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Encyclopedia > Tolerance
The cross of the war memorial and a hanukiah coexist in Oxford.
The cross of the war memorial and a hanukiah coexist in Oxford.

Tolerance is a recent political term used within debates in areas of social, cultural and religious context, as an emphatic antithesis to discrimination, as such may advocate persecution. Its usage came about as a more widely acceptable alternative to "acceptance", the usage of which had been widely derided, as certain cases would not be considered by common society as acceptable. The term is often used in reference to foreign religious belief, as well as to more particular categories, such as discrimination against unusual sexual and social orientation. Image File history File links Please see the file description page for further information. ... Toleration is an individual and collective attitude and a practice of allowing people to be and act differently from oneself or ones group. ... You got here because tolerance has more than one meaning. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 313 KB) Summary The cross of the war memorial and a menorah for Hanukkah coexist in Oxford. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1168x1760, 313 KB) Summary The cross of the war memorial and a menorah for Hanukkah coexist in Oxford. ... The traditional form of the Western Christian cross, known as the Latin cross. ... This memorial in England lists the names of soldiers who died in the First World War. ... Hanukiah, Chănukkiyah (חַנֻכִּיָּה, חנוכייה) is a 9-branched candelabrum for Chanukkah. ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Sociological inquiry. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islam, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhism, Sikh, Hindu, Jain (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Diane de Poitiers, Maltese cross Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that (generally) involve a faith in a spiritual nature and... This article is about discrimination in the social science sense. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The term "tolerance" itself, like "toleration", is controversial and disliked by some due to its implication that the "tolerated" custom or behavior is in fact an aberration. Tolerance implies both the ability to punish and the conscious decision not to, but makes no statement to higher principle. Supporters of the term tolerance claim it to be more applicable than acceptance and respect. Detractors of the term suggest that the term is promoted as if it were a principle — one which falters when compared to more elevated concepts such as respect and civility. Toleration is an individual and collective attitude and a practice of allowing people to be and act differently from oneself or ones group. ... Aberration (Latin ab, from or away + errare, to wander), a deviation or wandering, especially used in the figurative sense as: In ethics, a deviation from the truth. ... Look up Punishment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the Wikipedia policy regarding civility, see Wikipedia:Civility Civic virtue is the cultivation of habits of personal living that are claimed to be important for the success of the community. ...

Contents

Rationalization

In the wider sociological sense, "tolerance" carries with it the understanding that "intolerance" and conformity breeds violence and social instability. "Tolerance" has thus become the social term of choice to define the practical rationale of permitting uncommon social practice and diversity. One only tolerates people who are disliked for their differences. While people deemed undesirable may be disapproved of, "tolerance" would require that the party or group in question be left undisturbed, physically or otherwise, and that criticism directed toward them be free of inflammatory or inciteful efforts. Conformity is the act of consciously maintaining a certain degree of similarity (in clothing, manners, behaviors, etc. ... Violence is any act of aggression and abuse which causes or intends to cause injury, in some cases criminal, or harm to persons, and (by some definitions) animals or property. ...


Authoritarian systems practice intolerance, the opposite of tolerance. Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ...


Politics and religion

Historically, political and religious tolerance have been the most important aspects of tolerance, since differences of political and religious ideology have led to innumerable wars, purges and other atrocities. The philosophers and writers of the enlightenment, especially Voltaire and Lessing, promoted religious tolerance, and their influence is strongly felt in Western society (see pluralism). Unfortunately, they failed to treat with sufficient rigor the equally important issue of political tolerance. While a lack of religious tolerance causes problems in many regions of the world today, differences of political ideology caused hundreds of millions of deaths in the twentieth century alone. A desideratum of contemporary scholarship, therefore, is to develop a more expansive critical theory of political toleration. Some feel this is particularly urgent in the West, where the influence of religion in public policy making continues to decline, especially in Europe but also in North America. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Freedom of religion. ... The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy, and is often thought of as part of a larger period which includes the Age of Reason. ... For the singer/songwriter of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Gotthold Ephraim Lessing (22 January 1729 – 15 February 1781), writer, philosopher, publicist, and art critic, was one of the most outstanding German representatives of the Enlightenment era. ... The term Western World or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... It has been suggested that Pluralistic perspective be merged into this article or section. ...


It is a common charge among critics that tolerance is only a "modern virtue" or a "secular virtue." A related issue is the defense of historical figures accused of intolerant acts (i.e. anti-Semitism or witch-burning). Such criticisms are at least partially answered by the many examples of prominently "tolerant" individuals and societies throughout world history, such as the multi-religious society of Al Andalus (Spain) under the rule of the Umayyads and Almoravids, the early Ottoman Empire, Abraham Lincoln (insofar as he consciously changed the purpose of the American Civil War from mere reunification of the nation to one of granting equal citizenship to all Americans) and, at least early in her reign, Queen Elizabeth I of England. The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims from 711 to 1492. ... The Umayyad Dynasty (Arabic الأمويون / بنو أمية umawiyy; in Turkish, Emevi) was the first dynasty of caliphs of the Prophet Muhammad who were not closely related to Muhammad himself, though they were of the same Meccan tribe, the... Almoravides (From Arabic المرابطون sing. ... Motto: دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem: Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299-1326) Bursa (1326-1365) Edirne (1365-1453) Constantinople (Istanbul) (1453-1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–1922 Mehmed VI... Abraham Lincoln (February 12, 1809 – April 15, 1865), sometimes called Abe Lincoln and nicknamed Honest Abe, the Rail Splitter, and the Great Emancipator, was an American politician who served as the 16th President of the United States (1861 to 1865), and the first president from the Republican Party. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...


