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Encyclopedia > Toledo War
Map of the "Toledo Strip", the disputed region.
Map of the "Toledo Strip", the disputed region.

The Toledo War (1835–1836), also known as the Ohio-Michigan War, was the bloodless boundary dispute between the U.S. state of Ohio and the adjoining territory of Michigan. The dispute originated from varying interpretations of conflicting state and federal legislation, passed between 1787 and 1805, which in turn resulted largely from a poor understanding of the location of certain features of the Great Lakes. This caused the governments of Ohio and Michigan to both claim sovereignty over a 468 square mile (1,210 km²) region along the border, now known as the Toledo Strip. When Michigan pressed for statehood in the early 1830s it sought to include the disputed territory within its boundaries but Ohio's Congressional delegation was able to halt Michigan's admission to the Union. Map of Toledo Strip, This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Map of Toledo Strip, This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... A territorial dispute is a disagreement over the possession/control of land between two or more states, or over the possession/control of land by one state after it has conquered it from a former state no longer currently recognized by the occupying power. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of... This article is about the U.S. State. ... From 1805-1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. ... // Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Evolutionary theorist Charles Darwins expedition on the HMS Beagle. ...


Beginning in 1835 both sides passed legislation meant to force the other side's capitulation. Ohio's governor Robert Lucas and Michigan's then 24-year-old "boy governor" Stevens T. Mason were both unwilling to cede jurisdiction of the Strip, so they raised militias and helped institute criminal penalties for citizens submitting to the other state's authority. Both militias were mobilized and sent to positions on opposite sides of the Maumee River near Toledo, but there was little interaction between the two sides besides mutual taunting. The single military confrontation of the "war" ended with a report of shots being fired into the air, incurring no casualties. Categories: | ... Robert Lucas (April 1, 1781 – February 7, 1853) was the 12th governor of Ohio from 1832 to 1836. ... This is a list of Governors of Michigan Territory: William Hull (1805–1813) Lewis Cass (1813–1831) George Bryan Porter (1831–1834) Stevens T. Mason (1834–1835) John S. Horner (1835–1836 See also Michigan Michigan Territory List of Governors of Michigan Categories: Michigan | Lists... This article is about the first governor of Michigan. ... Most broadly, cession (to cede) is the assignment of property to another entity. ... The Maumee River at Grand Rapids, Ohio. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio County Lucas Founded 1833 Government  - Mayor Carty Finkbeiner (D) Area  - City 84. ...


In December 1836 the Michigan territorial government, facing a dire financial crisis, surrendered the land under pressure from Congress and President Andrew Jackson and accepted a proposed resolution adopted in the U.S. Congress. Under the compromise Michigan gave up its claim to the strip in exchange for its statehood and approximately three-quarters of the Upper Peninsula. Although the compromise was considered a poor outcome for Michigan at the time, the later discovery of copper and iron deposits and the plentiful timber in the Upper Peninsula more than compensated for the loss of the strip. For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... The Upper Peninsula of Michigan is the northern of the two major land masses that comprise the U.S. state of Michigan. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...

Contents

Origins

Map of the Northwest Territory as established by the U.S. Congress in the Northwest Ordinance, shown with present-day state borders, and correct spatial relationship between Lakes Michigan and Erie.
Map of the Northwest Territory as established by the U.S. Congress in the Northwest Ordinance, shown with present-day state borders, and correct spatial relationship between Lakes Michigan and Erie.

In 1787, the Congress of the Confederation enacted the Northwest Ordinance, which created the Northwest Territory in what is now the upper Midwestern United States. The Ordinance specified that the territory was eventually to be divided into "not less than three nor more than five" future states. It was determined that the north-south boundary for three of these states was to be "an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan."[1] Image File history File links Northwest_territory. ... Image File history File links Northwest_territory. ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Northwest Territory (1787). ... The Congress of the Confederation or the United States in Congress Assembled was a body of representatives appointed by the legislatures of the United States from March 1, 1781 to March 4, 1789. ... Northwest Territory (1787). ... The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and the Territory North West of the Ohio, was a governmental region within the early United States. ... This article is about the Midwestern region in the United States. ... Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. ...

"Mitchell Map" of the region, from the late 1700s, used to create the Ordinance Line of 1787. Note that the southern tip of Lake Michigan is depicted as being farther north than Lake Erie.
"Mitchell Map" of the region, from the late 1700s, used to create the Ordinance Line of 1787. Note that the southern tip of Lake Michigan is depicted as being farther north than Lake Erie.

At the time, the actual location of this extreme was still unknown. The most highly regarded map of the time, the "Mitchell Map,"[2] placed it at a latitude near the mouth of the Detroit River. This meant that the entire shoreline of Lake Erie west of Pennsylvania would have belonged to the state that was to become Ohio.[3] When Congress passed the Enabling Act of 1802, which authorized Ohio to begin the process of becoming a U.S. state, the language defining Ohio's northern boundary differed slightly from that used in the Northwest Ordinance: the border was to be "an east and west line drawn through the southern extreme of Lake Michigan, running east...until it shall intersect Lake Erie or the territorial line [with Canada]; thence with the same, through Lake Erie to the Pennsylvania line aforesaid." Image File history File links Mitchell_map_michigan. ... Image File history File links Mitchell_map_michigan. ... Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. ... The Mitchell Map Mitchell Map is the common name used to refer to a map made by John Mitchell and all the various reprints made during the late 18th century. ... Landsat satellite photo, showing Lake Saint Clair, as well as St. ... Lake Erie (pronounced ) is the tenth largest lake on Earth[2] and, of the five Great Lakes of North America, is the fourth largest by surface area, the southernmost, shallowest, and smallest by volume. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... The Enabling Act of 1802 was made into law on April 30, 1802 by the Seventh Congress of the United States. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      A U.S. state is any one of the fifty subnational entities of...


