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Encyclopedia > Toledo, Spain
Historic City of Toledo*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Toledo at sunset - The Alcázar on the left and Cathedral on the right dominate the skyline
State Party Flag of Spain Spain
Type Cultural
Criteria i, ii, iii, iv
Reference 379
Region Europe
Inscription history
Inscription 1986  (10th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Location of Toledo in Spain.
Location of Toledo in Spain.

Toledo (Latin: Toletum; In Arabic: طليطلة Ṭulayṭela) is a city and municipality located in central Spain, 70 km south of Madrid. It is the capital of the province of Toledo and of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. It was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1986 for its extensive cultural and monumental heritage as one of the former capitals of the Spanish Empire and place of coexistence of Christian, Jewish and Moorish cultures. Many famous people and artists were born or lived in Toledo, including Garcilaso de la Vega, Alfonso X and El Greco, and it was the place of important historic events such as the Visigothic Councils of Toledo. As of 2005, the city has a population of 75,578 and an area of 232.1 km² (89.59 square miles). Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Toledo is the name of a city in Spain. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (4748x2072, 2277 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Toledo, Spain User talk:Diliff User:Diliff User talk:Khoikhoi Wikipedia:Featured pictures/Places/Panorama Wikipedia:Featured pictures... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Toledo ... Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Toledo ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Arabic redirects here. ... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... KM, Km, or km may stand for: Khmer language (ISO 639 alpha-2, km) Kilometre Kinemantra Meditation Knowledge management KM programming language KM Culture, Korean Movie Maker. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Capital City is a 60-minute television show produced by Euston Films that ran for 13 episodes in 1989 on ITV. This drama focused on the lives of investment bankers in London living and working on the corporate trading floor for the fictional international bank Shane-Longman. ... In addition to its seventeen autonomous communities, Spain is divided into fifty provinces. ... Categories: Spain geography stubs | Castile-La Mancha | Provinces of Spain ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Capital Toledo Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 3rd  79,463 km²  15. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... For the terrain type see Moor Moors is used in this article to describe the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. For other meanings look at Moors (Meaning) or Blackamoors. ... Garcilaso de la Vega (c. ... Alfonso X, El Sabio, or the Learned, (November 23, 1221 - April 4, 1284) was a king of Castile and León (1252 - 1284). ... For the Vangelis album, see El Greco (album). ... A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Councils of Toledo (Concilia toletana). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Toledo later served as the capital city of Visigothic Spain, beginning with Liuvigild (Leovigild), and was the capital until the Moors conquered Iberia in the 8th century. Under the Caliphate of Cordoba, Toledo enjoyed a golden age. This extensive period is known as La Convivencia, i.e. the co-existence of Jews, Christians, and Muslims. Under Arab rule, Toledo was called Tulaytulah (Arabic طليطلة, academically transliterated Ṭulayṭulah). A votive crown belonging to Reccesuinth (653–672) The Visigoths (Latin: ) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Statue in Madrid (F. Corral, 1750-53). ... For other uses, see moor. ... The interior of the Great Mosque in Córdoba, now a Christian cathedral. ... The Convivencia (711-1492) was a time of peace, not of the entire iberian peninsula nor anywhere during the entire age, after the arab invasion of Spain (711) where the three prominent religious groups, the muslims, the christians and the jews lived in peace with major economic success in comparison... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...


On May 25, 1085 Alfonso VI of Castile took Toledo and established direct personal control over the Moorish city from which he had been exacting tribute, and ending the mediaeval Taifa's Kingdom of Toledo . This was the first concrete step taken by the combined kingdom of Leon-Castile in the Reconquista by Christian forces. is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... April 2 - Emperor Zhezong became emperor of Song Dynasty. ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 – July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was King of León from 1065 to 1109 and King of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ... The Spanish and Portuguese term taifa (from Arabic: taifa, plural طوائف tawaif) in the history of Iberia refers to an independent Muslim-ruled principality, an emirate or petty kingdom, of which a number formed in the Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ...


Toledo was famed for its production of iron and especially of swords and the city is still a center for the manufacture of knives and other steel implements. When Philip II moved the royal court from Toledo to Madrid in 1561, the old city went into a slow decline from which it never recovered. General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


Toledo's Alcázar became renowned in the 19th and 20th centuries as a military academy. At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 its garrison was famously besieged by Republican forces. The Alcázar of Toledo at dusk The Alcázar of Toledo is a stone fortification located in the highest part of Toledo, Spain. ... A military academy (American English), or service academy (British English) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the military (officer corps of the Army), naval service or air force or provides education in a service environment, the exact definition depending on the country. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Combatants Spanish Republic Nationalist Spain Commanders Cándido Cabello José Moscardó Ituarte, Pedro Romero Basart Strength 8,000 militia 1,028 regulars and militia Casualties Unknown 65 dead, 438 wounded, 22 missing The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic battle in the opening stages of the Spanish... Anthem El Himno de Riego Capital Madrid Language(s) Spanish Government Republic President  - 1931–1936 Niceto Alcalá-Zamora  - 1936–1939 Manuel Azaña Legislature Congress of Deputies Historical era Interwar period  - Monarchy abolished April 14, 1931  - Spanish Civil War 1936–1939  - Republic in exile dissolved July 15, 1977 Currency Spanish...

