Samwise Gamgee (T.A. 2983-F.A. 62; S.R. 1383-1482), a fictional character featured in J. R. R. Tolkiens fantasy world Middle-earth, is Frodo Baggins servant who proves to be the most loyal of the Fellowship of the Ring. ...


Still, a massive fanbase of readers developed over the years. Translated into dozens of languages and spread across the globe, The Lord of the Rings has never been out of print since its publication. The existing fanbase in the mid-1990s consisted of devoted fans, completely unused to having truly new material or any sort of mass-media acknowledgement, who paid strict attention to detail and continuity within the legendarium. The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ...


With the release of the Peter Jackson live-action movie adaptations of The Lord of the Rings, each of the three movies release in serial from December 2001 to December 2003, The Lord of the Rings has gained a much broader audience. Peter Jackson in New York (USA), at the premiere of King Kong, December 5, 2005 Peter Jackson CNZM (born October 31, 1961, Pukerua Bay) is a New Zealand-born filmmaker best-known as the director of the epic film trilogy The Lord of the Rings, which he, along with Fran...


Today, estimates vary wildly, but it would be fair to say that the fanbase is at least half female. A large number of fans have also arisen who have not read any of the books.


Organized Tolkien Fandom

Although there were active Tolkien enthusiasts within science fiction fandom from the mid-1950s, true organized Tolkien fandom only took off with the publication of the second hardcover edition and the paperbacks in the 1960s. Science fiction fandom or SF fandom is the community of people actively interested in science fiction and fantasy literature, and in contact with one another based upon that interest. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969, inclusive. ...


Articles on The Lord of the Rings appeared regularly in the 1960s fanzine Niekas, edited by Ed Meskys. The first organized Tolkien fan group was "The Fellowship of the Ring", founded by Ted Johnstone at Pittcon, the 1960 Worldcon. They published four issues of the fanzine i-Palantir before the organization disbanded. A fanzine (see also: zine) is a nonprofessional publication produced by fans of a particular subject for the pleasure of others who share their interest. ... Worldcon, or more formally The World Science Fiction Convention, is the longest running science fiction convention, having been held from 1939 to 1941 and, after the interruption of World War II, every year since 1946. ...


The Tolkien Society of America first met "in February, 1965, beside the statue of Alma Mater on the Columbia University campus," according to a 1967 New York Times interview with Richard Plotz, the Society's founder and first Thain. By 1967, Meskys had become Thain and the society boasted over 1,000 members, organized into local groups or smials, a pattern that would be followed by other Tolkien fan organizations. The society published a newsletter, Green Dragon, and The Tolkien Journal (edited by Plotz). In 1969, the society sponsored the first Tolkien Conference at Belknap College. The Tolkien Conference was not a "science fiction convention" but rather a scholarly event. The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Richard Plotz founded the Tolkien Society of America in 1965 at the age of 17. ... Science fiction conventions are gatherings of the community of fans (called science fiction fandom) of various forms of science fiction and fantasy. ...


The University of Wisconsin Tolkien Society was founded in 1966, and is best known for its journal Orcrist (1966-1977), edited by Richard C. West.


Across the continent, Glen GoodKnight founded the Mythopoeic Society in California in 1967 for the study, discussion, and enjoyment of fantastic and mythic literature, especially the works of Tolkien and fellow-Inklings C.S. Lewis, and Charles Williams. The society held its first Mythcon conference in 1970, which featured readings, a costume competition, an art show, and other events typical of science fiction conventions of the day. The society's three current periodicals are Mythprint, a monthly bulletin; Mythlore, originally a fanzine and now a peer-reviewed journal that publishes scholarly articles on mythic and fantastic literature; and Mythic Circle, a literary annual of original poetry and short stories (which replaced the Society's earlier publications Mythril and Mythellany). The Mythopoeic Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study of fantasy and mythic literature. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 3rd 410,000 km² 402. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... The Eagle and Child pub in Oxford where the Inklings met on Thursday nights from 1939. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Charles Walter Stansby Williams (September 20, 1886 – May 15, 1945), educated at St Albans School, Hertfordshire and University College, London. ... The Mythopoeic Society is a non-profit organization dedicated to the study of fantasy and mythic literature. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ...


Orcrist and The Tolkien Journal published three joint issues (1969-1971). The Tolkien Journal and Mythlore published several joint issues in the later 1970s and eventually merged.