Because the territorial boundary line between the U.S. and Canada ran through the middle of Lake Erie and then up the Detroit River, combined with the prevailing belief regarding the location of the southern tip of Lake Michigan, the framers of the 1802 Ohio Constitution believed it was Congress' intent that Ohio's northern boundary should certainly be north of the mouth of the Maumee River, and possibly even of the Detroit River. Ohio would thus be granted access to most or all of the Lake Erie shoreline west of Pennsylvania, and any other new states carved out of the Northwest Territory would have access to the Great Lakes via Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Superior.[4] The Ohio Constitution is the basic governing document of the State of Ohio, which in 1803 became the 17th state to join the United States of America. ... Ipperwash Beach, Lake Huron. ... For the the Quebec municipality, see Lac-Supérieur. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
The Northwest Ordinance
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Enabling act for Ohio 1802

During the Ohio Constitutional Convention in 1802, the delegates reportedly received reports from a fur trapper that Lake Michigan extended significantly further south than had previously been believed (or mapped). Thus, it was possible that an east-west line extending east from Lake Michigan's southern tip may have intersected Lake Erie somewhere east of Maumee Bay, or worse, may not have intersected the lake at all; the farther south that Lake Michigan actually extended, the more land Ohio would lose, perhaps even the entire Lake Erie shoreline west of Pennsylvania.[5] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Maumee Bay on Lake Erie is located in Ohio, just east of the city of Toledo. ...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Ohio Constitution of 1802

Addressing this contingency, the Ohio delegates included a provision in the draft Ohio constitution that if the trapper's report about Lake Michigan's position were in fact correct, the state boundary line would be angled slightly northeast so as to intersect Lake Erie at the "most northerly cape of the Miami [Maumee] Bay." This provision would guarantee that most of the Maumee River watershed and all of the southern shore of Lake Erie west of Pennsylvania would fall in Ohio.[6] The draft constitution with this proviso was accepted by the United States Congress, but before Ohio's admission to the Union in February 1803, the proposed constitution was referred to a Congressional committee. The committee's report stated that the clause defining the northern boundary depended on "a fact not yet ascertained" (the location of the southern extreme of Lake Michigan), and the members "thought it unnecessary to take it [the provision], at the time, into consideration."[7] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Maumee River at Grand Rapids, Ohio. ... A drainage basin is the area within the drainage basin divide (blue outline), and drains the surface runoff and river discharge (green lines) of a contiguous area. ... A Congressional committee is a legislative sub-organization in the United States Congress that handles a specific duty (rather than the general duties of Congress). ...


When Congress created the Michigan Territory in 1805, it used the Northwest Ordinance's language to define the southern boundary, which therefore differed from that in Ohio's state constitution. This difference, and its potential ramifications, apparently went unnoticed at the time, but it established the legal basis for the conflict that would erupt 30 years later.[8] From 1805-1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan. ...


Creation of the "Toledo Strip"

Former Ohio Governor and U.S. Surveyor General Edward Tiffin who commissioned the "Harris Line" survey.
Former Ohio Governor and U.S. Surveyor General Edward Tiffin who commissioned the "Harris Line" survey.

The location of the border was contested throughout the early 1800s. Residents of the Port of Miami — which would later become Toledo — urged the Ohio government to resolve the border issue. The Ohio legislature, in turn, passed repeated resolutions and requests asking Congress to take up the matter. In 1812, Congress approved a request for an official survey of the line.[9] Delayed because of the War of 1812, it was only after Indiana's admission to the Union in 1816 that work on the survey commenced. U.S. Surveyor General Edward Tiffin, who was in charge of the survey, was a former Ohio governor. Image File history File links Tiffin300. ... Image File history File links Tiffin300. ... Edward Tiffin (June 19, 1766 – August 9, 1829) was a Democratic-Republican politician from Ohio, and the first Governor of that state. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio County Lucas Founded 1833 Government  - Mayor Carty Finkbeiner (D) Area  - City 84. ... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Edward Tiffin (June 19, 1766 – August 9, 1829) was a Democratic-Republican politician from Ohio, and the first Governor of that state. ...

Michigan Territory governor, Lewis Cass (1813–1831)
Michigan Territory governor, Lewis Cass (1813–1831)

As a result, Tiffin employed surveyor William Harris to survey not the Ordinance Line, but the line as described in the Ohio Constitution of 1802. When completed, the "Harris Line" placed the mouth of the Maumee River completely in Ohio.[10] When the results of the survey were made public, Michigan territorial governor Lewis Cass was unhappy, since it was not based on the Congressionally approved Ordinance Line. In a letter to Tiffin, Cass stated that the Ohio-biased survey "is only adding strength to the strong, and making the weak still weaker."[11] http://bioguide. ... http://bioguide. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ... William Harris may refer to William Harris — founder of the Symbionese Liberation Army William Harris — founder of the Ottawa Citizen newspaper William Harris — US swimmer and Olympic bronze medallist William H. Harris — English organist and composer William Laurel Harris — American muralist and editor. ... Lewis Cass (October 9, 1782 – June 17, 1866) was an American military officer and politician. ...


In response, Michigan commissioned a second survey that was carried out by John A. Fulton. The Fulton survey was based upon the original 1787 Ordinance Line, and after measuring the line eastward from Lake Michigan to Lake Erie, it found the Ohio boundary to be south of the mouth of the Maumee River.[12] The region between the Harris and Fulton survey lines formed what is now known as the "Toledo Strip." This ribbon of land between northern Ohio and southern Michigan spanned a region five to eight miles wide, of which both jurisdictions claimed sovereignty. While Ohio refused to cede its claim, Michigan quietly occupied it for the next several years, setting up local governments, building roads, and collecting taxes throughout the area.[13]


Economic significance

Modern-day Maumee River in what is now Toledo, Ohio.

The land known as the Toledo Strip was and still is a commercially important area. Prior to the rise of the railroad industry, rivers and canals were the major "highways of commerce" in the American Midwest.[14] A small but important part of the Strip — the area around present day Toledo and Maumee Bay — fell within the Great Black Swamp, and this area was nearly impossible to navigate by road, especially after spring and summer rainfalls.[15] Draining into Lake Erie, the Maumee River was not necessarily well-suited for large ships, but it did provide an easy connection to Indiana's Fort Wayne.[16] At the time, there were plans to connect the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes through a series of canals. One such canal system approved by the Ohio legislature in 1825 was the Miami and Erie Canal that included a connection to the Ohio River and an outflow into Lake Erie via the Maumee River.[10] Image File history File links Maumee_River_in_Toledo,_Ohio. ... Image File history File links Maumee_River_in_Toledo,_Ohio. ... The Maumee River at Grand Rapids, Ohio. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio County Lucas Founded 1833 Government  - Mayor Carty Finkbeiner (D) Area  - City 84. ... Horse drawn railway coach, late 18th century Density of the railway net in Europe 1896 Main article: Rail transport The history of rail transport dates back nearly 500 years, and includes systems with man or horse power and rails of wood or stone. ... For other uses, see Canal (disambiguation). ... The Great Black Swamp roughly covered the black area within the green shaded counties. ... For other uses, see Indiana (disambiguation). ... Fort Wayne in current Fort Wayne, Indiana was established by Captain John Hamtramck under orders from General Mad Anthony Wayne as part of the campaign against the Indians of the area. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Image:Ohiocanalmap. ...