Tolerating the intolerant

Philosopher Karl Popper's assertion in The Open Society and Its Enemies that we are warranted in refusing to tolerate intolerance illustrates that there are limits to tolerance.


In particular, should a tolerant society tolerate intolerance? What if by tolerating action "A", society destroys itself? Tolerance of "A" could be used to introduce a new thought system leading to intolerance of vital institution "B". It is difficult to strike a balance and different societies do not always agree on the details, indeed different groups within a single society also often fail to agree. The current suppression of Nazism in Germany is considered intolerant by some countries, for instance, while in Germany itself it is Nazism which is considered intolerably intolerant. National Socialism redirects here. ...


Philosopher John Rawls devotes a section of his influential and controversial book A Theory of Justice to the problem of whether a just society should or should not tolerate the intolerant, and to the related problem of whether or not, in any society, the intolerant have any right to complain when they are not tolerated. John Rawls (February 21, 1921 – November 24, 2002) was an American philosopher, a professor of political philosophy at Harvard University and author of A Theory of Justice (1971), Political Liberalism, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement, and The Law of Peoples. ... A Theory of Justice is a book of political and moral philosophy by John Rawls. ...


Rawls concludes that a just society must be tolerant, therefore the intolerant must be tolerated for otherwise the society would then be intolerant and so unjust. However Rawls qualifies this by insisting that society and its social institutions have a reasonable right of self-preservation that supersedes the principle of tolerance. Hence, the intolerant must be tolerated but only insofar as they do not endanger the tolerant society and its institutions.


Similarly, continues Rawls, while the intolerant might forfeit the right to complain when they are not tolerated, other members of society have a right, perhaps even a duty, to complain on their behalf, again as long as society itself is not endangered by these intolerant members. The ACLU is a good example of a social institution that protects the intolerant, as it frequently defends the right to free speech of such intolerant organizations as the Ku Klux Klan. The American Civil Liberties Union, or ACLU, is a non_governmental organization devoted to defending civil rights and civil liberties in the United States. ... Members of the second Ku Klux Klan at a rally during the 1920s. ...


See also

Allophilia, or positive intergroup attitudes, is derived from Greek words meaning liking or love of the other. ... The autism rights movement (which has also been called autistic self-advocacy movement [2] and autistic liberation movement [3]) was started by adult autistic individuals in order to advocate and demand tolerance for what they refer to as neurodiversity. ... Diversity is the presence of a wide range of variation in the qualities or attributes under discussion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Religious toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Gray Area n. ... Heresy, according to the Oxford English Dictionary, is a theological or religious opinion or doctrine maintained in opposition, or held to be contrary, to the Catholic or Orthodox doctrine of the Christian Church, or, by extension, to that of any church, creed, or religious system, considered as orthodox. ... Inquisition (capitalized I) is broadly used, to refer to things related to judgment of heresy by the Catholic Church. ... Intercultural competence is the ability for successful communication with people of other cultures. ... Neurodiversity is a concept that atypical (neurodivergent) neurological wiring is a normal human difference that is to be tolerated and respected as any other human difference[citation needed]. The concept of neurodiversity was created by some autistic individuals and people with related conditions, who believe that autism is not a... In the most general sense, penal is the body of laws that are enforced by the State in its own name and impose penalties for their violation, as opposed to civil law that seeks to redress private wrongs. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... In the United States and Canada, zero tolerance policies are applied in schools and other education venues. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Tolerance
  • Governors Island-Lifeblood of American Liberty
  • Canadian Webzine
  • Declaration of Principles on Tolerance
  • A story from the Talmud teaching tolerance
  • UN 25th Anniversary Commemoration of Tolerance Declaration
  • Project Tolerance

  Results from FactBites:
 
Tolerance - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (890 words)
Tolerance is a social, cultural and religious term applied to the collective and individual practice of not persecuting those who may believe, behave or act in ways of which one may not approve.
Tolerance implies both the ability to punish and the conscious decision not to.
In the wider sociological sense, "tolerance" carries with it the understanding that "intolerance" and conformity breeds violence and social instability.
Tolerance - Free Encyclopedia (398 words)
Tolerance, in a social, cultural and religious sense, is the acceptance of other people who hold different and disagreeing beliefs, or otherwise represent ideologies or cultures that have a history of being disrespected.
Tolerance is weaker than respect: a disagreeable party may still be disapproved of, and interaction may be limited to what is necessary, the disagreeable party is simply left undisturbed.
Tolerance cannot be neutral about what is good, though, for its very purpose is to guard good and avert evils.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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