FACTOID # 15: A mere 0.8% of West Virginians were born in a foreign country.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Tokugawa shogunate

The Tokugawa shogunate or Tokugawa bakufu (徳川幕府) (also known as the Edo bakufu) was a feudal military dictatorship of Japan established in 1603 by Tokugawa Ieyasu and ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family until 1868. This period is known as the Edo period and gets its name from the capital city of Edo, now Tokyo. The Tokugawa shogunate ruled from Edo castle until the Meiji Restoration. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu); 徳川 家康 (January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. ... In Japanese history, a shogun (将軍 shōgun) was the practical ruler of Japan for most of the time from 1192 to the Meiji Era beginning in 1868. ... The Edo period (Japanese: 江戸時代, Edo-jidai), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1867. ... Edo (Japanese: 江戸, literally: bay-door, estuary, pronounced //), once also spelled Yedo or Yeddo, is the former name of the Japanese capital Tokyo. ... Tokyo ) , literally eastern capital, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and includes the highly urbanized central area formerly known as the city of Tokyo which is the heart of the Greater Tokyo Area. ... Edo Castle (江戸城 -jō) was built in 1457 by ÅŒta Dōkan in what is now the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo, but was then known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. ... The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ...


Following the Sengoku Period of "warring states", central government had been largely re-established by Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi during the Azuchi-Momoyama period. After the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600, central authority fell to Tokugawa Ieyasu who completed this process and received the title of shogun in 1603. In order to become shogun, one must be descendant of the ancient Minamoto clan. Ieyasu wasn't, so in order to overcome this obstacle, he had his lineage faked. His descendants were to hold the position of Shogun, and the central authority that came with it, until the 19th century. The Sengoku period (Japanese: 戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) or Warring States period, was a period of civil war in the history of Japan that spans from the middle 15th to the early 17th centuries. ... Oda Nobunaga Oda Nobunaga (織田 信長 , June 23, 1534 - June 21, 1582) was a major daimyo during the Sengoku period of Japanese history. ... Hideyoshi in old age. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... Combatants forces loyal to Toyotomi Hideyori forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu Commanders Ishida Mitsunari, others Tokugawa Ieyasu, others Strength 82,000 74,000 Casualties The Battle of Sekigahara or popularly known as the Realm Divide was a decisive battle on September 15, 1600 (on the ancient Chinese calendar, October 21 on... Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu); 徳川 家康 (January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. ... In Japanese history, a shogun (将軍 shōgun) was the practical ruler of Japan for most of the time from 1192 to the Meiji Era beginning in 1868. ... Seiryoji, a temple in Kyoto, was once a villa of Minamoto no Toru (d. ...


The Tokugawa period, unlike the shogunates before it, was based on the strict class hierarchy originally established by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. The warrior-caste of samurai were at the top, followed by farmers, artisans, and traders. The very inflexibility of the caste system unleashed disruptive forces over time. Taxes on the peasantry were set to fixed amounts which did not account for inflation or other changes in monetary value. As a result, the tax revenues collected by the samurai landowners were worth less and less over time. This often led to numerous confrontations between noble but impoverished samurai and well-to-do peasants, ranging from simple local disturbances to much bigger rebellions. None, however, proved compelling enough to seriously challenge the established order until the arrival of foreign powers. Hideyoshi in old age. ... Japanese samurai in armour, 1860s. ...


Toward the end of the 19th century, an alliance of several of the more powerful daimyo with the titular Emperor finally succeeded in the overthrow of the shogunate after the Boshin War, culminating in the Meiji Restoration. The Tokugawa Shogunate came to an official end in 1868, with the resignation of the 15th Tokugawa Shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu and the "restoration" ('Taisei Hōkan') of imperial rule. Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... The Boshin War (戊辰戦争 Boshin Sensō, literally War of the Year of the Dragon) was fought in 1868-1869 between the Tokugawa Shogunate and the pro-Imperial forces in Japan. ... The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ...


See Late Tokugawa shogunate for details. The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ...

Contents


Government

Shogunate and Han

Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu
Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu

The bakuhan taisei (幕藩体制) was the feudal political system in the Edo period of Japan. Baku, or "tent," is an abbreviation of bakufu, meaning "military government" — that is, the shogunate. The han were the domains headed by daimyo. Download high resolution version (640x667, 94 KB)Tokugawa Ieyasu Source: [1], copyright expired due to age of image. ... Download high resolution version (640x667, 94 KB)Tokugawa Ieyasu Source: [1], copyright expired due to age of image. ... The Edo period (Japanese: 江戸時代, Edo-jidai), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1867. ... The Han ) were the fiefs of feudal clans of Japan that were created by Toyotomi Hideyoshi and existed until their abolition in 1871, three years after the Meiji Restoration. ...