During the conflict over the Toledo Strip the Erie Canal was built, linking New York City and the Eastern seaboard to the Great Lakes at Buffalo. The canal, finished in 1825, immediately became a major route for trade and migration. Corn and other farm products from the Midwest were able to be shipped to eastern markets for much less expense than the older route along the Mississippi River. In addition, the migration of settlers to the Midwest increased sharply after the canal was finished, making existing port cities such as Buffalo boom towns.[17] The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Categories: US geography stubs ... Nickname: Location of Buffalo in New York State Coordinates: , Country State County Erie Government  - Mayor Byron Brown (D) Area  - City 52. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Boomtown can refer to: An American television show: Boomtown A town that experiences a sudden growth in population and economy: Boomtown (geography) A gaming community: Boomtown (community). ...


The success of the Erie Canal inspired many other canal projects. Because the western end of Lake Erie offered the shortest overland route to the frontiers of Indiana and Illinois, Maumee Harbor was seen as a site of immediate importance and great value. Detroit was twenty miles up the Detroit River from Lake Erie, and faced the difficult barrier of the Great Black Swamp to the south. Because of this, Detroit was less suited to new transportation projects such as canals, and later railroads, than was Toledo. From this perspective on the rapidly developing Midwest of the 1820s and 1830s, both states had much to gain by controlling the land in the Toledo Strip.[18]


Also, the Strip west of the Toledo area is a prime location for agriculture, because of its well-drained, fertile loam soil. The area has for many years been characterized by high per-acre productivities of corn, soybeans, and wheat.[19] Michigan and Ohio both wanted what seemed strategically and economically destined to become an important port and a prosperous region.[20] Loam is soil composed of a relatively even mixture of three mineral particle size groups: sand, silt, and clay. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ...


Prelude to conflict

Ohio governor Robert Lucas (1832–1836)
Ohio governor Robert Lucas (1832–1836)

In 1820–1821, the federal land surveys had reached the disputed area from two directions, progressing southward from a baseline in Michigan and northward from one in Ohio. For unknown reasons, Surveyor General Tiffin ordered the two surveys to close on the Northwest Ordinance (Fulton) line, rather than Harris' line, perhaps lending implicit support to Michigan's claims over Ohio's.[21] Thus, townships that were established north of the line assumed they were part of Michigan Territory. By the early 1820s, the growing territory reached the minimum population threshold of 60,000 to qualify for statehood. However, when Michigan sought to hold a state constitutional convention in 1833, Congress rejected the request because of the still disputed Toledo Strip.[12] Image File history File links Robert_Lucas_circa_1838_sketch. ... Image File history File links Robert_Lucas_circa_1838_sketch. ... Robert Lucas (April 1, 1781 – February 7, 1853) was the 12th governor of Ohio from 1832 to 1836. ... The Public Land Survey System (PLSS) is a method used in the United States to survey and identify land parcels, particularly for titles and deeds of rural, wild or undeveloped land. ...

Michigan Territory Governor Stevens T. Mason (1832–1839)
Michigan Territory Governor Stevens T. Mason (1832–1839)

Ohio asserted that the boundary was firmly established in its constitution and thus Michigan's citizens were simply intruders; the state government refused to negotiate the issue with the Michigan Territory. The Ohio Congressional delegation was active in blocking Michigan from attaining statehood, lobbying other states to vote against Michigan. In January 1835, frustrated by the political stalemate, Michigan's acting territorial Governor Stevens T. Mason called for a constitutional convention to be held in May of that year despite Congress' refusal to approve an enabling act authorizing such a state constitution.[22] Image File history File links Stevens_T_Mason. ... Image File history File links Stevens_T_Mason. ... From 1805-1818, the western border was a line through Lake Michigan. ... This article is about the first governor of Michigan. ... This article is about the first governor of Michigan. ... hi:Alternative meaning: Constitutional convention (political custom) this is random:Alternative meaning: Constitutional convention (political custom) A constitutional convention is a gathering of delegates for the purpose of writing a new constitution or revising an existing constitution. ... An enabling act is a piece of legislation by which a legislature grants an entity which depends in on it for authorization or legitimacy to take a certain action(s). ...


In February 1835, Ohio passed legislation that set up county governments in the Strip. The county in which Toledo sat would, later in 1835, be named after incumbent Governor Robert Lucas, a move that further exacerbated the growing tensions with Michigan. Also, during this period, Ohio attempted to use its power in Congress to revive a previously rejected boundary bill that would formally set the state border to be the Harris Line.[23] Open seat redirects here. ... Robert Lucas (April 1, 1781 – February 7, 1853) was the 12th governor of Ohio from 1832 to 1836. ...


Michigan, led by the young and hot-headed Mason, responded with the passage of the Pains and Penalties Act just six days after Lucas County was formed; the act made it a criminal offense for Ohioans to carry out governmental actions in the Strip, under penalty of a fine up to $1,000 and/or up to five years imprisonment at hard labor.[24][25] Acting as commander-in-chief of the territory, Mason appointed Brigadier-General Joseph W. Brown of the Third U.S. Brigade to head the state militia, with the instructions to be ready to act against Ohio trespassers. Lucas obtained legislative approval for a militia of his own, and he soon sent forces to the Strip area. The Toledo War had begun.[12] FINE was created in 1998 and is an informal association of the four main Fair Trade networks: F Fairtrade Labelling Organizations International (FLO) I International Fair Trade Association (IFAT) N Network of European Worldshops (NEWS!) and E European Fair Trade Association (EFTA) // The aim of FINE is to enable these... This article is about the type of currency. ... This article is about the institution. ... Hard Labor is the eleventh album by American rock band Three Dog Night, released in 1974 (see 1974 in music). ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... Brigadier General (sometimes known as a one-star general from the United States insignia) is the lowest rank of general officer in some countries, usually ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Joseph W. Brown General Joseph W. Brown was the brother of major general Jacob Brown, the founder of Brownville, New York. ... The Iron Brigade was an infantry brigade in the Union Army during the American Civil War, consisting primarily of Western regiments, that was noted for its ability to withstand almost any fire, and its regiments combined took the highest casualty percentage of the war. ... “Unlawful entry” redirects here. ...


