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Encyclopedia > Tolkien
J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916, wearing his British Army uniform in a photograph from the middle years of WW1.

John Ronald Reuel Tolkien (January 3, 1892September 2, 1973) was the author of The Hobbit and its sequel The Lord of the Rings. J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years). ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ... Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The one ring of power The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ...


He attended King Edward's School, Birmingham and Oxford University; he worked as reader in English language at Leeds from 1920 to 1925, as professor of Anglo-Saxon at Oxford from 1925 to 1945, and of English Language and Literature, also at Oxford, from 1945 to 1959. He was an eminently distinguished lexicographer and an expert in Anglo-Saxon and Old Norse. He was a strongly committed Roman Catholic, and admitted in letters that his faith had a profound effect on his writings. He belonged to a literary discussion group called the Inklings, through which he enjoyed a close friendship with C. S. Lewis. King Edwards School Buildings. ... The city from above Centenary Square. ... The University of Oxford, situated in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... There are several cities in the United States called Reader, see Reader (place) A Reader is a minor member of the clergy in some Christian churches; see Reader (minor orders). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... University Tower, University of Leeds The University of Leeds (United Kingdom) is amongst the largest of British universities and the most popular by applicants, with 52,444 applicants in 2003 for 7,228 places (UCAS). ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Wikisource Every Author - Online books and writers forums A Bibliography of Literary Theory, Criticism, and Philology (José Ángel García Landa, University of Zaragoza, Spain) Open Directory Project: Literature World Literature Electronic Text Archives Magazines and E-zines Online Writing Writers Resources Libraries, Digital Cataloguing, Metadata Distance Learning T... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Inklings was a literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898–November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ...


In addition to The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings, Tolkien's published fiction includes a number of posthumous books about the history of the imaginary world of Middle-earth, where his stories take place. The enduring popularity and influence of these works have established Tolkien as the father of the modern high fantasy genre. Tolkien's other published fiction includes adaptations of stories originally told to his children and not directly related to Middle-earth. The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ... Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The one ring of power The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ... Posthumous means after death. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ... High fantasy is a subgenre of fantasy fiction that is set in invented or parallel worlds. ... A genre is any of the traditional divisions of art forms from a single field of activity into various kinds according to criteria particular to that form. ...

Contents

Biography

Tolkien was born on January 3, 1892 in Bloemfontein in the Orange Free State (today a part of South Africa), to Arthur Tolkien, an English bank manager, and his wife Mabel Tolkien (maiden name Suffield). As far as is known, most of Tolkien's paternal ancestors were craftsmen. The Tolkien family had its roots in Saxony (Germany), but had been living in England since the 18th century. The surname Tolkien is anglicised from Tollkiehn (i.e. German tollkühn, "foolhardy"). The character of Professor Rashbold in The Notion Club Papers is a pun on the name. Tolkien only had one sibling, his brother Hilary Arthur Reuel Tolkien, who was born on February 17, 1894. January 3 is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Bloemfontein (Afrikaans for fountain of flowers), is one of South Africas three capital cities serving as the judicial capital (Pretoria being the executive capital and Cape Town the legislative capital). ... Flag of the Orange Free State The Orange Free State (Afrikaans: Oranje Vrystaat) was the historical precursor to the present day Free State province of the Republic of South Africa. ... With an area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The Notion Club Papers is the title of an abandoned novel by J. R. R. Tolkien, written during 1945 and published posthumously in Sauron Defeated, the 9th volume of The History of Middle-earth. ... February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


When he was three, Tolkien went to England with his mother and brother on what was intended to be a lengthy family visit. His father, however, died in South Africa of a severe brain haemorrhage before he could join them. This left the family without an income, so Tolkien's mother took him to live with her parents in Birmingham for a short time. Soon after, in 1896, they moved to Sarehole, then a Worcestershire village, later annexed to Birmingham. He enjoyed exploring Sarehole Mill and Moseley Bog and the Clent and Lickey Hills, which would later inspire scenes in his books along with other Worcestershire towns and villages such as Bromsgrove, Alcester and Alvechurch, as would areas in Worcestershire particularly his aunt's farm of Bag End, whose name would be used in his fiction. Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion... Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term meaning bleeding. ... The city from above Centenary Square. ... 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Sarehole is an area in Birmingham, England (formerly a village in Warwickshire). ... Worcestershire (pronounced wuster-shur, wuster-sheer or wuster-shyer; abbreviated Worcs) is a county, located in the West Midlands region of central England. ... Sarehole is an area in Birmingham, England (formerly a village in Warwickshire). ... Moseley Bog is a nature reserve in the Moseley area of Birmingham, England. ... The Clent Hills lie 15 km southwest of Birmingham City Centre in Worcestershire, England. ... The Lickey Hills are a range of hills in Worcestershire, England, eleven miles to the south-west of the centre of Birmingham near the villages of Lickey and Barnt Green. ...


Mabel tutored her two sons, and Ronald, as he was known in the family, was a keen pupil. She taught him a great deal of botany, and she awoke in her son the enjoyment of the look and feel of plants. Young Tolkien liked to draw landscapes and trees. But his favourite lessons were those concerning languages, and his mother taught him the rudiments of Latin very early. He could read by the age of four, and could write fluently soon afterwards. He attended King Edward's School, Birmingham, St Phillip's School, and Exeter College, Oxford. Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... Latin is the language that was originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... King Edwards School Buildings. ... Exeter College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ...