The system was feudal. Vassals held inherited lands and provided military service and homage to their lords. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ...


The Bakuhan Taisei split feudal power between the shogunate in Edo and provincial domains throughout Japan. Provinces had a degree of sovereignty and were allowed an independent administration of the han in exchange for loyalty towards the Shogun, who was responsible for foreign relations and national security. The shogun and lords were both daimyo, feudal lords with their own bureaucracies, policies, and territories. The Shogun also administrated the most powerful daimyo, the hereditary fief of House Tokugawa. Each level of government administrated its own system of taxation. Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ... Daimyo Matsudaira Katamori visits the residence of a retainer. ...


The shogunate had the power to discard, annex and transform domains. The sankin-kotai system of alternative residence required each daimyo to send a family representative that would alternate years between the han and attendance in Edo. The huge expenditure sankin-kotai imposed on each han helped centralize aristocratic alliances and ensured loyalty to the Shogun as each representative doubled as a potential hostage. Sankin kōtai (参勤交代) was a policy of the shogunate during most of the Edo period of Japanese history. ...


Tokugawa's descendants further ensured the loyalty by maintaining a dogmatic insistence on loyalty to the Shogun. Fudai daimyo were hereditary vassals of Ieyasu, as well as of his descendants. Tozama, or "outsiders", became vassals of Ieyasu after the battle of Sekigahara. Shimpan, or "relatives," were collaterals of Tokugawa Hidetada. Early in the Edo period, the shogunate viewed the tozama as the least likely to be loyal; over time, strategic marriages and the entrenchment of the system made the tozama less likely to rebel. In the end, it was the great tozama of Satsuma, Choshu and Tosa and to a lesser extent Hizen that brought down the shogunate. These four states are called the Four Western Clans or Satchotohi for short.


The number of han (roughly 250) fluctuated throughout the Edo period. They were ranked by size, which was measured as the number of koku that the domain produced each year. One koku was the amount of rice necessary to feed one adult male for one year. The minimum number for a daimyo was ten thousand koku; the largest, apart from the shogun, was a million. A koku (石) is a quantity of rice, historically defined as enough rice to feed one person for one year, then as 180. ... A koku (石) is a quantity of rice, historically defined as enough rice to feed one person for one year, then as 180. ...


Shogun and Emperor

Despite the establishment of the shogunate, the emperor in Kyoto was still the legitimate ruler of Japan. The administration (taisei, 体制) of Japan was a task given by the imperial Court in Kyoto to the Tokugawa family, which they returned to the court in the Meiji Restoration. His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan Imperial Seal of Japan The Emperor (天皇 tennō, literally heavenly sovereign) is currently a constitutionally-recognized symbol of the Japanese nation and the unity of its people. ... Kyoto City Hall Mayor Yorikane Masumoto Address 〒604-8571 Kyoto-shi, Nakagyo-ku, Teramachi-Oike, 488 Phone number 075-222-3111 Official website: Kyoto City This page is about the city Kyoto. ... Imperial Court in Kyoto was the nominal ruling government of Japan since 794 until the Meiji Era, in which the court was moved to Tokyo and was integrated into the Meiji government. ... The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ...


The shogunate appointed a liaison, the Kyōto Shoshidai, to deal with the emperor, court and nobility.


Shogun and Foreign Trade

A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship.
A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship.
Sakurada Gate at Edo Castle, the center of Tokugawa rule
Enlarge
Sakurada Gate at Edo Castle, the center of Tokugawa rule

The foreign affairs and trade were monopolized by the shogunate, yielding a huge profit. Foreign trade was also permitted to the Satsuma and the Tsushima domain. 1634 painting of a Red seal ship. ... 1634 painting of a Red seal ship. ... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Satsuma (薩摩国; -no Kuni) was an old province of Japan that is now the western half of Kagoshima prefecture on the island of Kyushu. ... The Tsushima Fuchu domain (対馬府中藩 Tsushima Fuchū han), also called the Tsushima domain, was a domain of Japan during the Edo period that controlled Tsushima Province and a small portion of Hizen Province. ...


The visits of the Nanban ships from Portugal were at first the main vector of trade exchanges, followed by the addition of Dutch, English and sometimes Spanish ships. The period of Nanban (Southern Barbarian) contacts in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under the promulgation of the Seclusion Laws. ...