Former United States President John Quincy Adams, who at the time represented Massachusetts in Congress, backed Michigan's claim. In 1833, when Congress rejected Michigan's request for a convention, Adams summed up his opinion on the dispute: "Never in the course of my life have I known a controversy of which all the right so clearly on one side and all the power so overwhelmingly on the other."[12] John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848) was a diplomat, politician, and the sixth President of the United States (March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829). ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


"War"

U.S. President Andrew Jackson, who sided with Ohio in the conflict and dismissed Mason as governor.

Acting as commander-in-chief of Ohio's militia, Governor Lucas, along with General John Bell and about 600 other fully armed militiamen, arrived in Perrysburg, Ohio, ten miles southwest of Toledo, on March 31, 1835.[26] Shortly thereafter, Governor Mason and General Brown arrived to occupy the city of Toledo proper with around 1,000 armed men, intending to prevent Ohio advances into the Toledo area as well as stopping further border marking from taking place.[27] Andrew Jackson File links The following pages link to this file: Andrew Jackson ... Andrew Jackson File links The following pages link to this file: Andrew Jackson ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Commodore Perry Perrysburg is a city in Wood County, Ohio, United States, along the Maumee River. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Presidential intervention

In a desperate attempt to prevent armed battle and to avert the resulting political crisis, U.S. President Andrew Jackson consulted his Attorney General Benjamin Butler for his legal opinion on the border dispute. At the time, Ohio was a growing political power in the Union, with nineteen U.S. Representatives and two Senators. In contrast, Michigan, still being a territory, had only a single non-voting delegate. Ohio was a crucial swing state in presidential elections, and it would have been devastating to the fledgling Democratic Party to lose Ohio's electoral votes. Therefore, Jackson calculated that his party's best interest would be served by keeping the Toledo Strip a part of Ohio.[28] For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... Benjamin Franklin Butler (December 17, 1795–November 8, 1858) was a lawyer, legislator and Attorney General of the United States. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... This article is about the US political term. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic...


The response that Jackson received from Butler was unexpected: the Attorney-General held that until Congress dictated otherwise, the land rightfully belonged to Michigan. This presented a political dilemma for Jackson that spurred him to take action that would greatly influence the outcome of the "war".[29]

Richard Rush of Pennsylvania, a representative of President Jackson who helped to present a compromise to both governors.
Richard Rush of Pennsylvania, a representative of President Jackson who helped to present a compromise to both governors.

On April 3, 1835, Jackson sent two representatives from Washington D.C., Richard Rush of Pennsylvania and Benjamin Chew Howard of Maryland, to Toledo to arbitrate the conflict and present a compromise to both governments. The proposal, presented on April 7, recommended that the re-survey to mark the Harris Line commence without further interruption by Michigan, and that the residents of the affected region be allowed to choose their own state or territorial governments until the Congress could definitively settle the matter.[30] 1810 engraving by Joseph Ives Pease This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1810 engraving by Joseph Ives Pease This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Wikipedia also has an entry for Richard Rush (director) Richard Rush Richard Rush (August 29, 1780–July 30, 1859) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... ... Wikipedia also has an entry for Richard Rush (director) Richard Rush Richard Rush (August 29, 1780–July 30, 1859) was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Benjamin Chew Howard (November 5, 1791–March 6, 1872) was an American congressman and the fifth reporter of decisions of the United States Supreme Court, serving from 1843 to 1861. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ...


Lucas reluctantly agreed to the proposal, and began to disband his militia, believing the debate to be settled. Three days later, elections in the region were held under Ohio law. However, Mason refused the deal and he continued to prepare for possible armed conflict.[31][32]


During the elections, Ohio officials were harassed by Michigan authorities and the area residents were threatened with arrest if they submitted to Ohio's authority.[33] On April 8, 1835, the Monroe County, Michigan sheriff arrived at the home of Major Benjamin F. Stickney, an Ohio partisan. In the first contact between Michigan partisans and the Stickney family, the sheriff arrested two Ohioans under the Pains and Penalties Act on the basis that the men had voted in the Ohio elections.[34] April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Monroe County is a county located in the state of Michigan. ... Look up Partisan (political) in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In politics, a partisan is a person who supports a cause, party, or goal fervently, usually to the exclusion of all others. ...


Battle of Phillips Corners

A box labeled "Toledo, MI" that may have been used by the Michigan Militia during the Toledo War.
A box labeled "Toledo, MI" that may have been used by the Michigan Militia during the Toledo War.

Following the election, Lucas believed that the commissioners' actions had alleviated the situation and he once again sent out surveyors to mark the Harris Line. The project went without serious incident until April 26, 1835, when the surveying group was attacked by fifty to sixty members of General Brown's militia in what is now called the Battle of Phillips Corners.[35][36] The battle's name is sometimes used as a synonym for the entire Toledo War. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1577, 1029 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Toledo War User:Jeffness Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2400x1577, 1029 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Toledo War User:Jeffness Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Synonyms (in ancient Greek, συν (syn) = plus and όνομα (onoma) = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings. ...

Ohio Historical Marker for the Battle of Phillips Corner, which was part of the Boundary Dispute between Michigan and Ohio.
Ohio Historical Marker for the Battle of Phillips Corner, which was part of the Boundary Dispute between Michigan and Ohio.