His mother converted to Roman Catholicism in 1900, despite vehement protests by her Baptist family. She died of diabetes in 1904, when Tolkien was 12, and he felt for the rest of his life that she had become a martyr for her faith; this had a profound effect on his own Catholic beliefs. Tolkien's devout faith was significant in the conversion of C. S. Lewis to Christianity, and his writings express Christian values and contain much Christian symbolism. This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... 1900 is a common year starting on Monday. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898–November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. ...


During his subsequent orphanhood he was brought up by Father Francis Xavier Morgan of the Birmingham Oratory, in the Edgbaston area of Birmingham. He lived there in the shadow of Perrott's Folly and the Victorian tower of Edgbaston waterworks, which may have influenced the images of the dark towers within his works. Another strong influence was the romantic medievalist paintings of Edward Burne-Jones and the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood; the Birmingham Museum and Art Gallery has a large and world-renowned collection of works and had put it on free public display from around 1908. Alternative uses: see orphan (typesetting), and orphan process in computing. ... Edgbaston constituency shown within Birmingham Edgbaston is an area in Birmingham, England. ... Perrots Folly is a 29 metre (96 feet) high tower, built in 1739. ... The term Victorian architecture can refer to one of a number of architectural styles during the Victorian era: Neoclassicism Gothic Revival Italianate Second Empire Neo-Grec Romanesque Revival (Includes Richardsonian Revival) Renaissance Revival Queen Anne Jacobethan architecture (the precusor to the Queen Anne style) British Arts and Crafts movement painted... Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement in the history of ideas; it originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... Circe, by Edward Burne-Jones Sir Edward Coley Burne-Jones (August 28, 1833 - June 17, 1898) was a British artist, closely associated with the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. ... The Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood was a group of English painters, poets and critics, founded in 1848 by John Everett Millais, Dante Gabriel Rossetti and William Holman Hunt. ... Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery Opened in 1885, Birmingham Museum & Art Gallery (BM&AG), in Birmingham, England, has a collection of inernational importance, including a vast amount of first- class work by the Pre_Raphaelite Brotherhood and the largest collection of works by Edward Burne-Jones in the world. ... 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


He met and fell in love with Edith Bratt (later to serve as his model for Lúthien), and despite many obstacles he succeeded in marrying her, on March 22, 1916. Categories: People stubs | 1889 births | 1971 deaths ... Lúthien Tinúviel is a fictional character featured in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... March 22 is the 81st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (82nd in Leap years). ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ...


With his childhood love of landscape, he visited Cornwall in 1914 and he was said to be deeply impressed by the singular Cornish coastline and sea. After graduating from the University of Oxford with a first-class degree in English language in 1915, Tolkien joined the British Army effort in World War I and served as a second lieutenant in the 11th battalion of the Lancashire Fusiliers. His battalion was moved to France in 1916, where Tolkien served as a communications officer during the Battle of the Somme, until he came down with trench fever on 27 October, and was moved back to England on 8 November. Many of his fellow servicemen, as well as several of his closest friends, were killed in the war. During his recovery in a cottage in Great Haywood, Staffordshire he began to work on what he called The Book of Lost Tales, beginning with The Fall of Gondolin. Cornwall (Cornish: Kernow or occasionally Curnow) is a county of England, the part of Great Britains south-west peninsula that is west of the River Tamar, often known as the Cornish peninsula or plateau. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British military. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... A Lieutenant is a military, paramilitary or police officer. ... In military terminology, a battalion consists of two to six companies typically commanded by a lieutenant colonel. ... The Lancashire Fusiliers was a British infantry regiment that was amalgamated with other Fusilier regiments in 1968 to form the Royal Regiment of Fusiliers. ... Battle of the Somme Conflict First World War Date 1 July 1916 – 18 November 1916 Place Somme, Picardy, France Result Stalemate The 1916 Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the First World War, with more than one million casualties. ... Trench fever is a moderately serious disease, transmitted by lice, that infected more than a million soldiers during World War I and World War II. The disease persists among the homeless. ... October 27 is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 65 days remaining. ... November 8 is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 53 days remaining. ... 19th century Cottages in the small hamlet of Crafton, Buckinghamshire A cottage is a small house of any period. ... Staffordshire (abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the Midlands of England. ... The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... In the writings of J.R.R. Tolkien, the Fall of Gondolin is the name of one of the original Lost Tales which formed the basis for a section in his later work, The Silmarillion. ...