From 1600 onward, Japan started to participate actively in foreign trade. In 1615, an embassy and trade mission under Hasekura Tsunenaga was sent across the Pacific to Nueva Espana on a Japanese-built galleon San Juan Bautista. Until 1635, the Shogun issued numerous permits for Red seal ships, destined to Asian trade. Hasekuras portrait during his mission in Rome in 1615, by Claude Deruet, Coll. ... Flag of New Spain New Spain (in the Spanish language Nueva España) was the name given to the Spanish colonial territory in North America from c. ... San Juan Bautista (“St John Baptist”) (originally called Date Maru, 伊達丸 in Japanese) was one of Japans first Japanese-built Western-style sail warships. ... A 1634 Japanese Red seal ship, incorporating Western-style square and lateen sails, rudder and aft designs. ...


After 1635 and the introduction of Seclusion laws, only inbound ships were allowed, from China and the Netherlands. Sakoku (Japanese: 鎖国, literally country in chains) was the foreign relations policy of the Tokugawa shogunate, whereby nobody, whether foreign or Japanese, could enter or leave Japan on penalty of death. ...


Institutions of the Shogunate

Rōjū and Wakadoshiyori

The rōjū (老中) were the senior members of the shogunate. They supervised the ōmetsuke, machibugyō, ongokubugyō and other officials, oversaw relations with the Imperial Court in Kyoto, kuge (members of the nobility), daimyo, temples and shrines, and attended to matters like divisions of fiefs. Normally, four or five men held the office, and one was on duty for a month at a time on a rotating basis. They conferred on especially important matters. In the administrative reforms of 1867, the office was eliminated in favor of a bureaucratic system with ministers for the interior, finance, foreign relations, army, and navy. The RōjÅ« (老中), usually translated as Elder, was one of the highest-ranking government posts in Tokugawa Japan. ... Imperial Court in Kyoto was the nominal ruling government of Japan since 794 until the Meiji Era, in which the court was moved to Tokyo and was integrated into the Meiji government. ... The kuge (公家) was a Japanese aristocratic class that dominated the Japanese imperial court in Kyoto until the rise of the Shogunate in the 12th century at which point it was eclipsed by the daimyo. ... The Angkor Wat Hindu temple in Cambodia is the largest in the world. ... A torii is a gate leading to a jinja. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ...


In principle, the requirements for appointment to the office of rōjū were to be a fudai (hereditary) daimyo and to have a fief assessed at 50 000 koku or more. However, there were exceptions to both criteria. Many appointees came from the offices close to the shogun, such as soba yōnin, Kyoto shoshidai, and Osaka jōdai.


Irregularly, the shoguns appointed a rōjū to the position of tairō (great elder). The office was limited to members of the Ii, Sakai, Doi, and Hotta clans, but Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu was given the status of tairō as well. Among the most famous was Ii Naosuke, who was assassinated in 1860 outside the Sakurada Gate of Edo Castle. Tairō (大老, lit. ... Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu (柳沢吉保, 1658 – 1714) was a member of the Tokugawa shogunate in Japan. ... Ii Naosuke (井伊直弼, 1815 - March 3, 1860) was Tairo of Japan from April 23, 1858 until his death. ... Edo Castle (江戸城 -jō) was built in 1457 by ÅŒta Dōkan in what is now the Chiyoda ward of Tokyo, but was then known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. ...


The wakadoshiyori were next in status below the rōjū. An outgrowth of the early six-man rokuninshū (1633–1649), the office took its name and final form in 1662, but with four members. Their primary responsibility was management of the affairs of the hatamoto and gokenin, the direct vassals of the shogun. A hatamoto (旗本) was an official guard of a daimyo or shogun in feudal Japan. ... Gokenin (御家人; lit. ...


Some shoguns appointed a soba yōnin. This person acted as a liaison between the shogun and the rōjū. The soba yōnin increased in importance during the time of the fifth shogun Tokugawa Tsunayoshi, when a wakadoshiyori, Inaba Masayasu, assassinated Hotta Masatoshi, the tairō. Fearing for his personal safety, Tsunayoshi moved the rōjū to a more distant part of the castle. Some of the most famous soba yōnin were Yanagisawa Yoshiyasu and Tanuma Okitsugu. Tanuma Okitsugu (田沼 意次 1719-88) is a roju (government official) of the Tokugawa shogunate who attempted to reform by introducing money economy. ...


Ōmetsuke and Metsuke

The ōmetsuke and metsuke were officials who reported to the rōjū and wakadoshiyori. The five ōmetsuke were in charge of monitoring the affairs of the daimyo, kuge and imperial court. They were in charge of discovering any threat of rebellion.