Surveyors wrote to Lucas afterwards that while observing "the blessings of the Sabbath," Michigan militia forces advised them to retreat. In the ensuing chase, "nine of our men, who did not leave the ground in time after being fired upon by the enemy, from thirty to fifty shots, were taken prisoners and carried away into [Tecumseh]."[37] While the details of the attack are disputed — Michigan claimed it fired no shots and had only discharged a few musket rounds in the air as the Ohio group retreated — the battle further infuriated both Ohioans and Michiganders and brought the two sides to the brink of all-out war.[38][39] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Sabbath. ... Tecumseh is a small city in Lenawee County of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ...


Bloodshed in the summer of 1835

Ohioan Two Stickney, who caused the sole serious injury in the Toledo war by stabbing a Michigan sheriff's deputy.
Ohioan Two Stickney, who caused the sole serious injury in the Toledo war by stabbing a Michigan sheriff's deputy.

In response to allegations that Michigan's militia fired upon Ohioans, Lucas called a special session of Ohio's Legislature on June 8, 1835 to pass several more controversial acts, including establishment of Toledo as the county seat of Lucas County, the establishment of a Court of Common Pleas in the city, a law to prevent the forcible abduction of Ohio citizens from the area and a budget of $300,000 to implement the legislation.[40] Michigan's territorial legislature responded with a budget appropriation of $315,000.00 to fund its militia.[12] Image File history File links Two_Stickney_circa_1836_drawing. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A county seat is a term for an administrative center for a county, primarily used in the United States. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


In May and June of 1835, Michigan drafted a State Constitution, with provisions for a bicameral legislature, a supreme court, and other components of a functional state government.[41] However, Congress was still not willing to allow Michigan's entry into the Union, and President Jackson vowed to reject Michigan's statehood until the border issue and "war" was resolved.[42] In government, bicameralism is the practice of having two legislative or parliamentary chambers. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ...


Lucas ordered his Adjutant-General Samuel C. Andrews to conduct a count of the militia, and was told that 10,000 volunteers were ready to fight. That news became exaggerated as it travelled north and soon thereafter, the Michigan territorial press dared the Ohio "million" to enter the Strip as they "welcomed them to hospitable graves."[43] An adjutant general is the chief administrative officer to a military general. ...


Throughout the Summer of 1835, the governments of both states continued their practice of one-upmanship, and constant skirmishes and arrests occurred. Citizens of Monroe County joined together in a possé to make arrests in Toledo. Partisans from Ohio, angered by the harassment, targeted the offenders with criminal prosecutions.[44] Lawsuits were not only rampant, they served as a basis for retaliatory lawsuits from the opposite side.[45] Partisans from both sides organized spying parties to keep track of the sheriffs of Wood County, Ohio and Monroe County, Michigan who were entrusted with the security of the border.[46] One-upmanship is the systematic and conscious practice of making ones associates feel inferior and thereby gaining the status of being one-up on them, as described by Stephen Potter in his tongue-in-cheek self-help books, and in film and television derivatives from them. ... Spy and Secret agent redirect here. ... Demographics As of the census2 of 2000, there are 121,065 people, 45,172 households, and 29,678 families residing in the county. ...


On July 15, 1835, tensions and emotions finally overflowed and blood spilled. Monroe County, Michigan Deputy Sheriff Joseph Wood went into Toledo to arrest Major Benjamin Stickney, but when Stickney and his three sons resisted, the whole family was subdued and taken into custody.[47] During the scuffle, the major's son, Two Stickney stabbed Wood with a pen knife and fled south into Ohio. Wood's injuries were not life-threatening.[48] When Lucas refused Mason's demand to extradite Two Stickney back to Michigan for trial, Mason wrote to President Jackson for help, suggesting that the matter be referred to the United States Supreme Court. At the time of the conflict, however, it was not established that the Supreme Court could resolve state boundary disputes, and Jackson declined the offer.[49] Looking for peace, Lucas began making his own efforts to end the conflict, again through federal intervention via Ohio's congressional delegation.[50] is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A penknife (or Swiss Army knife) is a small, rectangular shaped object with several attachments. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States...

Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Michigan Constitution of 1835

In August 1835, at the strong urging of Ohio's Congressmen, President Jackson removed Mason as Michigan's Territorial Governor and appointed John S. (“Little Jack”) Horner in his stead. Before his replacement arrived, Mason ordered 1,000 Michigan militiamen to enter Toledo and prevent the symbolically important first session of the Ohio Court of Common Pleas. While the idea was popular with Michigan residents, the effort failed: the judges held a midnight court before quickly retreating south of the Maumee River, where Ohio forces were positioned.[51] Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... John Scott Horner also known as Litle Jack Horner (1802 - February 3, 1883) was a U.S. politician, Governor of Michigan Territory, 1835-1836 and Secretary of Wisconsin Territory, 1836-1837. ...

Frostbitten Convention and the end of the Toledo War

Mason's successor Horner proved to be extremely unpopular as governor and his tenure was very short. Residents disliked him so much they burned him in effigy and pelted him with vegetables upon his entry into the territorial capital. In the October 1835 elections, voters approved the draft constitution and elected the popular Mason as state governor. The same election saw Isaac E. Crary chosen as Michigan's first U.S. Representative to Congress. Because of the dispute, however, Congress refused to accept his credentials and seated him instead as a non-voting delegate. The two U.S. Senators chosen by the state legislature in November, Lucius Lyon and John Norvell, were treated with even less respect, being allowed to sit only as spectators in the Senate gallery.[12] The effigy of John Gower in Southwark Cathedral, London. ... Isaac Edwin Crary (October 2, 1804–May 8, 1854) was the first elected U.S. Representative from the state of Michigan. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Lucius Lyon (February 26, 1800–September 24, 1851) was a U.S. statesman from the state of Michigan. ... John Norvell (December 21, 1789–April 24 (sometimes given as April 11), 1850) was a newspaper editor and one of the first U.S. Senators from Michigan. ...

Journal of the 1836 Michigan Territorial Convention, often called the "Frostbitten Convention."
Journal of the 1836 Michigan Territorial Convention, often called the "Frostbitten Convention."

On June 15, 1836, Jackson signed a bill that allowed Michigan to become a state, but only after it ceded the Toledo Strip. In exchange for this concession, Michigan would be granted the western three-quarters of the Upper Peninsula (the easternmost portion had already been included in the state boundaries).[52] Partly because of pride, and partly because of the perceived worthlessness of the Upper Peninsula's remote wilderness, a September 1836 special convention in Ann Arbor, Michigan, rejected the offer.[53] Image File history File links Bilde-frost. ... Image File history File links Bilde-frost. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ann Arbor redirects here. ...


