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Encyclopedia > Toledo
The façade of Toledo cathedral
The façade of Toledo cathedral

Toledo is a city located in central Spain, the capital of the province of Toledo and of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. As of 1991, Toledo, Spain has a population of 63,561. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: Toledo ... Download high resolution version (400x646, 90 KB)Façade of Toledo cathedral, July 2002. ... Download high resolution version (400x646, 90 KB)Façade of Toledo cathedral, July 2002. ... West façade of the Notre-Dame de Strasbourg Cathedral A facade (or façade) is the exterior of a building – especially the front, but also sometimes the sides and rear. ... Categories: Spain geography stubs | Castile-La Mancha | Provinces of Spain ... Spains fifty provinces (provincias) are grouped into seventeen autonomous communities (comunidades autónomas), in addition to two African autonomous cities (ciudades autónomas) (Ceuta and Melilla). ... Capital Toledo Area  – Total  – % of Spain Ranked 3rd 79 463 km² 15,7% Population  – Total (2003)  – % of Spain  – Density Ranked 9th  1 782 038  4,3%  22,43/km² Demonym  – English  – Spanish  Castilian-Manchego  castellano-manchego Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 CM Parliamentary representation  – Congress seats... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


History

Toledo served as the capital city of Visigothic Spain, beginning with Leovigild, and was the capital until the Moors conquered Iberia in the 8th century. Under the Kalphite of Cordoba, Toledo enjoyed a golden age. Under Arab rule, Toledo was called Tolah itolah (Arabic طليطلة, academically transliterated Ṭulayṭulah). The Visigoths were one of two main branches of the Goths, the Ostrogoths being the other. ... Leovigild (reigned 569/572 - April 21, 586) was one of the more effective Visigothic kings of Spain, the restorer of Visigothic unity, ruling from his capital newly established at Toledo, where he settled towards the end of his reign. ... Córdoba most commonly means Córdoba, Spain, a famous city in Spain inhabited since the time of ancient Rome, and the seat of the Emir of Córdoba and the Caliph of Córdoba. ... Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... Transliteration in a narrow sense is a mapping from one system of writing into another. ...


On May 25, 1085 Alfonso VI of Castile took Toledo and established direct personal control over the Moorish city from which he had been exacting tribute. This was the first concrete step taken by the combined kingdom of Leon-Castile in the Reconquista by Christian forces. May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ... Events May 25 - Alfonso VI of Castile takes Toledo, Spain back from the Moors. ... Alfonso VI (before June 1040 - July 1, 1109), nicknamed the Brave, was king of León from 1065 to 1109 and king of Castile since 1072 after his brothers death. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (Disambiguation). ...


Toledo was famed for its production of steel and especially of swords and the city is still a center for the manufacture of knives and other steel implements. When Philip II moved the royal court from Toledo to Madrid in 1561, the old city went into a slow decline from which it never recovered. Steel framework Steel is a metal alloy whose major component is iron, with carbon being the primary alloying material. ... A sword (from Old English sweord; akin to Old High German swerd lit. ... Philip II of Spain (Spanish: Felipe II) - (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598), the first King of Spain understood as the whole peninsula of Hispania (r. ... Coat of arms Plaza de España (Spain square) Madrid, the capital of Spain, is located in the center of the country at 40°25′ N 3°45′ W. Population of the city of Madrid proper was 3,093,000 (Madrilenes, madrileños) as of 2003 estimates. ... Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ...


Arts and culture

Cervantes described Toledo as a "rocky gravity, glory of Spain, and light of her cities." The old city is located on a mountaintop, surrounded on three sides by a bend in the Tagus River, and contains many historical sights, including the Alcázar, the cathedral (the primate church of Spain), and the Zocodover, a central marketplace. Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (September 29, 1547 – April 23, 1616), was a Spanish author, best known for his novel Don Quixote de la Mancha. ... View over Tejo River from São Jorge Castle in Lisbon (June 2002). ... An alcázar is a Spanish castle, from the Arabic word القصر al qasr meaning fortress, in turn from the Latin castellum fortress (ultimately from castrum watchpost). Many cities in Spain have an alcázar. ... A primate in the Western Church is an archbishop or bishop who has authority not just over the bishops of his own province, as a Metropolitan does, but over a number of provinces, such as a national church. ...