Tolkien's first civilian job after World War I was at the Oxford English Dictionary (among others, he initiated the entries wasp and walrus). In 1920 he took up a post as Reader in English language at the University of Leeds, but in 1925 he returned to Oxford as a Professor of Anglo-Saxon at Pembroke College. In 1945 he moved to Merton College, Oxford, becoming the Merton Professor of English Language and Literature, in which post he remained until his retirement in 1959. The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is a comprehensive multi-volume dictionary published by the Oxford University Press (OUP). ... WASP (an acronym for White Anglo-Saxon Protestant) is a term that originally denoted the culture, customs, and heritage of the American élite Establishment. ... Binomial name Odobenus rosmarus (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Walruses are large semi-aquatic mammals that live in the cold Arctic seas of the Northern Hemisphere. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... There are several cities in the United States called Reader, see Reader (place) A Reader is a minor member of the clergy in some Christian churches; see Reader (minor orders). ... University Tower, University of Leeds The University of Leeds (United Kingdom) is amongst the largest of British universities and the most popular by applicants, with 52,444 applicants in 2003 for 7,228 places (UCAS). ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... A professor is a senior teacher and researcher, usually in a college or university. ... Pembroke College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


It may be significant that Tolkien disliked intensely the devouring of the English countryside by the suburbs, even though, given his profession, he generally found it convenient to live in them. But for most of his adult life he eschewed automobiles, preferring to ride a bicycle. Tolkien and Edith had four children: John Francis Reuel (November 17, 1917), Michael Hilary Reuel (October, 1920), Christopher John Reuel (1924) and Priscilla Anne Reuel (1929). During the 1950s, Tolkien spent many of his long academic holidays at the home of his son John Francis in Stoke-on-Trent. Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburban redirects here. ... November 17 is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece. ... 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... October is the tenth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the son of author J. R. R. Tolkien, and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium Events and trends Technology United States tests the first fusion bomb. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ...


Engraved on the stone at Wolvercote Cemetery, Oxford, where he and his wife are buried, are the names Beren and Lúthien, paying homage to one of the great love stories of his fictional Middle-earth, which has been certainly inspired in the real history of love between Tolkien and his beloved wife. The ruin of Godstow Nunnery. ... Oxford is a city and local government district in Oxfordshire, England, with a population of 134,248 (2001 census). ... Beren is a fictional character, created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Lúthien Tinúviel is a fictional character featured in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ...


Posthumously named after Tolkien are the Tolkien Road in Eastbourne, East Sussex, and the asteroid 2675 Tolkien. Tolkien Way in Stoke-On-Trent is named after J.R.R.'s son, Father John Francis Tolkien, who was the priest in charge at nearby Church of Our Lady of the Angels and St Peter in Chains. For other places called Eastbourne, see Eastbourne (disambiguation). ... East Sussex is a county in South East England. ... An asteroid is a small, solid object in our Solar System, orbiting the Sun. ... 2675 Tolkien is a small main belt asteroid, which was discovered by M. Watt in 1982. ... This page is about Stoke-on-Trent in England. ...


Writing

Tolkien's earliest literary ambition was to be a poet, but his primary creative urge in his younger days was the invention of imaginary languages, including early versions of what would later evolve into the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin. Feeling that a language required a people to speak it, and that a people would tell stories which influenced and reflected their languages, he began writing (in English, but with many names and terms from his invented languages) the mythology and tales of a fictional people he associated with legendary fairies. In later works, Tolkien's fairy-folk were replaced by Elves -- a name he adapted from English folklore (with some regret, for he came to consider the name misleading). Text in Quenya, written in the Tengwar and Latin alphabets Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in J. R. R. Tolkiens work. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Mythology is the study of myths: stories of a particular culture that it believes to be true and that feature a specific religious or belief system. ... by Sophie Anderson A fairy, or faery, is a creature from stories and mythology, often portrayed in art and literature as a minuscule humanoid with insect-like wings. ... The Elves (always pluralized as such, never Elfs) are one of the races that appear in the work of J. R. R. Tolkien. ...


Beginning with The Book of Lost Tales, written while recuperating from illness during World War I, Tolkien devised several themes - including the love story of Beren and Lúthien - that were reused in successive mythologies. The two most prominent stories, the tales of Beren/Luthien and of Turin, were carried forward into long narrative poems (published in The Lays of Beleriand). Tolkien wrote a brief summary of the mythology these poems were intended to represent, and that summary eventually evolved into The Silmarillion, an epic history that Tolkien started three times but never finished. The story of this continuous re-drafting is told in the posthumous series The History of Middle-Earth. Another story he devised was the tale of The Fall of Numenor, which was inspired by the legend of Atlantis. The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Beren is a fictional character, created by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Lúthien Tinúviel is a fictional character featured in J. R. R. Tolkiens universe of Middle-earth. ... The Lays of Beleriand, published in 1985, is the third volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series, The History of Middle-earth, in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher, with the assistance of fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ...