As the year wore on, Michigan found itself deep in a financial crisis and was nearly bankrupt, because of the high militia expenses. The government was spurred to action by the realization that a $400,000 surplus in the United States Treasury was about to be distributed to the states, but not to territorial governments. Michigan would have been ineligible to receive the money.[54] The United States Department of the Treasury is a Cabinet department, a treasury, of the United States government established by an Act of U.S. Congress in 1789 to manage the revenue of the United States government. ...

The Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Congress offered the region in red to the state of Michigan in exchange for the Toledo Strip, as a compromise.
The Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Congress offered the region in red to the state of Michigan in exchange for the Toledo Strip, as a compromise.

The "war" unofficially ended on December 14, 1836, at a second convention in Ann Arbor. Delegates passed a resolution to accept the terms set forth by the Congress. However, the calling of the convention was itself not without controversy. It had only come about because of an upswelling of private summonses, petitions, and public meetings. Since the legislature did not approve a call to convention, some said the convention was illegal. As a consequence, the resolution was rejected and ridiculed by many Michigan residents.[55] Congress questioned the legality of the convention before finally accepting its solution. Because of these factors, as well as because of the notable cold spell at the time, the event later became known as the "Frostbitten Convention."[56] Image File history File links Upper_peninsula_Toledo_War. ... Image File history File links Upper_peninsula_Toledo_War. ... The Upper Peninsula of Michigan is the northern of the two major land masses that comprise the U.S. state of Michigan. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


On January 26, 1837, Michigan was finally admitted to the Union as the 26th state,[57] sans the Toledo Strip.[58] Ironically, although President Jackson was able to secure fellow Democrat Martin Van Buren's election in the 1836 presidential election, Ohio voted for the Whig Party candidate William Henry Harrison, despite Jackson's efforts to gain Ohioan support during the Toledo War. is the 26th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Whig Party was a political party of the United States during the era of Jacksonian democracy. ... William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841) was an American military leader, politician, and the ninth President of the United States. ...


Subsequent history

At the time of the Frostbitten Convention, it appeared that Ohio had won the conflict. The Upper Peninsula (U.P.) was considered a worthless wilderness by almost all familiar with the area.[59] The vast mineral riches of the land were unknown until the discovery of copper in the Keweenaw Peninsula and iron in the Western U.P.; this discovery led to a mining boom that lasted long into the 20th century.[60] Given the current value of the port of Toledo to Ohio, it can be reasonably suggested that both sides benefitted from the conflict. Consequently, and ironically, the only state that definitively "lost" was not even involved in the conflict: the mineral-rich land in the U.P. would have most likely become part of Wisconsin had Michigan not lost the Toledo Strip.[34] The Upper Peninsula of Michigan, also known as The Upper Peninsula, The U.P. (or The UP), and Above the Bridge by Michiganders, refers to the northern peninsula of the U.S. state of Michigan. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... The Keweenaw Peninsula is the most northern part of Michigans Upper Peninsula. ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

Michigan Governor Woodbridge Nathan Ferris and Ohio Governor Frank B. Willis shake on a "truce" over state line markers erected in 1915.
Michigan Governor Woodbridge Nathan Ferris and Ohio Governor Frank B. Willis shake on a "truce" over state line markers erected in 1915.

Differences of opinion about the exact boundary location continued until a definitive re-survey was performed in 1915. Re-survey protocol would ordinarily require the surveyors to follow the Harris line exactly, but in this case, the surveyors deviated from the line in places. This prevented the situation of certain residents near the border being subject to changes in state residence, or land owners having parcels on both sides of the border. The 1915 survey was delineated by 71 granite markers, 12 inches (30cm) wide by 18 inches (45 cm) high. Upon completion, the two states' governors, Woodbridge Nathan Ferris of Michigan and Frank B. Willis of Ohio, shook hands at the border.[10] Image File history File links Mi-ohiowar. ... Image File history File links Mi-ohiowar. ... Woodbridge Nathan Ferris (January 6, 1853 - March 23, 1928) was an educator and statesman from New York. ... Frank Bartlett Willis (December 28, 1871 - March 30, 1928) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Woodbridge Nathan Ferris (January 6, 1853 - March 23, 1928) was an educator and statesman from New York. ... Frank Bartlett Willis (December 28, 1871 - March 30, 1928) was a Republican politician from Ohio. ...


Traces of the original Ordinance Line can still be seen in northwestern Ohio and northern Indiana. The northern boundary of Ottawa County, Ohio, follows it, as well as many township boundaries in Ohio border counties. Many old north-south roads are offset as they cross the line, forcing traffic to jog east while on the northbound trek. The line is identified on USGS topographical maps as the "South [Boundary] Michigan Survey", and on Lucas County and Fulton County, Ohio road maps as "Old State Line Road."[61][62] Ottawa County is a county located in the state of Ohio, United States. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Fulton County is a county located in the state of Ohio. ...

USGS Topographic map that shows the former Ordinance Line as "South Bdy Michigan Survey." There are jogs in many north-south roads at this line.
USGS Topographic map that shows the former Ordinance Line as "South Bdy Michigan Survey." There are jogs in many north-south roads at this line.

While the border on land was firmly set in the early-1900s, the two states were still in disagreement on the path of the border to the east, in Lake Erie. In 1973, the two states finally obtained a hearing before the United States Supreme Court on their competing claims to the Lake Erie waters. In Michigan v. Ohio, the court upheld a special master's report and ruled that the boundary between the two states in Lake Erie was angled to the northeast, as described in Ohio's state constitution, and not a straight east-west line.[63] One consequence of the court decision was that tiny Turtle Island just outside of Maumee Bay and originally treated as being wholly in Michigan, was split between the two states.[64] This decision was the last border adjustment, putting an end to years of debate over the official boundary line. Image File history File links USGS_Toledo_Strip_Topo. ... Image File history File links USGS_Toledo_Strip_Topo. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... // Topographic maps are a variety of maps characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. ... The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio, and also known as the Freedom Ordinance) was an act of the Continental Congress of the United States passed on July 13, 1787 under the Articles of Confederation. ... The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C. The Supreme Court Building, Washington, D.C., (large image) The Supreme Court of the United States, located in Washington, D.C., is the highest court (see supreme court) in the United States; that is, it has ultimate judicial authority within the United States... A special master, in law, is an authority appointed by a judge to make sure that judicial orders are actually followed. ... Turtle Island is a small island in Lake Erie that defines part of the boundary between the U.S. states of Ohio and Michigan. ...