The Tolkien Society (U.K.) was founded in the U.K. in 1969, and remains active as a registered charity. The society has two regular publications, a bi-monthly bulletin of news and information, Amon Hen, and an annual journal, Mallorn, featuring critical articles and essays on Tolkien's work. They host several annual events, including a conference held at Oxford, Oxonmoot. Motto: Dieu et mon droit (Royal motto; French for God and my right) The other motto, also French, seen is that of the Order of the Garter: Honi soit qui mal y pense (Shame upon him who thinks evil of it)3 Anthem: God Save the Queen4 Capital London Largest... 1969 (MCMLXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1969 calendar). ...


Both the U.K. Tolkien Society and the Mythopoeic Society were and remain organized into "Special Interest Groups", focusing on one area such as languages, and into local or regional groups who continue to meet on a regular basis. The journal Parma Eldalamberon, founded in 1971, is a publication of one such special interest group of the Mythopoeic Society. Parma Eldalamberon (Quenya The Book of Elven-tongues) is a journal of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship dedicated to the linguistics of J. R. R. Tolkiens Languages of Middle-Earth. ... 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1971 calendar). ...


There is also a long tradition of organized Tolkien fandoms in Scandinavia. The Tolkien Society Forodrim was founded in Sweden in 1972, and has an especially active group interested in Tolkien's languages, Mellonath Daeron. Arthedain, the Tolkien Society of Norway, founded in 1981, issues the journal Angerthas. See also the Nordic countries. ... The Tolkien Society Forodrim was founded in Sweden in 1972 and is one of the oldest Tolkien fan organizations. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1972 calendar). ... 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Internal categories

Movies

The major categories, in no particular order, are:

  • Fans who read the books before the movies were released (or buzz about their release started in 2000), or at least not as a result of the ensuing hype.
  • Fans who read the books after the first movie was released.
  • Fans of the movies who have never read the books.

Fans who read the books before the movies came out fall into two or three categories (note that the terminology varies but the basic groups are the same): This article is about the year 2000. ...

  1. The Purists a.k.a. The Old Guard: Fans of LotR who felt the movies strayed too far from the books, and are nowhere as good as the books.
  2. On the other side of this "Great Schism" are fans of the books who also love the movies, and everything about them.
  3. Possibly the majority are those that like the books more, and disliked changes made in the movies, but on the whole could justify them for the medium of cinema and are willing to accept them on condition.

Further, there is a new wave of fans that did not read the books beforehand, but after hearing about or seeing the movie, have read the books and liked them. Although they sometimes lack the zealot-like devotion of pre-movie fans, they nonetheless seem "legitimate" fans to the Old Guard.


Finally, there are the fans of the movies who have not read the books. Some have just never had the time to read such a long work as the Lord of the Rings, but nonetheless understand that it is an adaptation. Many are (and are treated as) quite respectable fans. There are, however, exceptions.


Books

One division of those fans that have read the books is:

  1. Fans who have read only the Lord of the Rings (and probably also the Hobbit)
  2. Fans who have also read some or all of the additional material such as the Silmarillion and the long series of uncompleted writings starting with the Unfinished Tales and culminating in the History of Middle-earth series.

This second group can be further divided: The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher R. Tolkien, with assistance from fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ...

  1. those who accept the published Silmarillion as canon, and quantify or ignore the rest
  2. those who see the published Silmarillion as faulty in many parts, and who see stories from UT or the HoME as canon.
  3. those who accept that the mind of Tolkien was never fixed on a particular version, and who are happy to do without any "canon".

See Middle-earth canon for an extended discussion on this second split. In the context of fiction, the canon of a fictional universe comprises those novels, stories, films, etc. ... ... This article discusses the concept of literary ‘canon’ as it might be applied to J. R. R. Tolkien’s fictional Middle-earth legendarium. ...


Languages

There is also a subcategory, called 'Tolkienian linguists', which are people who are interested in Tolkien's fictional languages, mainly Elvish. These people study seriously the languages as if they were real ones (much as how Tolkien himself made them, with a virtual yet realistic etymology, evolution, grammar, vocabulary and alphabets). The languages of Middle-earth are artificial languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien and used in his books about Middle-earth, including The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916, wearing his British Army uniform in a photograph from the middle years of WW1. ... Elvish languages are constructed languages used typically by elves in a fantasy setting. ... Etymology is the study of the origins of words. ... Grammar is the study of rules governing the use of language. ... An alphabet is a complete standardized set of letters—basic written symbols—each of which roughly represents a phoneme of a spoken language, either as it exists now or as it may have been in the past. ...


A notable division occurs in that field among the

  • purists and the
  • reconstructionists.