Tolkien was strongly influenced by Germanic mythology and Norse, Finnish folklore, the Bible, and Greek mythology. Other inspirations included Babylon and Egypt. The works most often cited as sources for Tolkien's stories include Beowulf, Kalevala, the Poetic Edda, Plato's Atlantis, Volsunga saga and the Hervarar saga [1] (http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/bibl4.html). Tolkien himself acknowledged Homer and Oedipus as influences or sources for some of his stories and ideas. His borrowings also came from numerous Middle English works and poems. Thor, god of thunder, one of the major figures in Germanic mythology. ... Norse mythology, Viking mythology or Scandinavian mythology refer to the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Babylon (disambiguation). ... The first page of Beowulf This article describes Beowulf, the epic poem. ... The Kalevala is an epic poem compiled by Elias Lönnrot in the 19th century from Finnish folk sources. ... The Poetic Edda or Elder Edda is a term applied to two things. ... An artistic rendition of an imaginary Atlantis Atlantis was a legendary ancient culture and island, whose existence and location have never been confirmed. ... The Ramsund carving depicting the Saga of the Völsungs The Volsunga saga is a late 13th century Icelandic prose rendition of the story of Sigurd and Brynhild, and the destruction of the Burgundians. ... Hervarar saga ok Heidhreks is a fornaldarsaga from the 13th century using material from an older saga. ... Bust of Homer in the British Museum For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ... Œdipus and the Sphinx, from an 1879 illustration from Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church Oedipus or Œdipus, less commonly Oidipous, was the mythical king of Thebes, son of Laius and Jocasta, who, unknowingly, killed his father and married his mother. ...


In addition to his mythological compositions, Tolkien enjoyed inventing fantasy stories to entertain his children. He wrote annual Christmas letters from Father Christmas for them, building up a series of short stories (later compiled and published as The Father Christmas Letters). Other stories included Mr. Bliss, Roverandom, and Smith of Wootton Major. Roverandom and Smith of Wootton Major, like The Hobbit, borrowed ideas from the mythological compositions. Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... A common portrayal of Santa Claus. ... The Father Chrismas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ... Mr. ... Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ... Smith of Wootton Major is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien about a boy who gets a fay-star in a slice of cake during the Twenty-Four Feast, and explores Faery during the time before the next Feast. ... The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ...


Tolkien never expected his fictional stories to become popular but he was persuaded by a former student to publish a book he had written for his own children called The Hobbit in 1937. However, the book attracted adult readers as well, and it became popular enough for the publisher, George Allen & Unwin, to ask Tolkien to work on a sequel. The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Despite feeling uninspired on the topic, this request prompted Tolkien to begin what would become his most famous work: the epic three-volume novel The Lord of the Rings (19541955). (Note that while the Lord of the Rings is often described as a "trilogy" and sold as three separate books, it was written as a single story and it was Tolkien's editors, not Tolkien himself, who made the division into three parts.) Tolkien spent more than ten years writing the primary narrative and appendices for Lord of the Rings, during which time he received the constant support of the Inklings, in particular his closest friend C. S. Lewis, the author of The Chronicles of Narnia. Both The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings are set long after The Silmarillion but Tolkien infused the Silmarillion and Numenor myths into a new mythology which is properly called The Middle-earth Mythology. Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The one ring of power The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Inklings was a literary discussion group associated with the University of Oxford. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898–November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... The Chronicles of Narnia is a series of seven fantasy novels for children written by C. S. Lewis. ... The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ... Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The one ring of power The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher, with the assistance of fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ...


The Lord of the Rings became immensely popular with students in the 1960s, and has remained popular ever since, ranking as one the most popular works of fiction of the twentieth century, judged by both sales and reader surveys. It was voted the greatest book of the 20th century in a readers' poll conducted by the BBC, and the Waterstone's bookstore chain and in 1999 a poll of Amazon.com customers judged The Lord of the Rings to be the greatest book of the millennium. In 2002 Tolkien was voted 92nd of a "Greatest Britons" poll conducted by the BBC and in 2004 he was voted 35th in the Greatest South Africans. He is the only person to appear in both the British and South African Top 100. His popularity is not limited just to the English-speaking world: in 2004 a poll of more than one million Germans found The Lord of the Rings (Herr der Ringe) to be their favourite work of literature by a wide margin. Events and trends The 1960s was a turbulent decade of change around the world. ... 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Common Era, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Amazon. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In 2002, the BBC conducted a vote to discover the 100 Greatest Britons of all time. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Top 100 Great South Africans In September 2004, thousands of South Africans took part in an informal nationwide poll to determine the 100 Greatest South Africans of all time. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Tolkien at first thought that The Lord of the Rings would tell another children's tale like The Hobbit, but it quickly grew darker and more serious in the writing. Though a direct sequel to The Hobbit, it addressed an older audience, drawing on the immense back-story of Beleriand that Tolkien had constructed in previous years, and which eventually saw posthumous publication in The Silmarillion and other volumes. Tolkien's influence weighs heavily on the fantasy genre that grew up after the success of The Lord of the Rings. In narratology, a back-story (also back story or backstory) is the history behind the situation extant at the start of the main story. ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher, with the assistance of fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ... For other definitions of fantasy see fantasy (psychology). ...


Tolkien was a professional philologist, and the languages and the mythologies he studied clearly left an imprint on his fiction. In particular, the dwarves' names in the Hobbit, are taken from the Völuspá of the Edda, while certain plot-elements (for example: the thief stealing a cup from a dragon's hoard) are taken from Beowulf. Tolkien was a recognised authority on Beowulf, and published several important works on the poem. A previously unpublished translation of Beowulf by Tolkien was found in 2004 and is being edited for publication by Michael Drout. Many of the names Tolkien used in The Lord of the Rings may be found in Middle English poems, The Bible, and other sources. Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Voluspa or Völuspá means The Prophecy of the Seeress and tells the story of the creation and coming destruction of the world related by a völva or seeress in what could be described as a shamanic trance to Odin. ... For Edda great-grandmother as the ancestress of serfs see Ríg. ... The first page of Beowulf This article describes Beowulf, the epic poem. ...