In modern times, conflict between the states is restricted primarily to the Michigan-Ohio State rivalry in American football.[65] The Toledo area is about evenly split, having large contingents of fans for both universities, being geographically closer to Ann Arbor while being located in the same state as Columbus. The Michigan-Ohio State rivalry is the intense rivalry between the University of Michigan and The Ohio State University football teams. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio County Lucas Founded 1833 Government  - Mayor Carty Finkbeiner (D) Area  - City 84. ... Ann Arbor redirects here. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country State Counties Franklin, Fairfield, Delaware Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City 212. ...


See also

Military of the United States Portal

Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... The Michigan Constitution is the governing document of the state of Michigan. ... The Ohio Constitution is the basic governing document of the State of Ohio, which in 1803 became the 17th state to join the United States of America. ... The Ohio Lands were the myriad grants, tracts, districts and cessions which make up what is now the U.S. state of Ohio. ... The following is timeline of events surrounding the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless conflict between the U.S. state of Ohio and the Michigan Territory in the early 19th century over an area of land known as the Toledo Strip, which includes the present-day city of Toledo, Ohio . ... The following is a list of major incidents of civil unrest, rioting and violent labor disputes in the United States. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Northwest Ordinance; July 13, 1787. The Avalon Project at Yale Law School (accessed May 12, 2006).
  2. ^ John Mitchell's Map, An Irony of Empire,
  3. ^ Mitchell map. University of Southern Maine (accessed May 12, 2006).
  4. ^ Mendenhall, T.C. & Graham, A.A. (1896). Boundary Line Between Ohio and Indiana, and Between Ohio and Michigan. 4 Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 127, 154.
  5. ^ Ibid.
  6. ^ Ibid.
  7. ^ Ibid. at 153.
  8. ^ Ibid.
  9. ^ Ibid at 206.
  10. ^ a b c Geography of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region The Toledo War. Michigan State University (accessed May 12, 2006).
  11. ^ Mendenhall & Graham, op. cit. at 162.
  12. ^ a b c d e f The Toledo War. Michigan Department of Military and Veteran Affairs (accessed May 12, 2006).
  13. ^ Mendenhall & Graham, op. cit. at 162.
  14. ^ Mendenhall & Graham, op. cit., at 154.
  15. ^ The Great Black Swamp. Historic Perrysburg (accessed May 12, 2006).
  16. ^ Mendenhall & Graham, op. cit., at 154.
  17. ^ Meinig (1993), pp. 357, 363, 436, and 440.
  18. ^ Meinig (1993), pp. 357, 363, 436, and 440.
  19. ^ The Great Black Swamp. Historic Perrysburg (accessed May 12, 2006).
  20. ^ Mendenhall & Graham, op. cit., at 154.
  21. ^ Sherman, C.E. and Schlesinger, A.M. 1916. Final Report, Ohio Cooperative Topographic Survey Vol 1, Ohio-Michigan Boundary
  22. ^ Mendenhall & Graham, op. cit., at 167.
  23. ^ Tod B. Galloway (1896). The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Line Dispute 4 Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 208
  24. ^ S.013 Monument. Detroit Historical Society and Detroit Historical Society (accessed August 10, 2006).
  25. ^ Important Dates in Michigan's Quest for Statehood. State of Michigan (accessed May 12, 2006).
  26. ^ Tod B. Galloway (1895). The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Line Dispute 4 Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 213
  27. ^ Way, Willard V. (1869). Facts and Historical Events of the Toledo War of 1835. 17 (Making of America Books)
  28. ^ Galloway, op. cit., at 214.
  29. ^ Ibid.
  30. ^ Way, op. cit., at 19.
  31. ^ Ibid.
  32. ^ Galloway, op. cit., at 216.
  33. ^ Wittke, Carl. (1936). The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Dispute Re-examined. 45 Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 299, 303
  34. ^ a b Mitchell, Gordon (July, 2004). Corner: Ohio-Michigan Boundary War. Part 2. 24 Professional Surveyor Magazine 7.
  35. ^ Galloway, op. cit., at 214.
  36. ^ The Ohio Michigan Boundary War : Battle of Phillips Corners Marker #2–26. Remarkable Ohioan (accessed May 13, 2006).
  37. ^ Galloway, op. cit., at 217.
  38. ^ Wittke, op. cit., at 306.
  39. ^ Galloway, op. cit., at 220.
  40. ^ Ibid.
  41. ^ Ibid. See also Baker, Patricia J. Stevens Thompson Mason. State of Michigan (accessed May 13, 2006).
  42. ^ Galloway, op. cit., at 227.
  43. ^ Way, op. cit. at 28.
  44. ^ Ibid.
  45. ^ Ibid. at 29.
  46. ^ Ibid.
  47. ^ Ibid.
  48. ^ Wittke, op. cit., at 306. Two Stickney's brothers, One and Three, were also active in the fight.
  49. ^ Dunbar, Willis F. and May, George S. MICHIGAN: A History of the Wolverine State. 216.
  50. ^ Galloway, op. cit., at 221.
  51. ^ Mendenhall & Graham, op. cit., at 199.
  52. ^ Galloway, op. cit., at 228.
  53. ^ Wittke, op.cit., at 318.
  54. ^ Baker, Patricia J. Stevens Thompson Mason. State of Michigan (accessed May 13, 2006).
  55. ^ Wittke, op. cit., at 318.
  56. ^ Ibid. at 318.
  57. ^ Michigan Quarter, U.S. Mint (accessed May 13, 2006).
  58. ^ Wittke, op. cit., at 318.
  59. ^ Ibid.
  60. ^ History of the Upper Peninsula. Northern Michigan University (accessed May 13, 2006).
  61. ^ Terra Server USA. Microsoft (accessed May 13, 2006).
  62. ^ Lucas County map (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-01-08.
  63. ^ Michigan v. Ohio, 410 U.S. 420 (1973). Findlaw (accessed May 13, 2006).
  64. ^ A brief history of Turtle Island Captain-Johns.com (PDF) (accessed May 13, 2006).
  65. ^ Emmanuel, Greg (1960). The 100-Yard War : Inside the 100-Year-Old Michigan-Ohio State Football Rivalry at 8-9. Emmanuel's first chapter, "Hate: The Early Years," cites the origins of the 100-year competition between the two football teams as being borne out of the unfulfilled bloodlust of the militia troops.