Purism

The purist view is that Tolkien's languages, however sophisticated and well-made, are not intended to be regularised for practical use, but only for scholarly study. To the purists, expansions or elaborations of Tolkien's languages beyond Tolkien's explicit statements are frowned down upon, as much as fan fiction, and they consider such attempts of systematisation and posthumous elimination of inconsistencies futile. Purists accuse reconstructionists of trying to systematise everything according to logic and fit everything in their theories, and thereby coming to hasty and biased assumptions that often contradict Tolkien's writings. The purists also prefer to regard all the forms of Tolkien's languages as conceptual evolution of a single creation. Notable purists include Carl F. Hostetter, the editor of Vinyar Tengwar. Fan fiction (also spelled fanfiction and commonly abbreviated to fanfic) is fiction written by people who enjoy a film, novel, television show or other media work, using the characters and situations developed in it and developing new plots in which to use these characters. ... Carl F. Hostetter (born 1965) is a computer scientist at NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center, and the key figure of the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship. ... Vinyar Tengwar is a linguistic journal published by the Elvish Linguistic Fellowship, dedicated to the study of the fictional languages of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially the languages of Elves, Quenya and Sindarin. ...


Reconstructionism

The viewpoint labelled "reconstructionism" is actually a spectrum of views, and represents a fusing of at least two distinct trends. The first trend, which might be called 'practical reconstructionism', results from attempts to use Tolkien's languages (particularly Quenya and sometimes Sindarin) to write letters, poetry, and songs. As Tolkien's languages do not have very large vocabularies, people attempting to use the languages in this way soon discovered that they would have to create new vocabulary in order to express themselves; the result was the creation of as many new dialects of Quenya and Sindarin as there were corresponding communities -- or even authors.


The second trend, which might be called 'theoretical reconstructionism', arises from the observation -- not necessarily apparent at first sight -- that Tolkien's languages exhibit a high degree of consistency, and that a thorough understanding of the principles by which the languages were constructed would enable one to fill in gaps in grammar and vocabulary, and even discover errors in published texts, and suggest corrections. To the theoretical reconstructionist, Tolkien's editorial comments on his own languages represent only one source of knowledge; the words and texts of the languages themselves constitute another source, and it is the task of the theoretical reconstructionist to come up with linguistic theories and rules that will adequately explain the observed data, and that these theories and rules can be valid even if Tolkien never explicitly states them. A theoretical reconstructionist would, for instance, not have a problem with using linguistic techniques and models developed since Tolkien's death to describe the syntax or phonology of an elvish language.


The two trends overlap in the attempt to create a consistent grammar for any stage of any one of Tolkien's languages. Such a grammar is, of course, impossible from a purist point of view; the best that could be done would be an indexed listing of all of Tolkien's specific statements about his languages, perhaps with illustrations, but with no attempt to prioritize or validate those statements. A reconstructionist grammar, on the other hand, must grapple with changes in both the realization and the underlying conception of Tolkien's languages. To form a consistent grammar out of conflicting data and statements requires some level of prioritization. Different students of the languages may have different criteria, but two common rules of thumb are that the later has priority over the earlier and the more consistent has priority over the less consistent. That is, when two forms or rules come into conflict, the one that was set down later is generally to be preferred; and that form or rule is to be preferred which is most well attested (even if it conflicts with later attestations) with all the other known data about the language.


One consequence of this approach is that the earliest forms of Tolkien's languages, Qenya and Goldogrin, must be treated as languages different from Quenya and Sindarin, because the number of inconsistencies between the languages is too great to be reconciled -- though Qenya and Goldogrin are certainly suitable for study in their own right. On the other hand, Noldorin and Sindarin, despite considerable divergences, can be considered as variant forms of a single language, and information about one can, with some caution, be applied to the other. It must be noted that some words from Qenya are 'borrowed' or 'updated' in order to fill some gaps in known Quenya vocabulary. Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in J. R. R. Tolkiens work. ... Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Noldorin The language/dialect of the Noldor, a tribe of Elves in J.R.R. Tolkiens Middle-earth cycle - a fictional collection of myths, tales and dramatic/romantic histories that includes The Silmarillion, The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ...


Notable known reconstructionists include David Salo, the linguist who had primary responsibility for the reconstructed Quenya, Sindarin and other Tolkien languages in the movies. David Salo giving a talk in Bloomington, Illinois, April 30th, 2005 David Salo (born 1969) is a linguist who worked on languages for The Lord of the Rings movie trilogy, expanding the Elvish language and defining some languages that previously had no words. ... The following is a list of linguists, those who study linguistics. ... Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in the works of J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Effects of the films

The number of fans (and the number of people who will admit in public to being fans) has increased enormously due to the benefits of mass media and advertising, as has the number of people who have read of or at least heard of the books. Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience (typically at least as large as the whole population of a nation state). ... Generally speaking, advertising is the promotion of goods, services, companies and ideas, usually by an identified sponsor. ...