Early in the Edo period, daimyo such as Yagyū Munefuyu held the office. Soon, however, it fell to hatamoto with rankings of 5000 koku or more. To give them authority in their dealings with daimyo, they were often ranked at 10 000 koku and given the title of kami (an ancient title, typically signifying the governor of a province) such as Bizen-no-kami. A hatamoto (旗本) was an official guard of a daimyo or shogun in feudal Japan. ... Before the modern prefecture system was established, the land of Japan was divided into tens of kuni (国, countries), usually known in English as provinces. ...


As time progressed, the function of the ōmetsuke evolved into one of passing orders from the shogunate to the daimyo, and of administering to ceremonies within Edo Castle. They also took on additional responsibilities such as supervising religious affairs and controlling firearms.


The metsuke, reporting to the wakadoshiyori, oversaw the affairs of the vassals of the shogun. They were the police force for the thousands of hatamoto and gokenin who were concentrated in Edo. Individual han had their own metsuke who similarly policed their samurai. Gokenin (御家人; lit. ...


San-bugyō

The san-bugyō ("three administrators") were the jisha, kanjō, and machi bugyō. The jisha bugyō had the highest status of the three. They oversaw the administration of Buddhist temples (ji) and Shinto shrines (sha), many of which held fiefs. Also, they heard suits from several land holdings outside the eight Kanto provinces. The appointments normally went to daimyo; Ōoka Tadasuke was an exception. Kanto can mean: The Kanto region of Japan. ... Ooka Tadasuke (大岡 忠相 ÅŒoka Tadasuke, 1677 - 1752) was a Japanese samurai in the service of the Tokugawa shogunate. ...


The kanjō bugyō were next in status. The four holders of this office reported to the rōjū. They were responsibile for the finances of the shogunate.


The machi bugyō were the chief city administrators of Edo. Their roles included mayor, chief of the police (and later also the fire) department, and judge in criminal and civil matters not involving samurai. Two (briefly, three) men, normally hatamoto, held the office, and alternated by month.


Three machi bugyō have become famous through the jidaigeki, Ōoka Tadasuke and Tōyama Kinshirō as heroes, Torii Yōzō as a villain.


The san-bugyō together sat on a council called the hyōjōsho. In this capacity, they were responsible for administering the tenryō, supervising the gundai, the daikan and the kura bugyō, as well as hearing cases involving samurai.


Tenryō, Gundai and Daikan

The shogun directly held lands in various parts of Japan. These were known as bakufu chokkatsuchi; since the Meiji period, the term tenryō has become synonymous. In addition to the territory that Ieyasu held prior to the Battle of Sekigahara, this included lands he gained in that battle, and as a result of the Summer and Winter Sieges of Osaka, and by the end of the seventeenth century had reached four million koku. Such major cities as Nagasaki and Osaka, and mines, including the Sado gold mine, also fell into this category. Chuquicamata, the largest open pit copper mine in the world, Chile. ... Sado can refer to: Sado, a city in Niigata Prefecture, Japan Sado province (佐渡国), an old province of Japan. ... Gold mining consists of the processes and techniques employed in the removal of gold from the ground. ...


Rather than appointing a daimyo to head the holding, the shogunate placed administrators in charge. The titles of these administrators included gundai, daikan, and ongoku bugyō. This last category included the Osaka, Kyoto and Sumpu machibugyō, and the Nagasaki bugyō. The appointees were hatamoto. Shizuoka (静岡市; -shi) is the capital city of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. ... A hatamoto (旗本) was an official guard of a daimyo or shogun in feudal Japan. ...


List of the Shoguns

  1. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616) (r. 1603-1605)
  2. Tokugawa Hidetada (1579-1632) (r. 1605-1623)
  3. Tokugawa Iemitsu (1604-1651) (r. 1623-1651)
  4. Tokugawa Ietsuna (1641-1680) (r. 1651-1680)
  5. Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (1646-1709) (r. 1680-1709)
  6. Tokugawa Ienobu (1662-1712) (r. 1709-1712)
  7. Tokugawa Ietsugu (1709-1716) (r. 1713-1716)
  8. Tokugawa Yoshimune (1684-1751) (r. 1716-1745)
  9. Tokugawa Ieshige (1711-1761) (r. 1745-1760)
  10. Tokugawa Ieharu (1737-1786) (r. 1760-1786)
  11. Tokugawa Ienari (1773-1841) (r. 1787-1837)
  12. Tokugawa Ieyoshi (1793-1853) (r. 1837-1853)
  13. Tokugawa Iesada (1824-1858) (r. 1853-1858)
  14. Tokugawa Iemochi (1846-1866) (r. 1858-1866)
  15. Tokugawa Yoshinobu (Keiki) (1837-1913) (r. 1867-1868)