The University of Southern Maine (USM) is a multi-campus public university and part of the University of Maine System. ... Michigan State University (MSU) is a co-educational public research university in East Lansing, Michigan USA. Founded in 1855, it was the pioneer land-grant institution and served as a model for future land-grant colleges in the United States under the 1862 Morrill Act. ... Northern Michigan University is a four-year public university established in 1899 located in Marquette, in Michigans Upper Peninsula. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Dunbar, Willis F. & May, George S. (1995). MICHIGAN: A History of the Wolverine State. Third Revised Edition.
  • Emmanuel, Greg (1960). "Hate: The Early Years", The 100-Yard War : Inside the 100-Year-Old Michigan-Ohio State Football Rivalry. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 9–10. ISBN 0-471-67552-0. 
  • Galloway, Tod B. (1895). The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Line Dispute. 4 Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 213.
  • Meinig, D.W. (1993). The Shaping of America: A Geographical Perspective on 500 Years of History. Volume 2, Continental America, 1800–1867, Yale University Press, New Haven. ISBN 0-300-05658-3
  • Mendenhall, T.C. & Graham, A.A. (1895). Boundary Line Between Ohio and Indiana, and Between Ohio and Michigan. 4 Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 127.
  • Mitchell, Gordon (July, 2004). History Corner: Ohio-Michigan Boundary War, Part 2. 24 Professional Surveyor Magazine 7.
  • Way, Willard V. (1869). Facts and Historical Events of the Toledo War of 1835. (Making of America Books)
  • Wittke, Karl. (1895). The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Dispute Re-examined. 45 Ohio Archaeological and Historical Quarterly 299.

Further reading

  • Bulkley, John McClelland (1913). "Toledo War", History of Monroe County, Michigan : a narrative account of its historical progress, its people, and its principal interests. Chicago: Lewis Publishing, 137–161. Retrieved on 2006-05-08. 
  • Greene, Merritt (1960). Curse of the white panther: A story of the days of the Toledo War. ASIN: B0007FFL70. 
  • Hemans, Lawton T. (1920). Life and times of Stevens Thomson Mason: The boy governor of Michigan. ASIN: B00085CSF2. 
  • Karl-George, Mary (1971). The rise and fall of Toledo, Michigan: The Toledo War!. ASIN: B0006W1902. 
  • Michigan Historical Society (1960). The facts and historical events of the Toledo war of 1835. ISBN 1-4181-9926-5. 
  • Tuttle, Charles R. (1873). "Chapter XXXI", General history of the state of Michigan: with biographical sketches, portrait engravings, and numerous illustrations.. Detroit: R.D.S. Tyler, 448–479. Retrieved on 2006-05-08. 

It might also be mentioned that Indiana tore off their own strip of land at Michigan's expense at about the same time. There is a state historical marker commemorating the event at the location of the former boundary, just south of South Bend, Indiana. Therefore, had things been different, South Bend and Notre Dame would both be located in Michigan. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Asin is a Pinoy rock and folk rock band from the Philippines. ... Asin is a Pinoy rock and folk rock band from the Philippines. ... Asin is a Pinoy rock and folk rock band from the Philippines. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


External links

  • Yahoo map showing jog from west to east for northerly traffic and indicating the approximate location of the original boundary line
  • "Boundary Line between Ohio and Indiana, and between Ohio and Michigan" Special Reports of T.C. Mendenhall, Superintendent of U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, and A.A. Graham, Secretary of the Ohio Historical Society, in Ohio History Vol. 4 pp. 127–198.
  • "The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Dispute" by Tod B. Galloway in Ohio History Vol. 4 pp. 199–230.
  • "The Ohio-Michigan Boundary Dispute Re-examined" by Carl Wittke in Ohio History Vol. 45, pp. 299–319.
  • The Toledo War Michigan Department of Military and Veterans Affairs.
  • Text of Michigan V. Ohio, 410 U.S. 420, the 1973 United States Supreme Court decision resolving Michigan-Ohio boundary at Lake Erie.
  • ToledoWar.com website.
  • Michigan Historical Markers. The marker for the Frostbitten Convention.
Toledo (Metropolitan Area)
General: City League | Climate | Media | Mud Hens | Toledo Blade | Diocese of Toledo | Schools (Catholic | Public) | Toledo War | Transportation
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Hospitals: Mercy (St. Anne | St. Charles | St. Vincent | St. Vincent Children's) | ProMedica (Bay Park | Flower | Toledo | Toledo Children's)
Colleges & universities: Bowling Green State University | Lourdes College | Mercy College | Monroe County CC | Owens CC | University of Toledo
Suburbs
Allen Twp. | Bedford Twp. | Berkey | Bowling Green | Clay Twp. | Delta | Elmore | Erie Twp. | Genoa | Holland | Jerusalem Twp. | Lake Twp. | Lambertville | Luna Pier | Maumee | Monclova Twp. | Monroe | Northwood | Oregon | Ottawa Hills | Perrysburg | Perrysburg Twp. | Providence Twp. | Rossford | Springfield Twp. | Swanton | Sylvania | Sylvania Twp. | Temperance | Walbridge | Waterville | Whiteford Twp. | Whitehouse | Woodville

  Results from FactBites:
 
Toledo War (272 words)
A war fought in 1835 between the State of Ohio and the Territory of Michigan over the city of Toledo.
The Toledo Strip was at the time covered with dense cedar swamps (collectively known as the "Black Swamp"), which today have almost all been drained off for farm land; the two armies got lost for weeks and never found each other in the swamps.
Congress settled the issue by awarding Toledo to Ohio and giving Michigan the western two-thirds of the upper peninsula (the eastern portion was already part of the Territory).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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