Tolkien continued to work on the history of Middle-earth until his death. His son Christopher, with some assistance from fantasy writer Guy Gavriel Kay, organised some of this material into one volume, published as The Silmarillion in 1977. Christopher Tolkien continued over subsequent years to publish background material on the creation of Middle-earth. Note that the posthumous works such as The History of Middle-earth and the Unfinished Tales contain unfinished, abandoned, alternative and outright contradictory versions of the stories simply because Tolkien kept inventing new mythologies which reused older ideas over the course of decades. Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the son of author J. R. R. Tolkien, and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Guy Gavriel Kay (born November 7, 1954) is a Canadian author of fantasy fiction. ... 1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ...


There is no true consistency to be found between the various works, not even between The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit, the two most closely related works, because Tolkien was never able to fully integrate all their traditions into each other. He commented in 1965, while editing The Hobbit for a third edition, that he would have preferred to rewrite the entire book completely.


The library of Marquette University in Milwaukee, Wisconsin preserves many of Tolkien's original manuscripts, notes and letters; other original material survives at Oxford's Bodleian Library. Marquette has the manuscripts and proofs of The Lord of the Rings and The Hobbit, manuscripts of many "lesser" books like the Farmer Giles of Ham, and Tolkien fan material, while the Bodleian holds the Silmarillion papers and Tolkien's academic work. Marquette University is a private, co-educational Roman Catholic university in the United States. ... This article is about Milwaukee in Wisconsin. ... One of the periods of glaciation was also termed the Wisconsin glaciation. ... The University of Oxford, situated in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Entrance to the Library, with the coats-of-arms of several Oxford colleges Oxford University Libraries Service (OULS) comprises over 30 of the University of Oxfords central and faculty libraries: from the world famous Bodleian Library, established 400 years ago, to the modern digital library ventures. ...


Languages

See also Languages of Middle-earth. The languages of Middle-earth are artificial languages invented by J. R. R. Tolkien and used in his books about Middle-earth, including The Hobbit, The Lord of the Rings and The Silmarillion. ...


Philology, the study of languages, was Tolkien's first academic love, and his interest in linguistics inspired him to invent some fifteen artificial languages (most famously the two Elvish languages in The Lord of the Rings: Quenya and Sindarin). He later elaborated an entire cosmogony and history of Middle-earth as background. Philology is the study of ancient texts and languages. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The one ring of power The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ... Text in Quenya, written in the Tengwar and Latin alphabets Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in J. R. R. Tolkiens work. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Cosmogony [Gr. ... History is a term for information about the past. ... A map of the Northwestern part of Middle-earth at the end of the Third Age, courtesy of the Encyclopedia of Arda. ...


Through his work as a lexicographer he was familiar with several languages, current and extinct, but in his personal correspondence he noted the sound of the Finnish language as the most pleasing to his ears, and it was a source of inspiration for Quenya, the most important of his invented languages. A lexicographer is a person devoted to the study of lexicography, especially an author of a dictionary. ... Text in Quenya, written in the Tengwar and Latin alphabets Quenya is one of the languages spoken by the Elves in J. R. R. Tolkiens work. ...


The popularity of his books has had a small but lasting effect on the use of language in fantasy literature, especially the use of his non-standard forms "dwarves" and "elvish" (instead of "dwarfs" and "elfish").


Art based on Tolkien's works

See also Works inspired by J. R. R. Tolkien. J. R. R. Tolkiens works have served as the inspiration to painters, musicians, film-makers and writers, to such an extent that Tolkien is sometimes seen as the father of the entire genre of high fantasy. The production of such derivative works is sometimes of doubtful legality, because Tolkien...


In a 1951 letter to Milton Waldman (Letters 131), Tolkien writes about his intentions to create a "body of more or less connected legend", of which 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...

The cycles should be linked to a majestic whole, and yet leave scope for other minds and hands, wielding paint and music and drama.

The hands and minds of many artists have indeed been inspired by Tolkien's legends. Personally known to him were Pauline Baynes (Tolkien's favourite illustrator of The Adventures of Tom Bombadil and Farmer Giles of Ham) and Donald Swann (who set the music to The Road Goes Ever On). Queen Margrethe II of Denmark created illustrations to the Lord of the Rings in the early 1970s. She sent them to Tolkien, who was struck by the similarity to the style of his own drawings. Pauline Baynes (born 1922) is an English book illustrator, whose work encompasses more than 100 books. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Donald Swann (September 30, 1923 - March 23, 1994) was a British composer, musician and entertainer. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Her Majesty Queen Margrethe II (Margrethe Alexandrine Þorhildur Ingrid), styled HM The Queen (born April 16, 1940), is the Queen regnant and head of state of Denmark. ... Events and trends Although in the United States and in many other Western societies the 1970s are often seen as a period of transition between the turbulent 1960s and the more conservative 1980s and 1990s, many of the trends that are associated widely with the Sixties, from the Sexual Revolution...