Other influential figures in the shogunate include: Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Tokugawa Ieyasu (previously spelled Iyeyasu); 徳川 家康 (January 31, 1543 – June 1, 1616) was the founder and first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan which ruled from the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. ... Shogun Tokugawa Hidetada Tokugawa Hidetada (徳川 秀忠 (1579-1632) was the second shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty, who ruled from 1605 until his abdication in 1623. ... Shogun Tokugawa Iemitsu Tokugawa Iemitsu (previously spelled Iyemitsu); 徳川 家光 (August 12, 1604 — June 8, 1651) was the third shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty who reigned from 1623 to 1651. ... Tokugawa Ietsuna (徳川 家綱, 1641-1680) was the fourth shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan who was in office from 1651 to 1680. ... Tokugawa Tsunayoshi (February 23, 1646–February 19, 1709) was the fifth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. ... Tokugawa Ienobu (1662–1712) was the sixth shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan. ... Tokugawa Ietsugu (徳川 家継, 1709–1716) was the seventh shogun of the Tokugawa Shogunate of Japan, from 1713 to 1716, taking office at the age of three. ... Tokugawa Yoshimune (徳川 吉宗 Tokugawa Yoshimune, November 27, 1684-July 12, 1751 was the eighth shogun of the Tokugawa dynasty of Japan, ruling from 1716 until his abdication in 1745. ... Tokugawa Ieshige (徳川 家重; 1712–1761) was the ninth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan who held office from 1745 to 1760. ... Tokugawa Ieharu (徳川 家治; 1737–1786) was the tenth shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office 1760 to 1786. ... Tokugawa Ienari (徳川 家斉; 1773–1841) was the eleventh shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan who held office from 1786 to 1837. ... Tokugawa Ieyoshi (徳川 家慶 Tokugawa Ieyoshi, 1793–1853; r. ... Tokugawa Iesada (徳川 家定 Tokugawa Iesada, 1824–1858) was the 13th shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan who held office for only 5 years, from 1853 to 1858. ... Tokugawa Iemochi (徳川 家茂; 1846–1866) was the 14th shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan, who held office 1858 to 1866. ... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ...

Tokugawa Mitsukuni (徳川光圀; July 11, 1628 - January 14, 1701) was a prominent daimyo who was known for his influence in the politics of the early Edo period. ... Tokugawa Nariaki (徳川 斉昭 Tokugawa Nariaki, April 4, 1800 - September 29, 1860) was a prominent daimyo in the Mito domain, now Ibaraki prefecture, who contributed to the rise of nationalism and the Meiji restoration. ...

See also

In Japanese history, a shogun (将軍 shōgun) was the practical ruler of Japan for most of the time from 1192 to the Meiji Era beginning in 1868. ... The Edo period (Japanese: 江戸時代, Edo-jidai), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1867. ... The Keian uprising (慶安事件, Keian Jiken) was a military action by ronin against the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji Restoration (Japanese: 明治維新, Meiji-ishin), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to a change in Japans political and social structure. ...

References

  • This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain. - Japan
  • http://hkuhist2.hku.hk/nakasendo/tokupols.htm
  • SengokuDaimyo.com The website of Samurai Author and Historian Anthony J. Bryant
    • Anthony J. Bryant is the author of Sekigahara 1600: The Final Struggle for Power, Praeger Publishers;(September, 2005)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Japanese history: Edo Period (720 words)
In 1603, Ieyasu was appointed Shogun by the emperor and established his government in Edo (Tokyo).
The most important philosophy of Tokugawa Japan was Neo-Confucianism, stressing the importance of morals, education and hierarchical order in the government and society: A strict four class system existed during the Edo period: at the top of the social hierarchy stood the samurai, followed by the peasants, artisans and merchants.
Even though the Tokugawa government remained quite stable over several centuries, its position was steadily declining for several reasons: A steady worsening of the financial situation of the government led to higher taxes and riots among the farm population.
The Roots of Shinsengumi and Origin of Meiji Restoration (2172 words)
Tokugawa built his army very slowly, but when it was ready to back Oda Nobunaga up in his wars, the few men Tokugawa sent or led by himself never let the ally down.
Tokugawa Ieyasu's army, that he left for his offsprings to maintain, was very much like the World War II Japanese Navy in the matter of discipline, smooth chain of command, individual skills, determination to win, and esprit de corps.
The fact that under his reign the shogunate daily declined via ceaseless unrest in the streets while the cops and soldiers of the shogunate seemed to have achieved nothing in quenching it, was all evidence you need to summarize the condition of the shogunate at the time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m