From the 5th century to the 16th century about thirty synods were held at Toledo. The earliest, directed against Priscillian, assembled in 400. At the synod of 589 the Visigoth King Reccared declared his conversion from Arianism; the synod of 633, guided by the encyclopedist Isidore of Seville, decreed uniformity of liturgy throughout the Visigothic kingdom and took stringent measures against baptized Jews who had relapsed into their former faith. The council of 681 assured to the archbishop of Toledo the primacy of Spain. Priscillian of Avila (died 385) was a Spanish theologian and the founder of a party which advocated strong asceticism. ... The Visigoth king Reccared (ruled 586 - 601) was the younger son of Leovigild by his first marriage. ... Saint Isidore of Seville (560 - April 4, 636) was Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and has the reputation of being one of the great scholars of the early middle ages. ... A primate in the Western Church is an archbishop or bishop who has authority not just over the bishops of his own province, as a Metropolitan does, but over a number of provinces, such as a national church. ...


As nearly one hundred early canons of Toledo found a place in the Decretum Gratiani, they exerted an important influence on the development of ecclesiastical law. The synod of 15651566 concerned itself with the execution of the decrees of the Council of Trent; and the last council held at Toledo, 15821583, was guided in detail by Philip II. The Decretum Gratiani is a collection of canon law written around 1140 by Gratian. ... A synod (also known as a council) is a council of a church, usually a Christian church, convened to decide an issue of doctrine or administration. ... Events March 1 - the city of Rio de Janeiro is founded April 27 - Cebu City is established becoming the first Spanish settlement in the Philippines. ... Events January 7 - Pius V becomes Pope Selim II succeeds Suleiman I as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Religious rioting in the Netherlands signifies the beginning of the Eighty Years War in the Netherlands. ... The Council of Trent (Italian: Trento) was an ecumenical council of the Catholic Church held in discontinuous sessions between 1545 and 1563 in response to the Protestant Reformation. ... Events January 15 - Russia cedes Livonia and Estonia to Poland February 24 - Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. ... Events August 5 - Sir Humphrey Gilbert establishes first English colony in North America, at what is now St Johns, Newfoundland. ... Philip II of Spain (Spanish: Felipe II) - (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598), the first King of Spain understood as the whole peninsula of Hispania (r. ...


Toledo was famed for religious tolerance and had large communities of Jews and Muslims until they were expelled from Spain in 1492; the city therefore has important religious monuments like the Synagogue of Santa Maria la Blanca, the Synagogue of El Transito, and the Mosque of Cristo de la Luz.


In the 13th century Toledo was a major cultural center under the guidance of Alphonso X, called "El Sabio" ("the Wise") for his love of learning. The Toledo school of translators rendered available great academic and philosophical works in Arabic and Hebrew by translating them into Latin, bringing vast stores of knowledge to Europe for the first time. Alfonso X and his court. ...


The cathedral of Toledo (Catedral de Toledo) in was modeled after the Bourges Cathedral though it also combines some characteristics of the Mudéjar style. It is remarkable for its incorporation of light and features the Baroque altar called El Transparente, several stories high, with fantastic figures of stucco, painting, bronze castings, and multiple colors of marble, a masterpiece of medieval mixed media by Narciso Tomei topped by the daily effect for just a few minutes of a shaft of sunlight striking it through a similarly ornamented hole in the roof. The effect gives the impression that the whole altar is rising to heaven. It is from the play of light that this feature of the cathedral derives its name. The Cathedral of Toledo was modeled after the Bourges Cathedral though it also combines some characteristics of the Mudéjar style, is remarkable for its incorporation of light and no part is more remarkable than the Baroque altar called El Transparente, several stories high, with fantastic figures of stucco, painting... The vaulted nave of Bourges Cathedral Bourges (pop. ... Mudéjar is the name given to the Moors who remained in Spain after the Christian reconquista but were not converted to Christianity, and to a vernacular style of Spanish architecture and decoration, particularly of Aragon and Castile, of 12th and 16th centuries, strongly influenced by Moorish taste and workmanship... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint In arts, the Baroque (or baroque) is both a period and the style that dominated it. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Mixed media, in visual art, refers to an artwork in the making of which more than one medium has been employed. ...


Toledo was home to El Greco for the latter part of his life, and is the subject of some of his most famous paintings, including The Burial of the Count of Orgaz, exhibited in the Church of Santo Tomé. Baptism of Christ, painted 1596–1600 El Greco (medieval Castilian for the Greek) is the name by which Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος Domênikos Theotokópoulos (1541 – April 7, 1614), a Greek painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish school, is best known. ...


See also: Spain, Iberian Peninsula topographic map of the Iberian Peninsula The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ...


External Links

  • Toledo City Hall

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Toledo, Ohio - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1303 words)
Toledo is a city in Lucas County on the northern border of Ohio and the western end of Lake Erie.
Toledo is known as the Glass City because of its long history of innovation in all aspects of the glass industry: windows, bottles, windshields, and construction materials.
Toledo was founded in 1833, when the neighboring, and competing towns of Port Lawrence and Vistula agreed to set aside their differences and unite to take advantage of a proposed canal to bypass rapids on the Maumee.
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