But Tolkien was not fond of all artistic representation of his works that was produced in his lifetime, and sometimes harshly disapproving.


In 1946 (Letters, 107), he rejects suggestions for illustrations by Horus Engels for the German edition of the Hobbit as "too Disnified", 1946 was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Disney empire The name Disney may also refer to several aspects of the entertainment empire of The Walt Disney Company: The Walt Disney Company Walt Disney Pictures, the companys flagship motion picture studio Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California The Disney Channel the companys theme parks and...

Bilbo with a dribbling nose, and Gandalf as a figure of vulgar fun rather than the Odinic wanderer that I think of.

He was sceptical of the emerging fandom in the United States, and in 1954 he returned proposals for the dust-jackets of the American edition of the Lord of the Rings (Letters, 144): Odin, Icelandic/Old Norse Óðinn, Swedish Oden, Anglo-Saxon and Old Saxon Woden, Old Franconian Wodan, Alemannic Wuodan, German Wotan or Wothan Lombardic Godan. ... Tolkien fandom is an international, informal community of fans of the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, especially of the Middle-earth legendarium which includes The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Silmarillion. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Thank you for sending me the projected 'blurbs', which I return. The Americans are not as a rule at all amenable to criticism or correction; but I think their effort is so poor that I feel constrained to make some effort to improve it.

And in 1958, in an irritated reaction to a proposed movie adaptation of the Lord of the Rings by Morton Grady Zimmerman (Letters, 207) he writes 1958 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

I would ask them to make an effort of imagination sufficient to understand the irritation (and on occasion the resentment) of an author, who finds, increasingly as he proceeds, his work treated as it would seem carelessly in general, in places recklessly, and with no evident signs of any appreciation of what it is all about.

He went on criticize the script scene by scene ("yet one more scene of screams and rather meaningless slashings"). But Tolkien was in principle open to the idea of a movie adaptation. He sold the film, stage and merchandise rights of The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings to United Artists in 1968, while, guided by scepticism towards future productions, he forbade that Disney should ever be involved (Letters, 13, 1937): The United Artists Corporation (aka United Artists Pictures and United Artists Films) was formed on February 5, 1919 by four Hollywood greats: Charles Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks, Mary Pickford and D. W. Griffith. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... The Walt Disney Company (also known as Disney) (NYSE: DIS) is one of the largest media and entertainment corporations in the world. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ...

It might be advisable […] to let the Americans do what seems good to them – as long as it was possible […] to veto anything from or influenced by the Disney studios (for all whose works I have a heartfelt loathing).

United Artists never made a film, though at least John Boorman was planning a film in the early seventies. It would have been a live-action film, which apparently would have been much more to Tolkien's liking than an animated film. In 1976 the rights were sold to Tolkien Enterprises, a division of the Saul Zaentz Company, and the first movie adaptation (an animated film) of The Lord of the Rings appeared only after Tolkien's death (in 1978, directed by Ralph Bakshi). In 20012003 The Lord of the Rings was filmed as a trilogy of films by Peter Jackson. John Boorman (born 18 January 1933) is an English film director who is best known for his films Point Blank (1967), Deliverance (1972), Zardoz (1974), Excalibur (1981), and Hope and Glory (1987). ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tolkien Enterprises is a company controlled by Saul Zaentz. ... Saul Zaentz (born February 28, 1921 in Passaic, New Jersey) was a big lover of music and movies as a child. ... 1978 was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1978 calendar). ... Ralph Bakshi (born October 29, 1938) is a director of animation and occasionally live-action films. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lord of the Rings movie trilogy consists of three live action films, directed by Peter Jackson. ... Peter Jackson in Wellington (New Zealand) Peter Jackson CNZM (born October 31, 1961), is a film writer, director and producer born in Pukerua Bay, New Zealand to Bill and Joan Jackson. ...


Bibliography

See also Poems by J. R. R. Tolkien. This is a list of poems written by J. R. R. Tolkien (years are the date of composition, if not stated otherwise) The Battle of the Eastern Field 1911 From the many-willowd margin of the immemorial Thames 1913 Goblin Feet 1915 The Happy Mariners 1920 The Clerkes...


Fiction and poetry

1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Hobbit is a fantasy novel written by J.R.R. Tolkien originally as a childrens story in the tradition of the fairy tale. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1949 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Byrhtnoth (Byrhtnoþ, also spelled Byrhtnoð, Byrihtnoð, Brihtnoþ, Beorhtnoþ, Beorhtnoð, Baeorhtnoð), Anglo-Saxon name, composed of beorht bright and noth courage. Name of the leader of the Anglo-Saxon defence force in the Battle of Maldon in 991. ... Dust jacket of the 1968 UK edition The one ring of power The Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Fellowship of the Ring is the first of three volumes of the epic novel The Lord of the Rings. ... 1954 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Two Towers is the second volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings. ... 1955 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Return of the King is the third and final volume of J. R. R. Tolkiens The Lord of the Rings, following The Fellowship of the Ring and The Two Towers. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Road Goes Ever On is a walking song by J. R. R. Tolkien, fictionally written by Bilbo Baggins; verses of it are sung at various places in The Hobbit and The Lord of the Rings. ... Donald Swann (September 30, 1923 - March 23, 1994) was a British composer, musician and entertainer. ... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Tree and Leaf is a collection of works by J. R. R. Tolkien including an essay called On Fairy-Stories, a short story called Leaf by Niggle and a poem called Mythopoeia. The book was originally illustrated by Pauline Baynes. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... 1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Smith of Wootton Major is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien about a boy who gets a fay-star in a slice of cake during the Twenty-Four Feast, and explores Faery during the time before the next Feast. ...