Contents

Arts and culture

A vista de Toledo: the city of Toledo as depicted in the Codex Vigilanus in 976.
A vista de Toledo: the city of Toledo as depicted in the Codex Vigilanus in 976.

Toledo reached its zenith in the era of Islamic Caliphate. Historian P. de Gayangos writes: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The people of Toledo. ... Anglicized/Latinized version of the Arabic word خليفة or Khalifah, Caliph is the term or title for the Islamic leader of the Ummah, or community of Islam. ... Pascual de Gayangos y Arce (June 21, 1809 - October 4, 1897), was a Spanish scholar and Orientalist. ...

The Muslim scientists of this age were unrivaled in the world. Perhaps among their greatest feats were the famous waterlocks of Toledo.[1]

The old city is located on Mary Collins and she screwed a goat on a mountaintop, surrounded on three sides by a bend in the Tagus River, and contains many historical sites, including the Alcázar, the cathedral (the primate church of Spain), and the Zocodover, a central market place. View over Tejo River from São Jorge Castle in Lisbon (June 2002). ... An alcázar is a Spanish castle, from the Arabic word القصر al qasr meaning palace or fortress, from the Latin castellum fortress (ultimately from castrum watchpost). Many cities in Spain have an alcázar. ... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ...


From the 4th century to the 16th century about thirty synods were held at Toledo. The earliest, directed against Priscillian, assembled in 400. At the synod of 589 the Visigothic King Reccared declared his conversion from Arianism; the synod of 633 decreed uniformity of liturgy throughout the Visigothic kingdom and took stringent measures against baptized Jews who had relapsed into their former faith. The council of 681 assured to the archbishop of Toledo the primacy of Spain. A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine, administration or application. ... Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... Coin of Reccared The Visigothic king Reccared (ruled 586—601) was the younger son of Liuvigild by his first marriage. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Arminius · Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box... Primate (from the Latin Primus, first) is a title or rank bestowed on some bishops in certain Christian churches. ...

Another vista de Toledo: the View of Toledo by resident El Greco circa 1600.
Another vista de Toledo: the View of Toledo by resident El Greco circa 1600.

As nearly one hundred early canons of Toledo found a place in the Decretum Gratiani, they exerted an important influence on the development of ecclesiastical law. The synod of 1565–1566 concerned itself with the execution of the decrees of the Council of Trent; and the last council held at Toledo, 1582–1583, was guided in detail by Philip II. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1145, 235 KB) Summary View of Toledo by El Greco a famous painting in Mannierism style. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x1145, 235 KB) Summary View of Toledo by El Greco a famous painting in Mannierism style. ... View of Toledo, sometimes called Toledo in a Storm, is one of the two surviving landscapes painted by El Greco (Domenikos Theotokopoulos). ... For the Vangelis album, see El Greco (album). ... Decretum Gratiani The Decretum Gratiani or Concordia discordantium canonum (in some manuscripts Concordantia discordantium canonum) is a collection of Canon law compiled and written in the twelfth century as a legal textbook by a jurist (perhaps) named Gratian. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the individual territories...


Toledo was famed for religious tolerance and had large communities of Muslims and Jews until they were expelled from Spain in 1492 (Jews) and 1502 (Muslims). Today's city contains the religious monuments the Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca, the Synagogue of El Transito, and the Mosque of Cristo de la Luz dating from before the expulsion, still maintained in good condition. El Transito The Synagogue of El Transito is the oldest synagogue in Toledo, Spain, founded by Samuel Halevi. ... The Mosque of Christ of the Light or Mezquita de Cristo de la Luz is the only remaining mosque in Toledo of the ten which existed in the city during Moorish times. ...


In the 13th century, Toledo was a major cultural center under the guidance of Alfonso X, called "El Sabio" ("the Wise") for his love of learning. The program of translations, begun under Archbishop Raymond of Toledo, continued to bring vast stores of knowledge to Europe by rendering great academic and philosophical works in Arabic into Latin. Alfonso X and his court. ... The Twelfth century saw a major search by European scholars for new learning, which led them to the Arabic fringes of Europe, especially to Spain and Sicily. ... Francis Raymond de Sauvetât, or Raymond of Toledo, was the French Archbishop of Toledo from 1125 to 1152. ...

