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Encyclopedia > Tolerances versus preferences
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The tolerances versus preferences dilemma emerges in many problems in ethics, particularly in politics and economics. In essence, the dilemma is that the presentation of any problem to the public requires it to be framed in such a way that the public is either choosing a tolerance, that is, the acceptability of one of many painful choices, or a preference, that is, the desirability of one of several choices, one or all of which may seem to be desirable. So the choice of presentation is itself a very political problem: Tolerance is a social, cultural and religious term applied to the collective and individual practice of not persecuting those who may believe, behave or act in ways of which one may not approve. ... Preference (or taste) is a concept, used in the social sciences, particularly economics. ... Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... -1... Jump to: navigation, search Supply and demand The supply and demand model describes how prices vary as a result of a balance between product availability and demand. ...


There is very considerable evidence, especially in behavioral finance and political science and risk/regret theory, that people hedge losses in very different ways than they pursue gains. The question of how problems or menus of choices are presented may be far more influential than the question of what solutions or options are offered as the means to resolve them. Pollsters, politicians, advocates of referendum measures, are all well aware of this potential and often exploit their powers heavily to influence the outcome and 'frame the debate' so as to achieve their ends. Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences winner Daniel Kahneman, was an important figure in the development of behavioral finance and economics and continues to write extensively in the field. ... The Politics Series Politics Politics Portal Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Ideology Democracy Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Elections Elections Elections by country Elections by calendar Political parties Political party Parties by country Parties by name... Risk is the potential harm that may arise from some present process or from some future event. ...


Ideally, this dilemma would be resolved by giving each side the time and money to debate the issue in public in a relatively fixed time horizon, e.g. an election with generous writeoffs for political donations. However, some choices are very difficult to make and even more difficult to change, e.g. choice of a voting system in a democracy, trust in a monopoly to manage a public utility, etc., and the negotiation of a trade bloc including many countries. The Elections and Parties Series Democracy Representative democracy History of democracy Referenda Liberal democracy Representation Voting Voting systems Ideology Elections Elections by country Elections by calendar Politics Politics by country Political campaigns Political science Political philosophy Related topics Political parties Parties by country Parties by name Parties by ideology Ideologies... In economics, a monopoly (from the Greek monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a kind of product or service. ... A trade bloc is a large free trade zone or near-free trade zone formed by one or more tax, tariff and trade agreements. ...


In these once-in-a-generation choices, the specific balance of power in effect when the decision is made tends to be critical, and the importance of knowing whether one is dealing more with tolerances (i.e. likely unrest, violence, war) or preferences (i.e. happiness, creativity, satisfaction). Some propose that the political 'left' and 'right' are defined by habitual tendencies to emphasize one or the other, and to be cautious and carefully assess tolerances, or to be reckless and advocate new adventures.


One such theory is that of Moral Politics, by George Lakoff. Another is that of the Guardian Ethic and Trader Ethic by Jane Jacobs. There is some more controversial but difficult-to-refute evidence from cognitive science and from primatology that human females may have better intuition for tolerances, and human males may be more inclined to thinking in terms of preferences. To some this is 'obvious', to others (e.g. those who manage to defy the sexual stereotypes) it's 'sexist' and imposed by culture, which devolves into nature versus nurture debate. Moral Politics: How Liberals and Conservatives Think is a book by cognitive linguist George Lakoff. ... George P. Lakoff (Laykoff, born 1941) is a professor of linguistics (in particular, cognitive linguistics) at the University of California, Berkeley where he has taught since 1972. ... Jane Butzner Jacobs (born May 4, 1916) is a writer, activist, and city aficionado. ... Jane Butzner Jacobs (born May 4, 1916) is a writer, activist, and city aficionado. ... Jane Jacobs Jane Jacobs (born on May 4, 1916) is a U.S.-born, but Canada-based writer and activist. ... Jump to: navigation, search Rendering of human brain based on MRI data Cognitive Science is the scientific study of the mind and brain and how they give rise to behavior. ... Primatology is the study of primates. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nature versus nurture is a shorthand expression for debates about the relative importance of an individuals nature versus personal experiences (nurture) in determining or causing physical and behavioral traits. ...


It may also be significant that languages may provide richer ways to express concerns about tolerances, or desires and preferences. A language that has few ways to say 'yes' and many to say 'no', e.g. Japanese, may incline native speakers to tolerance not preference thinking. (see Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis) In linguistics, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. ...


Regardless whether an innate cognitive bias, language's notation bias, or other more overt bias like economic interest or political gain motivates the presentation of any given choice, it seems that triggering the cautious, fearful, part of the brain has very different implications than triggering the greedy impulse to acquire more of what desires. Perhaps the most extreme statement of this view is that of Howard Bloom, whose book The Lucifer Principle argues that all forms of evil originate in the gain-seeking impulses of the human hypothalamus, which trigger one to seek gains rather than rationally assess risk or fearfully do nothing. This is not a widely accepted theory. Cognitive bias is any of a wide range of observer effects identified in cognitive science, including very basic statistical and memory errors that are common to all human beings and drastically skew the reliability of anecdotal and legal evidence. ... Notational bias is a form of cultural bias in which a notation induces the appearance of a nonexistent natural law. ... Howard Bloom is a specialist in evolutionary psychology. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the hypothalamus is a region of the brain located below the thalamus, forming the major portion of the ventral region of the diencephalon and functioning to regulate certain metabolic processes and other autonomic activities. ... Risk is the potential harm that may arise from some present process or from some future event. ...


Nonetheless, the tolerances versus preferences issue underlies a good many debates regarding monopoly, including the United States v. Microsoft case, where Microsoft argues preferences of users drive the market, and the US Department of Justice takes the position that they are forced into a situation they tolerate, and will accept, but that requires some intervention to correct. In economics, a monopoly (from the Greek monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a kind of product or service. ... United States v. ...


A more abstract debate where tolerances versus preferences is invoked is one between approval voting (based on tolerances) and preferential voting, although voters in either form of election may vote tactically if they consider themselves to be facing an unusally risky or rewarding choice of candidates. Approval voting is a voting system used for elections, in which each voter can vote for as many or as few candidates as the voter chooses. ... A how-to-vote card from the Australian federal election of 2004, showing voters how to fill in the squares on the ballot paper if they wish to vote for the Liberal Party of Australia. ... In voting systems, tactical voting (or strategic voting) occurs when a voter misrepresents his or her sincere preferences in order to gain a more favorable outcome. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Tolerances versus preferences - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (637 words)
The tolerances versus preferences dilemma emerges in many problems in ethics, particularly in politics and economics.
Microsoft case, where Microsoft argues preferences of users drive the market, and the US Department of Justice takes the position that they are forced into a situation they tolerate, and will accept, but that requires some intervention to correct.
A more abstract debate where tolerances versus preferences is invoked is one between approval voting (based on tolerances) and preferential voting, although voters in either form of election may vote tactically if they consider themselves to be facing an unusally risky or rewarding choice of candidates.
Tolerances versus preferences - encyclopedia article about Tolerances versus preferences. (2548 words)
The tolerances Tolerance is a social, cultural and religious term applied to the collective and individual practice of not persecuting those who may believe, behave or act in ways of which one may not approve.
Tolerance is seen as a more widely acceptable term than "acceptance" and particularly "respect," where the application to controversial parties is concerned.
A more abstract debate where tolerances versus preferences is invoked is one between approval voting Approval voting is a voting system used for elections, in which each voter can vote for as many or as few candidates as the voter chooses.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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