Academic works

1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th century metrical romance recorded in a manuscript containing three other pieces of an altogether more Christian orientation, which are linked by a commonality of dialect usage. ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1925 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ancrene Wisse (also Ancrene Riwle) or Guide for Anchoresses is a monastic rule (or manual) for anchorite nuns, written in the early 13th century in Middle English. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1935 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sigelwara Land is the title of an essay in two parts by J. R. R. Tolkien, appeared in Medium Aevum Vol. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Reeves Prologue and Tale is the third story to be told in Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... Categories: Art stubs | Literature stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ... Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Monsters and the Critics, a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ... The first page of Beowulf This article describes Beowulf, the epic poem. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1962 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Ancrene Wisse (also Ancrene Riwle) or Guide for Anchoresses is a monastic rule (or manual) for anchorite nuns, written in the early 13th century in Middle English. ... 1963 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1966 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1966 calendar). ... The Jerusalem Bible is a Catholic translation of the Bible which first was introduced to the English-speaking public in 1966. ...

Posthumous publications

1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Sir Gawain and the Green Knight is a late 14th century metrical romance recorded in a manuscript containing three other pieces of an altogether more Christian orientation, which are linked by a commonality of dialect usage. ... Pearl is a Middle English alliterative poem written in the late 14th century. ... Sir Orfeo is an anonymous Middle English narrative poem. ... 1976 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Father Chrismas Letters is a collection of letters written by Father Christmas to J.R.R Tolkiens children. ... 1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ... The Silmarillion is a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens works, edited and published posthumously by his son Christopher, with the assistance of fantasy fiction writer Guy Gavriel Kay. ... 1979 is a common year starting on Monday. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... Unfinished Tales (full title Unfinished Tales of Númenor and Middle-earth) is a collection of stories by J. R. R. Tolkien that were never completed during his lifetime, but were edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and published in 1980. ... 1980 is a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... The Adventures of Tom Bombadil is a collection of poetry by J. R. R. Tolkien, published in 1962. ... On Fairy-Stories is an essay written by J. R. R. Tolkien, first published in Essays Presented to Charles Williams, Oxford University Press, 1947. ... Leaf by Niggle is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien in 1938-39 and first published in the Dublin Review in January 1945. ... Farmer Giles of Ham (written in 1947, published in 1949) is a short story written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... Smith of Wootton Major is a short story by J. R. R. Tolkien about a boy who gets a fay-star in a slice of cake during the Twenty-Four Feast, and explores Faery during the time before the next Feast. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Letters of J. R. R. Tolkien (ISBN 0-618-05699-8) is a selection of J. R. R. Tolkiens letters published in 1981, edited by his son Christopher Tolkien and the biographer Humphrey Carpenter. ... Christopher John Reuel Tolkien (born November 21, 1924) is best known as the son of author J. R. R. Tolkien, and as the editor of much of his fathers posthumously published work. ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1982 is a number and represents a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar Events January January 6 - William Bonin is convicted of being the freeway killer. January 8 - AT&T agrees to divest itself of twenty-two subdivisions January 11 - Mark Thatcher, son of the British Prime... Finn and Hengest is a study by J.R.R Tolkien, published posthumously in book form in 1982. ... 1982 is a number and represents a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar Events January January 6 - William Bonin is convicted of being the freeway killer. January 8 - AT&T agrees to divest itself of twenty-two subdivisions January 11 - Mark Thatcher, son of the British Prime... Mr. ... 1983 is an integer and composite number that represents a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Monsters and the Critics, a collection of J. R. R. Tolkiens scholarly linguistic essays published posthumously in 1983. ... 1983 is an integer and composite number that represents a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... The History of Middle-earth is a 12-volume series of books that collect and analyse material relating to the fiction of J. R. R. Tolkien, compiled and edited by his son, Christopher Tolkien. ... The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... 1983 is an integer and composite number that represents a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Book of Lost Tales is the title of the first two volumes of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lays of Beleriand, published in 1985, is the third volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series, The History of Middle-earth, in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Shaping of Middle-Earth is the fourth volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12-volume series The History of Middle-earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lost Road and Other Writings is the fifth volume of The History of Middle-earth, a series of compilations of drafts and essays written by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... 1987 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The History of The Lord of the Rings is a 4-volume work by Christopher Tolkien that documents the process of J. R. R. Tolkiens writing of his masterwork The Lord of the Rings (LotR). ... The Notion Club Papers is the title of an abandoned novel by J. R. R. Tolkien, written during 1945 and published posthumously in Sauron Defeated, the 9th volume of The History of Middle-earth. ... 1992 is a leap year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Morgoths Ring is the 10th volume of Christopher Tolkiens 12_volume series The History of Middle_earth in which he analyses the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003) Events Media:January January 1 - Czechoslovakia divides. ... The War of the Jewels is the 11th volume of Christopher Tolkiens series The History of Middle-earth, analysing the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The Peoples of Middle-earth is the 12th and final volume of The History of Middle-earth, edited by Christopher Tolkien from the unpublished manuscripts of his father J. R. R. Tolkien. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... J. R. R. Tolkien: Artist and Illustrator is a collection of paintings (mostly watercolour) and drawings by J.R.R. Tolkien for his stories, published posthumously in 1995. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Roverandom is a story written by J.R.R. Tolkien, originally told in 1925. ...