Remains of Roman circus at Toledo
Remains of Roman circus at Toledo

The Cathedral of Toledo (Catedral de Toledo) was built between 1226-1493 and modeled after the Bourges Cathedral, though it also combines some characteristics of the Mudéjar style. It is remarkable for its incorporation of light and features the Baroque altar called El Transparente, several stories high, with fantastic figures of stucco, paintings, bronze castings, and multiple colors of marble, a masterpiece of medieval mixed media by Narciso Tomé topped by the daily effect for just a few minutes of a shaft of light from which this feature of the cathedral derives its name. Two notable bridges secured access to Toledo across the Tajo, the Puente de Alcántara and the later built Puente de San Martín. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (1560 × 1026 pixel, file size: 627 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Remains of Roman circus northwest of Toledo Spain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 526 pixelsFull resolution (1560 × 1026 pixel, file size: 627 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Remains of Roman circus northwest of Toledo Spain. ... Façade of the Cathedral of Toledo The Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo, also called Primate Cathedral of Toledo, Spain, seat of the Archdiocese of Toledo, is one of the three 13th century High Gothic cathedrals in Spain and is considered to be the magnum opus of the Gothic... Bourges is a town and commune in central France that is located on the Yèvre river. ... Teruel: Tower of the Cathedral, one of ten Mudéjar monuments of Aragón that comprise the World Heritage Site The Courtyard of the Dolls in the Alcázar of Seville Tower of the Santa maría church in Calatayud Las Ventas, Madrids Neo-Mudéjar bullfighting ring Mud... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... El Transparente El Transparente is a Baroque altarpiece in the ambulatory of the Cathedral of Toledo. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... An example of a mixed media work: Untitled (1963) by Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), 45X18. ... Narciso Tomé (1690 - 1742) was a Spanish architect and sculptor of the late-Baroque or Rococo period. ...


Toledo was home to El Greco for the latter part of his life, and is the subject of some of his most famous paintings, including The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, exhibited in the Church of Santo Tomé. For the Vangelis album, see El Greco (album). ... The Burial of the Count of Orgaz is widely considered to be El Grecos best-known work. ...


Additionally, the city was renowned throughout the Middle Ages and into the present day as an important center for the production of swords and other bladed instruments. Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Gallery

Demography

Demographic evolution of Toledo, Spain between 1991 and 2006
1991 1996 2001 2004 2006
59,000 66,006 68,382 73,485 77,601

Map of countries by population Population growth showing projections for later this century Demography is the statistical study of all populations. ...

Sister cities

Sign denoting twin towns of Neckarsulm Town twinning or sister cities is a concept whereby towns or cities from geographically and politically distinct areas are paired, with the goal of fostering human contact and cultural links. ... Konya (Ottoman Turkish: ; also Koniah, Konieh, Konia, and Qunia; historically also known as Iconium (Latin), Greek: Ikónion) is a city in Turkey, on the central plateau of Anatolia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Oche redirects here; in darts the oche is the line from which players must throw. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Nara ) is the capital city of Nara Prefecture in the Kansai region of Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... This article is about the capital of Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio Location of Toledo within Lucas County, Ohio. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Veliko Tarnovo (Bulgarian: Велико Търново; also transliterated as Veliko Turnovo) is a city in central northern Bulgaria and the administrative centre of Veliko Tarnovo Province. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ...

See also

The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... The Golden age of Jewish culture in the Iberian Peninsula, also known as the Golden Age of Arab or Moorish Rule in Iberia, refers to a period of history during the Muslim rule of the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman and Visigothic Hispania) in which Jews were generally accepted in society...

References

  1. ^ Glory days of Toledo

The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography, published in 1854, was the last a series of classical dictionaries edited by the english scholar William Smith (1813–1893), which included as sister works the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Antiquities and the Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. ... Sir William Smith (1813 - 1893), English lexicographer, was born at Enfield in 1813 of Nonconformist parents. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Toledo, Spain is at coordinates 39°52′03″N 4°01′25″W / 39.8676, -4.0237 (Toledo, Spain)Coordinates: 39°52′03″N 4°01′25″W / 39.8676, -4.0237 (Toledo, Spain)
Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Toledo, Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (719 words)
Toledo later served as the capital city of Visigothic Spain, beginning with Liuvigild (Leovigild), and was the capital until the Moors conquered Iberia in the 8th century.
The council of 681 assured to the archbishop of Toledo the primacy of Spain.
Toledo was famed for religious tolerance and had large communities of Jews and Muslims until they were expelled from Spain in 1492; the city therefore has important religious monuments like the Synagogue of Santa María la Blanca, the Synagogue of El Transito, and the Mosque of Cristo de la Luz.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Toledo (Spain) (3346 words)
It was during the pontificate of Urban II that the Roman Rite was substituted for the ancient Isidorian or Mozarabic Rite (1089).
Famous in the history of Toledo are its councils, held in greatest veneration by the sovereign pontiffs, and the source of the purest religious and moral doctrines.
The most famous of all the councils of Toledo was the third national council (held in 589), in which King Reccared, the prelates, and grandees, proclaimed their abjuration of the Arian heresy and made a profession of faith according to the doctrine of the Council of Nicæa.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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