However, some of these new "Tolkien fans" who have not read the books at all base beliefs about the legendarium on the movie, beliefs which may be unrelated to anything Tolkien ever wrote or envisaged. For example, movie fans might think Arwen is a warrior, while Arwen's strength in the book is emotional and possibly spiritual. Lady Arwen Undómiel (usually called Arwen Evenstar, which is Undómiel in Quenya) (T.A. 241–F.A. 121) Queen of the Reunited Kingdom of Arnor and Gondor, is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth, the betrothed of Aragorn in Tolkiens...


A special kind of "new fandom", rather unconnected with "Tolkien fandom" as such, centers around girls who tend to idolize the male stars of the movies: most notably Orlando Bloom ("Legolas"). Orlando Bloom Orlando Jonathan Blanchard Bloom (born on January 13, 1977 in Canterbury, England) is an English actor. ... In J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, Legolas Greenleaf is an Elf, a Sinda prince who becomes a member of the Fellowship of the Ring. ...


Highly debatable issues

Then there are the divisions inherent to the story; the "Do Balrogs have wings?" debate had reached legendary (and to outsiders often comical) proportions. The books are ambiguous on the matter, but the movies follow the interpretation that they did have "wings of shadow". Could they fly? Did they even need wings to fly? The bad blood (and bad jokes) caused by this debate persists to this day. This article deals with J.R.R. Tolkiens Balrogs. ...


Other popular debates include "Do Elves have pointed ears?", "Who or what is Tom Bombadil?", and anything to do with any change or adaptation made for the movies. Or are ents tree-ish people or people-ish trees? Tom Bombadil (also Iarwain Ben-adar in Sindarin) is a fictional character of Middle-earth, created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Smaller internal divisions (some would say "spirited discussions") of this nature have fueled the online community for as long as there have been online communities. Tolkien discussion took place in many newsgroups from the earliest days of Usenet and an alt.fan.tolkien group was created in 1992, followed by rec.arts.books.tolkien early in 1993. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


Fans today

The most popular fansite is currently TheOneRing.net, which was very popular even with the cast and crew of the film. TORn, as it is called, was originally a small movie-news site that gained in prestige as movie-rumors became reality. The filmmakers put special effort into winning over the fans, not simply tolerating but actually actively supporting fansites. Of these, TheOneRing.net is the most well-known and is probably responsible for popularizing the term Ringers. Fans who have avoided the hype surrounding the movie therefore may not use the term, so it is probably preferable to say "Tolkien fans" or "Lord of the Rings fans" when in doubt. A fansite or fan site, is a website created and maintained by the fans or devotees interested in a celebrity or a particular cultural phenomenon. ...


Another popular fansite is LOTRPlaza, which is a role-playing site that doubles as a forum to discuss everything from whether balrogs have wings to the best way to learn Sindarin.


Currently some fans are pushing for the adaptation of The Hobbit prelude as a feature film, although this may not start for another five years at least. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


After that, there is a strong drive to have the Silmarillion adapted, although the Tolkien Estate has not sold the film rights. The Silmarillion could provide enough material to easily create two more trilogies*… at least, but is especially troublesome as it is not a single story. The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher, with the assistance of fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ...


*Strictly speaking, The Lord of the Rings is not a trilogy but rather a single book that, for purposes of publication, is divided into three volumes. This is another issue of frequent debate. It can also be seen as six books since there are two "books" in each volume.


See also

Tolkienology is a term used by Tolkien fans to describe the study of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien treating Middle-earth as a real world and using academic techniques to determine if chronicler Tolkien has left enough clues to come to some fitting conclusions. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tolkien fandom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3057 words)
Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J.
Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings (LOTR) was published in 1954 and The Hobbit prelude in 1937, and bootleg paperbacks eventually found their way into colleges in the U.S.A. in the 1960s.
Tolkien discussion took place in many newsgroups from the earliest days of Usenet and an alt.fan.tolkien group was created in 1992, followed by rec.arts.books.tolkien early in 1993.
J. R. R. Tolkien - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5231 words)
Tolkien assisted Sir Mortimer Wheeler in the unearthing of a Roman Asclepieion at Lydney Park, Gloucestershire, in 1928.
Tolkien was strongly influenced by Anglo-Saxon literature, Germanic and Norse mythologies, Finnish mythology, the Bible, and Greek mythology.
Privately, Tolkien was attracted to "things of racial and linguistic significance", and he entertained notions of an inherited taste of language, which he termed the "native tongue" as opposed to "cradle tongue" in his 1955 lecture English and Welsh, which is crucial to his understanding of race and language.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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