Audio recordings

  • 1967 Poems and Songs of Middle-Earth, Caedmon TC 1231
  • 1975 JRR Tolkien Reads and Sings his The Hobbit & The Lord of the Rings, Caedmon TC 1477, TC 1478 (based on an August, 1952 recording by George Sayer)

1967 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... 1952 - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

In journal articles

Tolkien himself and his works have become subjects of academic research and many of his essays and text fragments, otherwise unpublished, have been studied in academic publications and forums. The works of J. R. R. Tolkien have generated a body of academic research, studying different facets such as Tolkien as a writer of fantasy literature Tolkiens invented languages As A Writer Splintered Light: Logos And Language In Tolkiens World Verlyn Flieger (1st Edition 1983, Revised Edition 2002...


Books about Tolkien

A small selection of the dozens of books about Tolkien and his works:

  • 1977 J. R. R. Tolkien - A Biography (Humphrey Carpenter)
  • 1981 Journeys of Frodo (Barbara Strachey — an atlas of The Lord of the Rings)
  • 2000 J. R. R. Tolkien - Author of the Century (T. A. Shippey)
  • 2000 Tolkien's Legendarium: Essays on The History of Middle Earth ed. Verlyn Flieger and Carl F. Hostetter
  • 2002 The Complete Tolkien Companion, 3rd edition (J. E. A. Tyler — a reference, covers The Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit, The Silmarillion, and Unfinished Tales; substantially improved over the previous editions.)
  • 2003 Tolkien the Medievalist, (ed. Jane Chance, Routledge, London, New York)
  • 2004 Tolkien studies, Vol 1 ed. Douglas A. Anderson, Michael D. C. Drout and Verlyn Flieger
  • 2004 Tolkien and the Invention of Myth, a Reader ed. Jane Chance

1977 was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1977 calendar). ... Humphrey William Bouverie Carpenter (April 29, 1946 – January 4, 2005) was an English biographer, author and radio broadcaster. ... 1981 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Lord of the Rings by Barbara Strachey (ISBN 0049120166, 1981) is an atlas based on the fictional realm of Middle-earth, which traces the journeys undertaken by the characters in Tolkiens epic. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas A. Shippey is a scholar of medieval literature, including Anglo-Saxon England, and of modern fantasy and science fiction, in particular the works of J. R. R. Tolkien, about whom he has written several mainstream books. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  • Tolkien Biography (http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/biography.html) (The Tolkien Society)

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Encyclopedic:

Thematic:

  • Ardalambion (http://www.uib.no/People/hnohf/) Of the Tongues of Arda, the invented world of J. R. R. Tolkien
  • Music inspired by Tolkien (http://www.tolkien-music.com/)

Places in Tolkien's life:

Movies:

  • Fan site of the Peter Jackson movies (http://www.theonering.net/)
  • Ralph Bakshi about his movie (http://www.canoe.ca/JamLordOfTheRings/jun21_bakshi-can.html)
  • John Boorman's plans (http://www.canoe.ca/JamLordOfTheRings/sep27_lotr-can.html)

Miscellaneous:

Societies or communities:

  • The Tolkien Society (http://www.tolkiensociety.org/tolkien/)
  • The Tolkien Wiki Community (http://www.thetolkienwiki.org/)
  • TheOneRing.net (http://www.theonering.net) Forged by and for fans of J. R. R. Tolkien
  • The Barrow-Downs (http://www.barrowdowns.com/) Tolkien/Lord of the Rings resource page
  • Tolkien Online (http://www.tolkienonline.com)

Directories:


  Results from FactBites:
 
J. R. R. Tolkien - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4683 words)
She died of diabetes in 1904, when Tolkien was 12, and he felt for the rest of his life that she had become a martyr for her faith; this had a profound effect on his own Catholic beliefs.
Tolkien's earliest literary ambition was to be a poet, but his primary creative urge in his younger days was the invention of imaginary languages, including early versions of what would later evolve into the Elvish languages Quenya and Sindarin.
Tolkien was a professional philologist, and the languages and the mythologies he studied clearly left an imprint on his fiction.
A Biography of JRR Tolkien (1179 words)
Tolkien and Edith were caught in affectionate circumstances - they bicycled together out to the countryside surrounding the city and had a picnic.
Tolkien lost many of his friends in the war, and he himself would serve as an officer on the front lines at the Battle of the Somme.
In 1925 Tolkien with a colleague published a translation and analysis of "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight." It was a turning point in his career.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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